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  • 201.
    Jannach, D.
    et al.
    TU Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Zanker, M.
    Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria .
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Leveraging multi-criteria customer feedback for satisfaction analysis and improved recommendations2014In: Information Technology and Tourism, ISSN 1943-4294, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 119-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel websites and online booking platforms represent today's major sources for customers when gathering information before a trip. In particular, community-provided customer reviews and ratings of various tourism services represent a valuable source of information for trip planning. With respect to customer ratings, many modern travel and tourism platforms-in contrast to several other e-commerce domains-allow customers to rate objects along multiple dimensions and thus to provide more fine-granular post-trip feedback on the booked accommodation or travel package. In this paper, we first show how this multi-criteria rating information can help to obtain a better understanding of factors driving customer satisfaction for different segments. For this purpose, we performed a Penalty-Reward contrast analysis on a data set from a major tourism platform, which reveals that customer segments significantly differ in the way the formation of overall satisfaction can be explained. Beyond the pure identification of segment-specific satisfaction factors, we furthermore show how this fine-granular rating information can be exploited to improve the accuracy of rating-based recommender systems. In particular, we propose to utilize user- and object-specific factor relevance weights which can be learned through linear regression. An empirical evaluation on datasets from different domains finally shows that our method helps us to predict the customer preferences more accurately and thus to develop better online recommendation services. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 202.
    Japsen, P.
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Green, P. F.
    Geotrack International, 37 Melville Road, Brunswick West, VIC, Australia.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Geovisiona AB, Högbyvägen 168, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Hinchey, A. M.
    Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, P.O. Box 8700, St John’s, NL, Canada.
    Wilton, D. H. C.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, P.O. Box 4200, St John’s, NL, Canada .
    Burial and exhumation history of the Labrador-Newfoundland margin: First observations2016In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, Vol. 35, p. 91-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Japsen, Peter
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark .
    Green, Paul F.
    Geotrack International, 37 Melville Road, Brunswick West, Victoria 3055, Australia .
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Södertörn University, Alfred Nobels allé 7, SE-141 89 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Erlström, Mikael
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Kiliansgatan 10, 223 50 Lund, Sweden .
    Episodic burial and exhumation of the southern Baltic Shield: Epeirogenic uplifts during and after break-up of Pangaea2016In: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 35, p. 357-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Cratons are conventionally assumed to be areas of long-term stability. However, whereas Precambrian basement crops out across most of the Baltic Shield, Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sediments rest on basement in southern Sweden, and thus testify to a complex history of exhumation and burial. Our synthesis of published stratigraphic landscape analysis and new apatite fission-track analysis data reveals a history involving five steps after formation of the extremely flat, Sub-Cambrian Peneplain. (1) Cambrian to Lower Triassic rocks accumulated on the peneplain, interrupted by late Carboniferous uplift and exhumation. (2) Middle Triassic uplift removed the Palaeozoic cover along the south-western margin of the shield, leading to formation of a Triassic peneplain with a predominantly flat relief followed by deposition of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic rocks. (3) Uplift that began during the Middle Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous caused denudation leading to deep weathering that shaped an undulating, hilly relief that was buried below Upper Cretaceous to Oligocene sediments. (4) Early Miocene uplift and erosion produced the South Småland Peneplain with scattered hills. (5) Early Pliocene uplift raised the Miocene peneplain to its present elevation leading to reexposure of the sub-Cretaceous hilly relief near the coast. Our results thus provide constraints on the magnitude and timing of episodes of deposition and removal of significant volumes of Phanerozoic rocks across the southern portion of the Baltic Shield. Late Carboniferous, Middle Triassic and mid-Jurassic events of uplift and exhumation affected wide areas beyond the Baltic Shield, and we interpret them as epeirogenic uplifts accompanying fragmentation of Pangaea, caused by accumulation of mantle heat beneath the supercontinent. Early Miocene uplift affected north-west Europe but not East Greenland, and thus likely resulted from compressive stresses from an orogeny on the Eurasian plate. Early Pliocene uplift related to changes in mantle convection and plate motion affected wide areas beyond North-East Atlantic margins.

