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  • 251.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Vagharshakyan, Suren
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gotchev, Atanas
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Bregovic, Robert
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Shearlet Transform Based Prediction Scheme for Light Field Compression2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light field acquisition technologies capture angular and spatial information ofthe scene. The spatial and angular information enables various post processingapplications, e.g. 3D scene reconstruction, refocusing, synthetic aperture etc at theexpense of an increased data size. In this paper, we present a novel prediction tool forcompression of light field data acquired with multiple camera system. The captured lightfield (LF) can be described using two plane parametrization as, L(u, v, s, t), where (u, v)represents each view image plane coordinates and (s, t) represents the coordinates of thecapturing plane. In the proposed scheme, the captured LF is uniformly decimated by afactor d in both directions (in s and t coordinates), resulting in a sparse set of views alsoreferred to as key views. The key views are converted into a pseudo video sequence andcompressed using high efficiency video coding (HEVC). The shearlet transform basedreconstruction approach, presented in [1], is used at the decoder side to predict thedecimated views with the help of the key views.Four LF images (Truck, Bunny from Stanford dataset, Set2 and Set9 from High DensityCamera Array dataset) are used in the experiments. Input LF views are converted into apseudo video sequence and compressed with HEVC to serve as anchor. Rate distortionanalysis shows the average PSNR gain of 0.98 dB over the anchor scheme. Moreover, inlow bit-rates, the compression efficiency of the proposed scheme is higher compared tothe anchor and on the other hand the performance of the anchor is better in high bit-rates.Different compression response of the proposed and anchor scheme is a consequence oftheir utilization of input information. In the high bit-rate scenario, high quality residualinformation enables the anchor to achieve efficient compression. On the contrary, theshearlet transform relies on key views to predict the decimated views withoutincorporating residual information. Hence, it has inherit reconstruction error. In the lowbit-rate scenario, the bit budget of the proposed compression scheme allows the encoderto achieve high quality for the key views. The HEVC anchor scheme distributes the samebit budget among all the input LF views that results in degradation of the overall visualquality. The sensitivity of human vision system toward compression artifacts in low-bitratecases favours the proposed compression scheme over the anchor scheme.

  • 252.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Vagharshakyan, Suren
    Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gotchev, Atanas
    Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Bregovic, Robert
    Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Shearlet Transform-Based Light Field Compression under Low Bitrates2020In: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, ISSN 1057-7149, E-ISSN 1941-0042, Vol. 29, p. 4269-4280, article id 8974608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light field (LF) acquisition devices capture spatial and angular information of a scene. In contrast with traditional cameras, the additional angular information enables novel post-processing applications, such as 3D scene reconstruction, the ability to refocus at different depth planes, and synthetic aperture. In this paper, we present a novel compression scheme for LF data captured using multiple traditional cameras. The input LF views were divided into two groups: key views and decimated views. The key views were compressed using the multi-view extension of high-efficiency video coding (MV-HEVC) scheme, and decimated views were predicted using the shearlet-transform-based prediction (STBP) scheme. Additionally, the residual information of predicted views was also encoded and sent along with the coded stream of key views. The proposed scheme was evaluated over a benchmark multi-camera based LF datasets, demonstrating that incorporating the residual information into the compression scheme increased the overall peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by 2 dB. The proposed compression scheme performed significantly better at low bit rates compared to anchor schemes, which have a better level of compression efficiency in high bit-rate scenarios. The sensitivity of the human vision system towards compression artifacts, specifically at low bit rates, favors the proposed compression scheme over anchor schemes. 

  • 253.
    Ahmadi, Marsal
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av mötet med patienter med HIV-infektion2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 254.
    Ahmed, Hashi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Bergström, Christian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Sjölén, Felix
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Vikten av lokala nyhetsmedier för lokalpolitiska intresset - En jämförande studie av tre fokusgruppers uppfattningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Ahmed, Leila
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande ledarskap ur anställdas perspektiv: - En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Ahmed, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Betydelsen av elevers sociala relationer för att må bra i skolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med min studie är att veta hur sociala relationer stimulerar elever att må bra i skolan. Hur lärare och elevhälsoteam ser på sociala relationens betydelse för elevers välmående i skolan. Lärare och elevhälsoteam samarbetar i skolan för elevers välmående, men vilka hinder ser de för att utveckla elevers sociala relationer. För detta syfte har jag intervjuat ett antal lärare och kuratorer om deras arbetssätt, hur de planerar för en undervisning som bygger på sociala relationer, hur sociala relationer och elevhälsa förhåller sig till varandra enligt dem. Samtidigt har jag undersökt vilka hinder som de ser till att utveckla elevers sociala relationer samt hur de ser på vårdnadshavarens roll här.

    Det resultatet som jag ser i min studie är att i huvudsak anser samtliga pedagoger och kuratorer att sociala relationer har en avgörande roll i elevers välmående i skolan. Samtliga informanter tycker att elever som har bra sociala färdigheter mår bra både fysiskt och psykiskt och i sin tur lyckas bra i skolarbetet. De anser också att ett starkt samarbete mellan pedagoger, elevhälsoteam och hem är väldigt viktigt för att utveckla elevers sociala färdigheter. De tycker att om samarbetet mellan parter fungerar bra då elever känner sig trygga i skolan. Resultatet blir att elever som kan skapa en bärande relation både med vuxna och andra kompisar, blir även motiverade i skolarbetet och lyckas i skolan.