  • 204.
    Johansson, Matilda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Är ditt åk värt att dö för?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 205.
    Johansson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Kullebjörk, Mathilda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Alla ska samverka!: En studie av begreppet och fenomenet samverkan i två svenska landsbygdskommuner2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 206.
    Johansson, Tommy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Odmark, Jakob
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Generation Y:s riskuppfattning under deltagandet vid speciella evenemang: En kvantitativ studie på studenter vid Mittuniversitetet, campus Östersund2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 207.
    Jonsson, Lovis
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Onuoha, Therese
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Turistaktörers anpassning till populärkulturturismens efterfrågan: En kvalitaiv fallstudie om Dubrovnik och Game of Thrones2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 208.
    Jordhus-Lier, David
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Geography, University of Oslo.
    Underthun, Anders
    Centre for Welfare and Labour Research, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Changing workplace geographies: Restructuring warehouse employment in the Oslo region2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we want to discuss changing workplace geographies, and the effects of restructuring, in four selected warehouse workplaces in the Oslo region. The theoretical framework for the analysis is an adapted version of the TPSN framework developed by Jessop et al. (2008), which we argue offer a more precise terminology for capturing socio-spatial change – also at the scale of the workplace. Socio-spatial concepts such as territory, place and network are used as structuring principles to examine how labour hire and labour migration have redrawn workplace geographies in the Norwegian logistics industry. The paper argues that a peripheral temporary agency workforce, many of which are Swedish migrants, are embedded in the workplace through management’s practices of control – but also through forms of social reciprocity. While temporary work agencies represent networks of recruitment which can benefit employers and employees in the short term, the paper problematises how these employers do not offer their employees a sense of workplace themselves, and also how they destabilise established workplace boundaries in their client firms.

  • 209.
    Jordhus-Lier, David
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Geography, University of Oslo.
    Underthun, Anders
    Centre for Welfare and Labour Research, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Changing workplace geographies: Restructuring warehouse employment in the Oslo region2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we want to discuss changing workplace geographies, and the effects of restructuring, in four selected warehouse workplaces in the Oslo region. The theoretical framework for the analysis is an adapted version of the TPSN framework developed by Jessop et al. (2008), which we argue offer a more precise terminology for capturing socio-spatial change – also at the scale of the workplace. Socio-spatial concepts such as territory, place and network are used as structuring principles to examine how labour hire and labour migration have redrawn workplace geographies in the Norwegian logistics industry. The paper argues that a peripheral temporary agency workforce, many of which are Swedish migrants, are embedded in the workplace through management’s practices of control – but also through forms of social reciprocity. While temporary work agencies represent networks of recruitment which can benefit employers and employees in the short term, the paper problematises how these employers do not offer their employees a sense of workplace themselves, and also how they destabilise established workplace boundaries in their client firms.

  • 210.
    Junel, Karolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Turistande barnfamiljer i västra Jämtlandsfjällen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 211.
    Kallenbach, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Kämpe, Zara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Besöksnäringen i Östersund: En studie av nätverk, rollfördelning och samverkan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 212.
    Karlström, Carl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Barns kognitiva kartor av sträckan mellan hem och skola: En studie om spatial kognition och fri rörelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 213.
    Keil, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Hoepken, Wolfram
    University of applied sciences Ravensburg-Weingarten.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Optimizing user interface design and interaction paths for destination management information system2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Marcus A., Wang W., Cham, 2017, Vol. 10290, p. 473-487Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Destination Management Organizations (DMO) being the central units in destination management within European destinations face increasing pressure due to effects of globalization. At the same time, effects of digitalization combined with methods summarized by the umbrella term of Business Intelligence create opportunities to tackle these challenges. Höpken et al. (2011) described how destinations can evolve to so-called knowledge destinations. With the help of a Destination Management Information System (DMIS) managers of DMOs as well as its various stakeholders are provided with holistic decision support when working on strategic development of the destination. The objective of this study is to conceptualize a novel DMIS user interface and evaluate its usability. The study (1) defines different analysis perspectives and corresponding performance indicators enabling a powerful decision support for destination managers and tourism stakeholders, (2) defines interaction paths along different abstraction levels to support drill-down analyses, and (3) evaluates the usability and understandability of the DMIS interface in the south-western Swedish destination Halland.