  • 257.
    Ahmed, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Lärarstyrd lek i matematikundervisningen: Dess möjligheter och begränsningar för elevens lärande.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med min studie är att veta hur lärarstyrd lek påverkar matematikundervisningen samt se vilka möjligheter och begränsningar som metoden lärarstyrd lek har. För detta syfte har jag intervjuat ett antal lärare om detta arbetssätt, hur de planerar för en undervisning som bygger på lärarstyrd lek, vad de menar med lärarstyrd lek, vilka möjligheter och begränsningar de ser samt om de märker att de stimulerar eleven i matematikundervisningen med den lärarstyrda leken.Det resultatet som jag ser i min studie är att i huvudsak anser samtliga pedagoger att det finns en positiv påverkan på lärandet när lärarstyrd lek genomförs i undervisningen. De pekar på några begränsande faktorer som tidsbrist, höga arbetsbelastning, problem med elevers sociala sampel. Trots att arbetssättet möter vissa utmaningar så bedömer samtliga pedagoger att lärarstyrd lek i matematikundervisningen ökar elevens motivation i lärandet och gör ämnet roligt och intressant.

  • 258.
    Ahmed Nur, Leila
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Sorani, Lona
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Grannskapets påverkan på gymnasieskolan: En kvalitativ studie om marginaliserade elevers uppleverser av gymnasieskolan och sina förväntningar inför framtida utbildningsmöjligheter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to review existing correlations between marginalized adolescents and lower school results. This study examines underlying conditions for the current residential segregation in Sweden by applying segregation as a theory adequate to a qualitative study. Residential segregation has generated negative effects on the Swedish school system as a result. Previous research regarding the subject points toward residential segregation as a prime cause for the performance gap within the Swedish school system. It also conditions the qualifications of young adolescents regarding their pursuit of future opportunities. The youth's perception of their school attendance is inspected through an analysis divided into three themes regarding their experiences in relation to their residential areas. This study argues that existing social exclusion processes caused by residential segregation, affect how they perceive their opportunities. A typical disjunct resource allocations on the basis of socioeconomic status characterizes the means that marginalized adolescents possess to pursue their ambitions.

  • 259.
    Ahmed Shire, F Sagal
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Healthcare professional´s experience of promoting maternal mental health: a qualitative study in Saudi Arabia.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 260.
    Ahmetgjekaj, Fatmir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    New age i massmediernas tid och rum2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 261.
    Ahnelöv, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    När millenniegenerationen väljer Airbnb: En kvalitativ fallstudie av Stockholm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 262.
    Ahokas, E K
    et al.
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Kyrolainen, H
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Mero, AA
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Walker, S
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Hanstock, Helen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ihalainen, Johanna K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Minimal effect of water immersion on markers of inflammation and muscle damage after intensive exercise2019In: Proc Physiol Soc 44, 2019, article id C43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water immersion methods, such as cold water immersion and contrast water therapy are popular recovery interventions after athletic training and competition. Nevertheless, post-exercise cold water immersion may actually inhibit hypertrophic signalling pathways and muscle adaptation to training (1). It is has been commonly assumed that the mechanism of impaired training adaptation is mediated by blunted inflammatory responses to muscle-damaging exercise, although this assumption has been questioned by recent data (2). A weakness of previous studies is omission of active recovery in water immersion interventions, which would arguably be utilised in addition to water immersion by athletic populations. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of three water immersion methods, performed after active recovery, on inflammatory responses to muscle-damaging exercise. Nine male participants (age 20-35 y) performed an intensive exercise protocol, consisting of maximal jumps and sprinting, on four occasions. After each trial, participants completed one of four recovery protocols in a randomised, crossover design (ACT, active recovery only, 10 min cycling; heart rate 120-140 b/min; CWI, active recovery followed by 10 min cold water immersion, 10°C; TWI, active recovery followed by 10 min temperate water immersion, 24°C and CWT, active recovery followed by contrast water therapy, 10 min alternating 10°C and 38°C in 1 min cycles). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the local ethical review board. Venous blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 5 min, 60 min, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h post-exercise, then analysed for myocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and creatine kinase (CK) using ELISA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) using a chemiluminescence assay. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare biomarker concentrations between groups over time. There were no differences in biomarker concentrations during exercise and recovery between groups across the six time points, however main effects of time were present for all three markers (MCP-1: F(2.32, 18.56) = 23.1, p < 0.0001; CK: F(2.059, 16.47) = 8.74, p = 0.002; hs-CRP: F(1.07, 8.57 = 13.8, p = 0.005). Tukey’s post-hoc analysis of simple time effects revealed increases in MCP-1 at post-5 min versus pre in all groups except CWT. In TWI and CWI, MCP-1 was still elevated above pre at 60 min post-exercise. hs-CRP peaked at 24 h post-exercise in all groups. CK was elevated at post-60 versus pre in all groups and at post-24 except in CWT. Our findings suggest that use of cold or thermoneutral water immersion in combination with active recovery may slightly prolong the immediate post-exercise elevation in MCP-1 but have minimal overall effect on markers of inflammation and muscle damage.