  • 214.
    Keith, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Venczel, Amanda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gästskatt i Åre: Ur ett besöksperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 215.
    Kimber, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Trends In Sports Tourism: Women´s Races From A Gender Perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 216.
    Kolas, Nina
    et al.
    University of Ravensburg-Weingarten.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    University of Ravensburg-Weingarten.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Information gathering by ubiquitous services for CRM in tourism destinations: an explorative study from Sweden2015In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2015: Proceedings of the ENTER Conference 2015, Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, p. 73-86Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Koponen, Saara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Miljöstrategier och lönsamhet: - En studie av evenemangstaden Östersunds och varumässan Expo Norrs miljöarbete och möjligheten till lönsamhet genom miljöstrategier 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 218.
    Kremel, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University College, School of Business, Society and Engineering, P.O. Box 883, SE- 721 23 Västerås, Sweden .
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Business Networks at Start-up: Swedish Native-Owned and Immigrant-Owned Companies2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 307-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the differences between native Swedish and immigrant entrepreneurs' business networks at start-up stage. The study is based on a database consisting of 261 immigrant- and 2,463 native-owned companies, applying several univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Immigrant entrepreneurs' business networks are less likely to include mainstream contacts at the start-up stage than native born entrepreneurs. Thus, ethnicity is an important variable explaining differences in such networks at the start-up stage. A combination of both mainstream and immigrant networks has the potential to give rise to more growth for immigrant-owned businesses. As a result, these businesses may have potential to create new jobs for unemployed immigrants. This study provides a deeper understanding of how ethnicity may influence the entrepreneurs' use of business networks. It may lead to policy makers considering access to mainstreaming networks as an important issue in the social and economic integration.

  • 219.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS ON INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND IN ÅRE – AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to estimate advertising effects on international tourismdemand for the leading Swedish winter destination, Åre. The increasing share of foreigninbound tourists in this destination region creates a strong interest by shareholders toidentify the factors responsible for this trend. According to traditional micro-economictheory, economic factors, such as income and price, are considered as main determinantsfor tourism demand (Song and Witt 2000). However, according to advertising theories(Comanor and Wilson, 1974) and previous tourism research (Bhagwat and Debruine, 2008;Divisekera and Kulendran, 2006), this study additionally focuses on the brand awarenessof Åre as perceived by international tourists. More concretely, advertising theoriesdistinguish between the brand and the information function of advertising (Nelson, 1974).The former function follows the idea that advertising increases the level of productdifferentiation to build up a base of loyal customers. By contrast, the information functionimplies that advertising primarily provides information about products in order to increasethe market transparency. Accordingly, in order to estimate the impact of advertisingexpenditures for off- and online channels as well as promotional activities, furtherexplanatory variables, e.g. mega events, are considered in this study (Salman, 2003; Songet al., 2010). By applying ordinary least square (OLS) methods, demand elasticitycoefficients are estimated for each of the sending countries Norway, Finland, Russia,Denmark and the UK. Results show that advertising is the main significant driver oftourism demand from the UK, Russia and Finland, while a comparably weak advertisingleverage can be shown for Denmark and Norway. Interestingly, in contrast to microeconomictheories tested in previous research, income and tourism price levels reveal asbeing less significant drivers for demand in all analysed tourism markets. In turn, theresults provide evidence that the increased usage of online channels most significantlyaffects consumers’ buying behaviour. Finally, with respect to brand image perception,results reveal that the destination of Åre is perceived as a brand by tourists from Denmark.Moreover, for customers from the countries Norway and Finland, Åre indicates a weakbrand perception, while tourists from Russia and the UK don’t perceive Åre as a brand atall. The results gained by this research conducted at the level of the tourism destinationprovide useful hints about the factors influencing travel behaviour of tourists from maininternational markets. The study supports destination managers to appropriately adjustmarketing campaigns according to the predominant level of brand perception in respectivesending countries.

  • 220.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    A dynamic perspective on tourism economic impacts: A regional Input-Output analysis for Jämtland – Sweden2017In: Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) Conference, European Chapter, Angers, France, 25-28 April, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    A multi-period perspective on tourism’s economic contribution : A regional input-output analysis for Sweden2018In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 94-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Previous studies on tourism input-output (IO) primarily focus on a single year’s snapshot or utilize outdated IO coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the multi-period development of regional tourism capacities and its influence on the magnitude of the industry’s regional economic contribution. The paper highlights the importance of applying up-to-date IO coefficients to avoid estimation bias typically found in previous studies on tourism’s economic contribution.