  • 263.
    Ahokas, Essi K.
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ihalainen, Johanna K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kyröläinen, Heikki
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mero, Antti A.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Effects of Water Immersion Methods on Postexercise Recovery of Physical and Mental Performance2019In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1488-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared with active recovery only on physical and mental performance measures and physiological responses. The subjects were physically active men (age 20-35 years, mean ± SD 26 ± 3.7 years). All subjects performed a short-term exercise protocol, including maximal jumps and sprinting. Four different recovery methods (10 minutes) were used in random order: cold water immersion (CWI, 10° C), thermoneutral water immersion (TWI, 24° C), and contrast water therapy (CWT, alternately 10° C and 38° C). All these methods were performed after an active recovery (10-minute bicycle ergometer; heart rate [HR] 120-140 b·min, 60-73% from age-calculated maximum HR), and the fourth method was active recovery (ACT) only. Within 96 hours after exercise bouts, recovery was assessed through a 30-m maximal sprint test, maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), self-perceived muscle soreness and relaxation questionnaires, and blood lactate, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and catecholamine levels. The self-perceived feeling of relaxation after 60-minute recovery was better (p < 0.05) after CWI and CWT than ACT and TWI. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the recovery methods in any other marker. In the 30-m sprint test, however, slower running time was found in ACT (p < 0.001) and CWT (p = 0.005), and reduced CMJ results (p < 0.05) were found in ACT when the results were compared with baseline values. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that CWI and CWT improve the acute feeling of relaxation that can play a positive role in athletes' performance and well-being.

  • 264.
    Ahola, Paulina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Holm, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Jag går inte och väntar på något mirakel, jag är väl zombie på mitt vis" - En kvalitativ studie om äldres syn på psykisk ohälsa och sin psykosociala situation2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 265.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere.
    Designing an Information System for Open Innovation – Bridging the Gap between Individual and Organisational Creativity2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    History shows that those companies that continue to invest in their innovative capabilities during tough economic times are often those that prosper when growth returns. Recently, information systems (IS) have been harnessed to support innovation. Even with IS support, innovation campaigns and suggestion management systems often end up in failure. Employees and customers are reluctant to share their best ideas. Individuals interests, motivation, creativity and life-long learning are seldom adequately supported by companies. In the information systems research area there is very little research on creativity and creativity has traditionally been studied mainly within the decision support systems (DSS) research area. This DSS area has focused on rather mechanistic idea-generation processes lacking a focus on individuals and their creativity. Even in the emerging open innovation paradigm, individual and group levels have come in for little research. From these starting points, we became interested in ways to improve existing information systems and innovation practices. The research question here is: How to design an artefact to support learning and creativity within the open innovation paradigm. Since we are interested in building new artefacts, we will utilise design research methods, particularly the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) process model. Our three artefacts are the results of our work. The first artefact, the Mobile Personal Development Plan, is focused on extending development talks between an employer and employees within human resource management to support innovation. Curiosity and emerging interests are seen here as idea seeds and future competences. The second artefact, the iPortfolio, extends this with a life-long learning and problem-solving focus. The third artefact, the Brokering Platform for Open Innovation, finally focuses on collaboration with customers and crowds. The software development was time consuming in our work and only the first artefact is demonstrated as a functional software prototype. Our pilot in an SME company illustrates practical requirements and usability issues related to the software. Additionally, a Delphi study with international open innovation experts served to identify future related requirements. Given the lack of creativity research in the IS field, we claim that our work makes an appropriate contribution. To the design research literature our input is new usage cases of the previously mentioned DSRM process model. Our results apply to organisations, where the employees work in dispersed teams and need an information system to communicate their emerging ideas and interests for more systematic problem-solving. The managers in our study reported that there are plenty of ideas available, but the challenge is to ensure the commitment of external resources to the actual innovation building. The integration of learning into the innovation and problem-solving activity should be motivational. We therefore discuss human resource management in relation to creativity and innovation. Surprisingly, in our pilots we noticed difficulties in time management in mobile settings and the current health risk debate gradually changed our artefact design, so this work also provides a critical view on mobility and on the access anytime, anywhere phenomenon. Finally, we suggest improvements to existing innovation practices in organisations.

  • 266.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Designing to archive open data – Case: ISERV e-services project.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Voltage transients measurements and power line communication2016In: 2016 57th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), IEEE, 2016, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power line communication (PLC) connects energy producers with energy consumers. In the European Union stricter guidelines are under development to limit disturbances in the 2-150 kHz frequency range, because devices utilising PLC do not work. This study measured voltage transients in 22 locations and identified sources for noise. Home environments and public buildings were measured. Measurements were conducted in the frequency range of 150 kHz-500 kHz (according to EN 55011 to EN 55022) and in the lower frequency range of 3 kHz to 95 kHz. Results indicate that voltage transients are generated mostly by switching mode power supplies, pumps, rectifiers, inverters and even low quality smart meters. Several of these devices exceeded PLC standard level, 122 dBμV. Additionally we demonstrate that basic power quality recordings do not provide enough information to mitigate PLC problems occurring within microseconds and frequency specific voltage transient measurements are needed.

  • 268. Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.
    et al.
    Van Hees, P.A.W.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Finlay, R.D.
    Organic acids produced by mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris exposed to elevated aluminium and heavy metals concentrations2000In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 557-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cultivation method was developed to enable exposure of ectomycorrhizal plants with intact extramatrical mycelium to solutions containing different concentrations of aluminium or heavy metals. Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized by Suillus variegatus (two isolates), Rhizopogon roseolus or Paxillus involutus (two isolates) were used. Seedlings were transferred to Petri dishes containing glass beads and exposed to elevated concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, or Ni in two ways: immediately following transfer; and after allowing mycorrhizal seedlings to develop an extraradical mycelium that colonized the interface between the upper surface of the beads and the metal-containing solution. Production of organic acids in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal systems was measured by withdrawing samples from the solution and analyzing by HPLC. In most experiments, levels of oxalic acid were significantly higher in mycorrhizal treatments than in non-mycorrhizal controls. The measured levels of organic acids were variable, but the results obtained suggest that production of oxalic acid is stimulated by exposure to elevated Al in mycorrhizal seedlings colonized by S. variegatus and R. roseolus. Elevated Al concentrations also increased oxalic acid production by non-mycorrhizal seedlings significantly in two of four Al experiments performed, but the measured concentrations were significantly lower than in corresponding mycorrhizal treatments in both cases. Malonic acid was found in the culture solution of non-mycorrhizal had P. involutus-colonized seedlings, but only trace amounts were found in S. variegatus or R. roseolus-infected seedlings. Citric, shikimic, lactic, acetic, propionic, fumaric, formic, iso-butyric and butyric acid were found in variable concentrations. Production of oxalic acid by seedlings ColoniZed by S. variegatus BL or P. involutus was not stimulated by exposure to 0.44 μM Cd or 17 μM Ni. Exposure to 0.157 mM CU in two separate experiments using P. involutus 87.017 and two strains of S. variegatus (BL and 159) appeared to stimulate production of oxalic acid irrespective of mycorrhizal status or species.

  • 269.
    Ahrling, Jane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    A Feminist Reading of  The House of the Spirits,  Song of Solomon,  and  One Hundred Years of Solitude                            2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 270.
    Ahrling, Jane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    A Feminist Reading of  The House of the Spirits,  Song of Solomon,  and  One Hundred Years of Solitude                            2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 271.
    Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet. Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Roine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Between Organizations1994In: Social organizations: Interaction inside, outside and between organizations, London: Sage Publications , 1994Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 272.
    Aimée Temahagari, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    FAKTORER SOM PÅVERKAR VÅRDPERSONALENS UTFÖRANDE AV MUNVÅRD HOS ÄLDRE PÅ SÄRSKILT BOENDE: En litteraturöverskikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 273.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller skis' rolling resistance and grip characteristics: influences on physiological and performance measures in cross-country skiers2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate roller ski characteristics; classical and freestyle roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficients (μR) and classical style roller skis’ static friction coefficients (μS), and to study the influence of different μR and μS on cross-country skiers’ performance and both physiological and biomechanical indices. The aim was also to study differences in skiing economy and efficiency between recreational skiers, female and male junior and senior elite cross-country skiers.The experiments showed that during a time period of 30 minutes of rolling on a treadmill (warm-up), μR decreased significantly (p<0.05) to about 60-65 % and 70-75 % of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. Also, there was a significant influence of normal force on μR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in μR.The study of the influence on physiological variables of a ~50 % change in μR showed that during submaximal steady rate exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non-significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a change in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non-significant or small.The study of classical style roller skis μS showed values that were five to eight times more than the values of μS reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis.The subsequent physiological and biomechanical experiments with different μS showed a significantly lower skiing economy (~14 % higher v̇O2), higher heart rate, lower propulsive forces coming from the legs and shorter time to exhaustion (~30 %) when using a different type of roller ski with a μS similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a (similar) higher μS.The part of the thesis which focused on skiing economy and efficiency as a function of skill, age and gender, showed that the elite cross-country skiers had better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18 %) compared with the recreational skiers, and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5 %) than their junior counterparts, while no differences could be found between the genders.

  • 274.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The rolling resistances of roller skis and their effects on human performance during treadmill roller skiing2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance in a laboratory environment using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficient, µR, in order to allow correct comparisons between the results, as well as providing the opportunity to study work economy between different athletes, test occasions and core techniques.

    Thus, one of the aims of this thesis was to evaluate how roller skis’ µR is related to warm-up, mass, velocity and inclination of the treadmill. It was also necessary to investigate the methodological variability of the rolling resistance measurement system, RRMS, specially produced for the experiments, with a reproducibility study in order to indicate the validity and reliability of the results.