    Design/methodology/approach: For the period 2008-2014, national IO tables are regionalized to estimate direct and indirect economic effects for output, employment, income and other value-added effects. A comparison of Leontief inverse matrices is conducted to quantify estimation bias when using outdated models for analyzing tourism’s economic contribution.

    Findings: On the one hand, economic linkages strengthened, especially for labour-intensive sectors. On the other hand, sectoral recessions in 2012 and 2014 led to an economy-wide decline of indirect effects, although tourists’ consumption was still increasing. Finally, estimation bias observed after applying an outdated IO model is quantified by approximately US$4.1m output, 986 jobs full-time equivalents, US$24.8m income and US$14.8m other value-added effects.

    Research limitations/implications: Prevailing assumptions on IO modelling and regionalization techniques aim for more precise survey-based approaches and computable general equilibrium models to incorporate net changes in economic output. Results should be cross-validated by means of qualitative interviews with industry representatives.

    Practical implications: Additional costs for generating IO tables on an annual base clearly pay off when considering the improved accuracy of estimates on tourism’s economic contribution.

    Originality/value: This study shows that tourism IO studies should apply up-to-date IO models when estimating the industry’s economic contribution. It provides evidence that applying outdated models involve the risk of estimation biases, because annual changes of multipliers substantially influence the magnitude of effects.

  • 222.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Economic Impact of Tourism: The process of research design for the Jämtland Region2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 223.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Economic Effects of Advertising: A Swedish Destination Study of International Tourists2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    Business Informatics Group, University of Applied Sciences Ravensburg-Weingarten, Doggenried Str., DE-88250 Weingarten, Germany .
    Economic effects of advertising expenditures – a Swedish destination study of international tourists2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 352-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates the effects of advertising on internationaltourism demand for the leading Swedish mountain destination Åre. In contrast to previous studies, which primarily focus ontourism demand at a national or sectorial level, this research isconducted at the destination level. The study considers pricelevels at tourism destinations and tourists’ income asdeterminants for tourism demand. However, following advertisingtheories and previous research, the dominance of the marketpower function (i.e. product differentiation) and the informationfunction (i.e. market transparency) are identified as major codeterminantsfor international tourism demand. Demand elasticitycoefficients are empirically estimated for the origin countriesNorway, Finland, the Russian Federation, Denmark and the UK.Findings show that advertising is a significant driver of tourismdemand from Norway, the UK and Russia. Interestingly, incomeand tourism price levels are less significant drivers of demand inall analysed origin markets.

  • 225.
    Kronenberg, Kai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Ekonomiska spridningseffekter inom turism: Forskningsöversikt och praktiska metoder,2014Report (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Källman, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Dark tourism: Besökares motiv till Dark tourism-upplevelser & attraktionernas påverkan på besökare. 2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Dark tourism involves visits to places where death and human suffering represent the tourism product, which has become more and more popular in today's tourism industry. Thus,the aim of this paperis to study the Dark tourism-phenomenon and the underlying motives that makespeople choose to visit this type of attractions.

    The main objects in this study is the Swedish Prison Museum in Gävle among with the Mental Health Museum in Dalarna, where both qualitative and quantitative research have been conducted. The results from this research, showsthat visitor’smotives vary by location and attraction. However, some motives wasoutstandingamong visitors regarding each attraction. These are "exciting" and "acquire knowledge", which appeared most oftenand was in commonfor both attractions.

    Further highlighting in the following study is to explain in what way dark tourism-attractions can affect visitorsand which methods this can be done by.Apart from the Swedish Prison museum and the mental museum, the Holocaust museum Yad Vashem representa large part of this work. The reasonisto study if there is anysimilarities between these three attractions, regarding the impact on visitors. The result informs us that the two Swedish attractionshas many equal methods in commonwith Yad Vashem. Clearly, thisimpacts can be done bymethods such as storytelling, use of technology and education & knowledge. Based on a quantitative survey at the Swedish Prison Museum, education & knowledge was the most prominent experience among the museums visitors.