    The aim was also to study physiological responses to different µR during roller skiing with freestyle and classical roller skis and techniques on the treadmill as a case in which all measurements were carried out in stationary and comparable conditions.

    Finally, the aim was also to investigate the work economy of amateurs and female and male junior and senior cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing, i.e. as a function of skill, age and gender, including whether differences in body mass causes significant differences in external power per kg due to differences in the roller skis’ µR.

    The experiments showed that during a warm-up period of 30 minutes, µR decreased to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. For another 30 minutes of rolling no significant change was found. Simultaneous measurements of roller ski temperature and mR showed that stabilized mR corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski. The study of the influence on mR of normal force, velocity and inclination produced a significant influence of normal force on mR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in mR. The reproducibility study of the RRMS showed no significant differences between paired measurements with either classical or the freestyle roller skis.

    The study of the effects on physiological variables of ~50% change in µR,showed that during submaximal steady state exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a significantly changed maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non significant or small.

    The final part of the thesis, which focused on work economy, found no significant difference between the four groups of elite competitors, i.e. between the two genders and between the junior and senior elite athletes. It was only the male amateurs who significantly differed among the five studied groups. The study also showed that the external power per kg was significantly different between the two genders due to differences in body mass and mR, i.e. the lighter female testing groups were roller skiing with a relatively heavier rolling resistance coefficient compared to the heavier testing groups of male participants.

  • 275.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2008In: ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 2, 2008, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 393-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study the roller skis’ rolling resistance has been measured using equipment on the ski-treadmill. The study investigates the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results show that during submaximal exercise, heart rate, blood lactate, power and oxygen uptake are significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there are no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests show that time to exhaustion is significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate, and the influence on maximal power and ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

  • 276.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2009In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study, the roller skis’ rolling resistance was measured on the ski-treadmill’s surface using a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system specially produced for this purpose. The study investigated the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results showed that during submaximal exercise, power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there were no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

     

  • 277.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing2008In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance under laboratory conditions using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. The differences in performance between tests are quite small for elite athletes, and it is therefore of great importance to control the rolling resistance of the roller skis. Otherwise different physiological tests cannot be accurately compared.

    This study shows that during a warm-up period of  30 minutes the coefficient of rolling resistance (µR) decreases to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively.

    Simultaneous measurements of temperature and µR shows that stabilized rolling resistance corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski.

    Tests were also performed on the influence on µR of normal force, velocity and inclination. Normal forces produced significant influence on µR , while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in µR.

  • 278.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work economy of amateur and elite cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing2009In: 4th Asia Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the work economy of cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing in the perspectives; skill, age and gender. The study was investigating the external power output from elevating the transported mass against gravity and overcoming the roller skis rolling resistance, and the internal power from measured oxygen uptake and energy consumption. The roller skis rolling resistance was measured with a fixture on the ski-treadmill and the results showed a significant correlation between normal force and rolling resistance. The results also showed that it was only the amateur skiers who significantly differed in work economy among the five studied groups.

  • 279.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Laaksonen, Marko S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of classical style roller skis' grip (static friction coefficients, μ S) on cross-country skiers' oxygen consumption and leg forces during treadmill roller skiing, when using the diagonal stride and kick double poling techniques. The study used ratcheted wheel roller skis from the open market and a uniquely designed roller ski with an adjustable camber and grip function. The results showed significantly (P≤0.05) higher oxygen consumption (∼14%), heart rate (∼7%), and lower propulsive forces from the legs during submaximal exercise and a shorter time to exhaustion (∼30%) in incremental maximal tests when using roller skis with a μ S similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a similar, higher μ S. Thus, we concluded that oxygen consumption (skiing economy), propulsive leg forces, and performance time are highly changed for the worse when using roller skis with a lower μ S, such as for on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis, in comparison to ratcheted wheel roller skis with several times higher μ S.

  • 280.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A portable roller ski rolling resistance measurement system2013In: The Impact of Technology on Sport V: Procedia Engineering / [ed] Subic A, Fuss FK, Clifton P, Chan KM., Elsevier, 2013, p. 79-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers for their snow-free training and in roller ski competitions. Additionally, much of the current sports research into the physiology and biomechanics of crosscountry skiing is conducted indoors on treadmills using roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis' rolling resistance coefficient, especially in connection to research and roller ski competitions. The purpose of this study was to develop a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system (P-RRMS) that is portable and therefore useful in different contexts and locations. The P-RRMS was designed as a small treadmill, equipped with roller ski stabilizing lateral supports and a screwed bar for applying different vertical loads on the roller ski. The design uses only one force sensor, with possible measurements of three directions of force and torque around three axes. The weight of the P-RRMS is 100 kg and it is equipped with wheels to facilitate transportation.

  • 281.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    An experimental study to compare the grip of classical style roller skis with on-snow skiing2013In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country skiers use roller skis for their snow-free training with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. Also, exercise laboratories evaluate the biomechanics and physiology of cross-country skiing using roller skis on a treadmill. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling (static friction). The aim of this study was to investigate static friction coefficients (μS) of ratcheted wheel roller skis, and compare the results to the μS reported from skiing on snow with grip-waxed cross-country skis. Also, a new type of roller ski with a camber and adjustable grip function was evaluated. The results showed that ratcheted wheel roller skis, on a treadmill rubber mat and on dry and wet asphalt surfaces, reached μS values that were five to eight times greater than the values reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis. For the roller skis with a camber and adjustable grip function, the μs could be varied from no grip at all up to the level of the tested ratcheted wheel roller skis.

  • 282.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Classical style constructed roller skis and grip functionality2011In: Procedia Engineering: The Impact of Technology on Sports IV / [ed] Subic A., Fuss F.K., Alam F., Clifton P., Elsevier, 2011, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers for snow-free training, with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling.

    A new type of roller ski was constructed with a function which makes it necessary to use the same kick technique as that used on snow, i.e. the ski has a camber that must be pushed down to obtain grip. Its stiffness can be adjusted based on factors that influence grip, i.e. the skier’s bodyweight and technical skiing skills.

    Thus, our aim was to make comparative measurements as regards grip between ratcheted roller skis and the roller ski with a camber and compare with previous published results for grip waxed skis during cross-country skiing on snow.  The measurements were carried out using specially developed equipment, with a bottom plate and an overlying rubber mat of the same type as used on many treadmills and a function for applying different loads and generating traction on the back of the roller ski.

  • 283.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing: Presented at International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing 2006, June 18-20, 2006, Vuokatti, Finland2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Laaksonen, Marko S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers2013In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1239-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite crosscountry skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p < 0.05) and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5%) than their junior counterparts (p < 0.05), whereas no differences could be found between the genders. Also, large ranges in economy and gross efficiency were found in all groups. It was concluded that, in addition to v̇O2peak, skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend crosscountry skiers at all performance levels to test not only v̇O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  • 285.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jensen, Kurt
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense, Danmark.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm.
    Breathing resistance in automated metabolic systems is high in comparison with the Douglas Bag method and previous recommendations2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the resistance (RES) to breathing in metabolic systems used for the distribution and measurement of pulmonary gas exchange. A mechanical lung simulator was used to standardize selected air flow rates ( , L/s). The delta pressure (∆p, Pa) between ambient air and the air inside the equipment was measured in the breathing valve’s mouthpiece adapter for four metabolic systems and four types of breathing valves. RES for the inspiratory and expiratory sides was calculated as RES = ∆p / , Pa/L/s. The results for RES showed significant (p < 0.05) between-group variance among the tested metabolic systems, as well as the breathing valves and between most of the completed . The lowest RES among the metabolic systems was found for a Douglas Bag system, with approximately half of the RES compared to the automated metabolic systems. The automated systems were found to have higher RES already at low  in comparison to previous recommendations. For the hardware components, the highest RES was found for the breathing valves while the lowest RES was found for the hoses. Conclusion: The results showed that RES in metabolic systems can be minimized through conscious choices of system design and hardware components. 

  • 286.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Drag Area, Frontal Area and Drag Coefficient in Cross-Country Skiing Techniques2018In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Hugo Espinosa, David Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, David Thiel, MDPI, 2018, Vol. 2, article id 313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the air drag, frontal area and coefficient of drag of cross-country skiing classical and free style techniques. One highly skilled cross-country skier performed skiing-like classical and free style techniques on a force plate in a wind tunnel. The skier was also photographed from the front in order to analyze the projected frontal area, which was determined from digital images using Matlab. From the results of the air drag and the frontal area measurements, the drag coefficient was also calculated. The results can be used by researchers to calculate the theoretical effect of air drag on cross-country skiing performance.

  • 287.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The multi functional roller ski2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    The multifunctional roller ski2013In: Science and Nordic Skiing II / [ed] Hakkarainen A, Linnamo V, Lindinger S, University of Salzburg, University of Jyväskylä , 2013, p. 253-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tuplin, Simon
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Render, Peter
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 1, p. 86-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a wind tunnel that enables the study of human performance during various types ofsports and physical activities by examining the influence of aerodynamic drag, precipitation, frictional forces and gravitationalforces on uphill and downhill travel on a moving substrate. An overall design for a wind tunnel and working section containinga large treadmill was drafted, followed by computational fluid dynamics simulations of flow conditions to assess thedesign’s feasibility and select from different geometries prior to its construction. The flow conditions in the completed windtunnel were validated using different flows, speeds and treadmill inclinations. Pilot experiments were carried out using across-country skier to investigate the effect of aerodynamic drag on oxygen uptake during double poling and the maximalachieved speed when rolling on a declined treadmill. The purpose was to validate the usefulness of the tunnel. The resultsshowed that flow conditions are acceptable for experiments even in worst-case scenarios with maximal inclined and declinedtreadmill. Results also showed that aerodynamic drag has a significant impact on the skier’s energy expenditure.