     

  • 227.
    Larson, Mia
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lundberg, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Thirsting for Vampire Tourism: Developing Pop Culture Destinations2013In: Journal of Destination marketing and management, ISSN 2212-571X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 74-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Destinations associated with pop culture phenomena, such as destinations depicted in books and films, often experience increased numbers of visitors as well as strengthened and changed destination images. The pop culture phenomenon the Twilight Saga (book and film series) is in this paper used as an example to explore how a pop culture phenomenon can affect destinations, and how destinations manage this type of tourism. Case studies in Forks, WA, in the USA, Volterra, Montepulciano in Italy and British Columbia in Canada illustrate different tourism destination strategies. Forks has, for example, developed experiences based on a fictionally constructed reality connected to Twilight, which has reimagined the destination, and, thus, fabricated the authenticity of the place. Volterra and Montepulciano, on the other hand, have experienced a Twilight Saga tourism development characterised by deliberations regarding the immersion of Twilight Saga elements into their cultural heritage which has resulted in a strategy best described as guarding the authenticity of their respective destinations. Finally, British Columbia has had no strategy and exhibits little interest in Twilight tourism. The priority of the destination has been to satisfy the needs of film producers. The study elaborates on different paths of pop culture tourism development, i.e. it is not always advisable to fully exploit the potential that a pop cultural phenomenon can bring to a destination. Which strategy should be used by a particular destination depends on the unique character of the place and its perceived need for tourism development.

  • 228.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Varför blir en Åreturist en Årebo?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 229.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Eat or be eaten?: Local regional food systems and sustainable tourism development.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage and Peacebuilding: Implications for Tourism2016In: Tourism as a peace promoter among people and countries: Vision or reality? / [ed] Alon Gelbman, Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation explores the intersection of two theoretical arenas that are increasingly important in today’s unstable world: (i) ‘the tourism and peace agenda’, and (ii) ‘from heritage tourism to heritage development’. After introducing and integrating these theoretical perspectives, the presentation discusses implications for the contemporary tourism sector.

     

    Tourism has been described as a social force that can make important contributions to international understanding, cooperation, and global good will in establishing and keeping world peace. As a result, the potential connection between tourism and peace has been investigated in settings around the world. While a number of these studies suggest that tourism can help promote peace, other studies claim that tourism has a negligible or non-existent contribution to peacebuilding. Despite these varied findings, tourism continues to receive attention as a peacebuilding resource from a wide range of national and international policy actors.

     

    Parallel to this interest in ‘tourism as a resource for peace’ has been the growing application of ‘heritage’ in conflict and post-conflict settings. In this context, the use of heritage as a peacebuilding tool has emerged from heritage-oriented theories that address empowerment of the disenfranchised, post-conflict renewal, and resistance to authorized heritage discourses. In practice, the conceptualization of heritage in these terms has led to critical discourse in the museum sector (and the field of museum studies more generally) about institutional responsibility for creating “safe spaces” to explore difficult and contested histories. Interestingly, several exploratory studies suggest that visitors find the ability to engage in contested topics to result in more ‘authentic’ and ‘responsible’ tourism experiences.

     

    This suggests that tourism providers in the heritage sector may be able to offer new and more authentic experiences through development of “safe spaces” that probe contested and difficult histories from multiple perspectives. Such spaces may ultimately help position tourism as a more active agent in peacebuilding efforts.   

  • 231.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage as a Catalyst for Sustainable Development2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage development and community resilience: Insights for the era of climate change2015In: The Future of Heritage as Climates Change: Loss, Adaptation and Creativity / [ed] David C Harvey and Jim Perry, New York, NY: Routledge, 2015, 1st, p. 167-179Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage oriented gastronomy and local regional food system development in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Utilizing Research and Evaluation to Advance the UNESCO Creative Cities Network2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of research and evaluation in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) is being driven by – and needs to be sensitive to – three key trends. First, as is obvious to everybody here at the Second UNESCO Creative Cities Beijing Summit, there is tremendous interest worldwide in the use of “culture” and “creativity” as resources for revitalizing economies in post-industrial contexts. While much attention has focused on urban settings, peripheral and rural environments are also adopting such strategies (e.g., Region Jämtland-Härjedalen/City of Östersund, Sweden).  Evidence of this trend includes the rapid expansion of the UCCN (just last year, the network went from 69 to 116 designated cities), along with the emergence of a host of related efforts and designations such as the European Capital of Culture, U.K. City of Culture, etc. In other words, “culture” and “creative” strategies have become an increasingly accepted part of the policy and development discourse, which can be seen through the impact of thought leaders such as Charles Landry, Richard Florida, and many others.