  • 290.
    Ajax, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Yousif, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Krisövningar- det man övar på blir man bra på: En fallstudie om hur Räddningstjänsten ser på lärdomar och erfarenheter genom krisövningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 291.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010In: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, p. 827-835Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 292.
    Akbar, Adnan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Influencing Factors on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Mobile Computing2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applications that can change their behaviour based on the user’s contextual appearance are called context-aware applications. Applications developed for smart phones, which carry a multitude of different sensors, and actuators have gained a huge penetration within the market. Frequent usage of mobile applications such as home automation, friend finder, car accident notification and tracking etc; have seen an increased growth from the user’s perspective. However, for such applications, it is necessary to have knowledge of the performance and cost parameters, which directly affect the QoE of the application users.  This thesis investigates possible context aware behaviours in real time situations and measures the Quality of Experience (QoE) as well as identifying the Packet Delay Variation (PDV). The background and some state-of-the-art technologies are studied, and based on these studies, three scenarios are designed and implemented and based on their QoE, results and conclusions are presented, with the  results obtained  shown by means of   graphical representations of the QoE and PDV values. 

  • 293.
    Akbari, Sadia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Yildiz, Günay
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress inverkan på sjuksköterskan ochpatientsäkerheten: – Känsla av sammanhang på arbetet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag präglas sjuksköterskeyrken av en ökad arbetsbörda, ökade krav påkompetens, brister i organisationen samt psykosociala faktorer som leder till otrivsel.Stressen uppstår då det finns en obalans mellan krav och förmågan att hantera kraven. Denarbetsrelaterade stressen kan bli ett hinder för sjuksköterskan som kan påverkapatientsäkerheten negativt. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt är att granska ochsammanställa forskningsresultat som beskriver hur arbetsrelaterad stress påverkar bådesjuksköterskor och patientsäkerheten. Metod: Litteraturstudien baserades på femtonkvantitativa studier, två kvalitativa studier, en studie med mixad metod och en longitudinellstudie. Artiklarna kvalitetsgranskades och en innehållsanalys genomfördes. Resultat:Resultatet av litteraturöversikten framkom att sjuksköterskor upplever ökad stress knutnatill sex kategorier; betydelsen av en god arbetsmiljö, ett bra ledningsansvar, högarbetsbelastning och bristande kontroll, tidspress i arbetet, bristande kommunikation ochsamarbete samt hinder för arbetstillfredsställelse som kunde påverka sjuksköterskansarbetssituation negativt, vilket vidare mynnar ut i effekter på patientsäkerheten. Faktorersom ger upphov till stress är bland annat underbemanning, tidsbrist, höga förväntningar,dålig arbetsmiljö, då sjuksköterskorna upplevde sig inte kunna ge en god och säkeromvårdnad. Slutsats: Huvudresultatet visade att den arbetsrelaterade stressen påverkarbåde sjuksköterskan och patientsäkerheten negativt. Arbetsrelaterad stress är ett allvarligtproblem som förekommer i stora delar av världen, och därför är behovet stor för vidareforskning om stress på arbetsplatsen.

  • 294.
    Akdag, Berfin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Bandeily, Soraya
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Att vårdas för MRSA-En litteraturöversikt av patienters upplevelser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 295.
    Akindele, Hawawu
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Wahib, Khouloud
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The Speed of Internationalization among Born-Global SMEs: A Case Study of High Teck SMEs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 296.
    Akner, Corina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Industrial Design.
    Labyrinternet: Vilken plats tar internet i ditt liv?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Internetifieringen i vårt samhälle går rasande fort och vi blir mer och mer uppkopplade.Detta projekt handlar om att upplysa betraktaren om mötet med internet och skapa enpersonlig relation till det fenomen som internet är. Genom ett synliggörande med aktiv interaktionligger projektet i gränslandet mellan kritisk design, interaction design och industridesign med fokuspå 'Design För Alla' frågor för alla.’Design För Alla’ är en innovationsmetod som innebär att frågeställningar ställs på sin spets ochatt man utgår från och testar sina idéer tillsammans med dem som ställer högst krav och harstörst behov. ’Design För Alla’ gör att man kan ifrågasätta gammal praxis och existeradereferensramar för standardlösningar och istället angripa en frågeställning utifrån nyaassociationsbanor och inspirationsingångar som gör researchen mer tillåtande och spännande.Ett av projektets viktigaste moment var en workshop med en grupp kognitivt nedsatta ungdomarfrån Höghammarskolan. Att blanda in personer med kognitiv funktionsnedsättning lägger fokuspå andra frågor än en “normalstörd” studiegrupp skulle ha gjort. Dessa ungdomar lever under en”disorienterad norm” där de med sin funktionsnedsättning lärt sig hitta vägar runt sinaproblem och ofta går problemlösning till mötes mer ”rakt på” och intuitivt. ’Design För Alla’ har berikatmin process genom att jag försökt anamma deras ”hands on” och lekfulla sätt för att förberedamig för workshopens laborativa moment kring färg, ljud, form, material, rörelse ochsemiotiska funktioner kring framför allt på och avstängning. Det har gjort att jag sökt efter merintuitiva och basala kroppsliga uttryck för interaktion och kommunikation med mitt internetkoncept.För hur lever och upplever vi något som är osynligt? Resultatet är Labyrinternet; ett homage tillinternet i form av en el&internet-station som också agerar plattform för debatten kring frågan”Vilken plats tar internet i vår vardag och i våra liv?”

  • 297.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    United Nations University - WIDER.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Connectivity at a cost: The economic dynamics of connectivity restoration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological literature shows that there is a species-area relationship between habitat size and the equilibrium number of species that will thrive in a habitat. There is also a literature on habitat fragmentation showing that, if a larger habitat is broken up into smaller fragments, the long run equilibrium species number will decline in each of the remaining fragments according to the same relationship. Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation in river systems, with fish ladders and other measures being introduced to restore connectivity in river systems that have previously been subdivided into smaller habitats by hydropower and other developments. However, even if connectivity is restored, the new and higher equilibrium species number will be reached only after extended periods of time. This means that measures to restore connectivity entail incurring one-time investment costs (and possibly continuous long run increases in maintenance costs as well) in order to gain habitat improvements that will generate increasing value over time upto the point where the new, better equilibrium is reached. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable, and link the model to empirical data from measures to restore river system connectivity which show how quickly this recovery tends to occur in practice. We find that even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build a hydropower installation in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installation are not necessarily socially profitable. Under a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses, decommissioning the hydropower plant once its economic lifespan is past is a better option, from the social planner’s perspective, than carrying out measures while the plant is still economically viable.

  • 298.
    Akram, Hoger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hur påverkar ledares beteende medarbetares arbetstillfredsställelse och arbetsmotivation?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The employee's job satisfaction has received increasing attention from both researchers and employers. The majority of nowadays organizations executing continuously various surveys to find out how satisfied employees are with their tasks, work environment and development opportunities. Although that there are not many research studies that specifically show how leadership behaviours can affect employees job satisfaction, there is many studies that indicates there is a correlation between them.

     

    The purpose of this study is, to contribute to a better understanding of how different leadership behaviours can affect employee’s satisfaction and work motivation at the work. The quantitative research method has been applied, to address the relation between these subjects. Furthermore, the study has been carried out using a selection method known as snowball selection. The selection method has been an effective method for achieving many participants, which is an important parameter for statistical analysis. Total 306 employees from different companies with different work roles participated in the survey. However, the result of the study is based on 301 employees, since five of the participants were excluded during the analysis due to a lack of answers in the survey.

    The result of this study shows that leadership behaviours which concern employee participation, positive communication, employee development, social responsibility and empathy covary with employees work satisfaction and motivation. This means leadership behaviours have a significant impact on employees job satisfaction, which in turn impact employee work motivation.

  • 299.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alam, Farhan Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Capacitive and optical sensing for automatic detection and characterization of cleaning sponges in fiber optic microduct installations2019In: Proceedings - 2019 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces, IWASI 2019, IEEE, 2019, p. 274-278, article id 8791315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical fiber duct installation requires blowing of cleaning sponges for dirt and moisture removal before blowing the fiber cables. The traditional method requires one operator that blows the sponge and one operator in the receiving end that manually evaluate the sponges until a dry sponge is received. The proposed system eliminates the need of a second operator by introducing a solution for automatic sponge detection and characterization of moisture in sponges at the receiving end. An optical sensor is used for detection and a capacitive sensor is developed to measure the sponge's wetness. Sensor data is automatically transmitted back to the operator at the feeding end via a mobile phone. The system is characterized to work with sponges ranging from saturated with wetness to what is deemed as dry. 

  • 300.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    LTspice electro-thermal model of joule heating in high density polyethylene optical fiber microducts2019In: Electronics (Switzerland), ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, optical fiber microducts are joined together by mechanical type joints. Mechanical joints are bulky, require more space in multiple duct installations, and have poor water sealing capability. Optical fiber microducts are made of high-density polyethylene which is considered best for welding by remelting. Mechanical joints can be replaced with welded joints if the outer surface layer of the optical fiber microduct is remelted within one second and without thermal damage to the inner surface of the optical fiber duct. To fulfill these requirements, an electro-thermal model of Joule heat generation using a copper coil and heat propagation inside different layers of optical fiber microducts was developed and validated. The electro-thermal model is based on electro-thermal analogy that uses the electrical equivalent to thermal parameters. Depending upon the geometric shape and material properties of the high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and copper coil, the thermal resistance and thermal capacitance values were calculated and connected to the Cauer RC-ladder configuration. The power input to Joule heating coil and thermal convection resistance to surrounding air were also calculated and modelled. The calculated thermal model was then simulated in LTspice, and real measurements with 50 µm K-type thermocouples were conducted to check the validity of the model. Due to the non-linear transient thermal behavior of polyethylene and variations in the convection resistance values, the calculated thermal model was then optimized for best curve fitting. Optimizations were conducted for convection resistance and the power input model only. The calculated thermal parameters of the polyethylene layers were kept intact to preserve the thermal model to physical structure relationship. Simulation of the optimized electro-thermal model and actual measurements showed to be in good agreement. 

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