     

    The second trend worth noting involves the growing discourse (and I might even say obsession) by institutions and organizations with issues of performance, effectiveness, and as a result, evaluation. The United Nations, and by extension UNESCO, are no exception. For example, the UN endorsed 2015 as the international year of evaluation in order to improve program design, delivery, and effectiveness across the organization. While such instincts to employ evaluation are often motivated by a sincere interest in learning and improvement (instead of being used solely as a cost-cutting tactic), there are now many different kinds of evaluation, and each approach is designed for very different purposes. Some examples include front-end evaluation, formative evaluation, summative evaluation, process evaluation, and others. Unfortunately, these differences are typically overlooked and/or misunderstood, which often results in a mismatch between the kind of evaluation (or information) that is desired or needed and the kind of evaluation (or information) that actually is delivered. Such mismatches are capable of causing great harm, especially in new and dynamic arenas that are complex. Michael Quinn Patton, one of the world’s true luminaries in the field of evaluation, addresses these issues directly through the introduction of what I believe to be one of most promising new approaches in evaluation; namely developmental evaluation. In describing this approach, Patton takes on the central issue that also characterizes the discussion around the role of research and evaluation in the UCCN. That is, how do we evaluate things like culture and creativity across something as complex as the UCCN? The context is so different between the member cities, and relationships between causes and effects are constantly evolving. This makes it nearly impossible to apply standard measures or rely solely on best practices because both of these concepts assume stable or consistent implementation environments – which, of course, is not what things look like across the diversity of UCCN members.

     

    The third trend that affects this discussion about the role of research and evaluation in the UCCN is the ever-urgent need to become more fundamentally sustainable in our relationship to the planet. Indeed, we have already received strong messages during this summit about how the battle for the planet’s sustainability will be won or lost in cities, and that this underscores the importance of marshalling all of our creative resources to realize a shared and sustainable future.    

     

    Implications

     

    Taken together, and in terms of utilizing research and evaluation to advance the UCCN, I believe these trends imply the following:

     

    • It is counter-productive to think about (or build) a UCCN research agenda that is separate from the network’s evaluation needs. Research and evaluation should be mutually re-enforcing and integrated activities that are ultimately aimed at improving practice, implementation, design, etc. One way to approach this might be through “Research, Development, and Evaluation” (RDE) platforms or clusters. RDE clusters could be used as a mechanism to integrate research and evaluation while also directly linking member cities that are interested in collaborating on specific initiatives. This approach resembles the logic of communities of practice.

     

    • These RDE platforms (and research/evaluation activities more generally) should be directly driven by the learning and knowledge needs of the network and its member cities. This is a subtle but important point. In my observations of the UCCN thus far, I wonder how likely it is that member cities are interested in learning the same things from research and evaluation activities. Being here in Beijing drives this point home: Could Beijing and Östersund identify a shared set of learning needs? What about the other 114 member cities? Are the contexts and scales too different to allow for a meaningful set of shared learning needs across the cities in the network?

     

    • Who intends to utilize the information generated by research and evaluation activities, and how do they intend to use it? These issues have long been recognized in evaluation circles (Patton has led much of this – see Utilization-focus Evaluation, for example), and the network would be wise to learn from these experiences. Not all research and/or evaluation is created equal in terms of its usability, and we need to be thoughtful about how we approach this given the complexity of the UCCN.

     

    • Finally, as we have seen many times before, it is tempting to rely on, or default to, the use of indicators and best practices when envisioning a research and evaluation agenda for the UCCN. For the reasons described above, I am skeptical that indicators and best practices alone will get us to where we want to go. For example, how many of the decision-makers here today have used the recently released “culture for development” indicators in their decision-making? Similarly, how transferable are the best practices developed Cheng Du to a city like Parma? Returning again to Patton, perhaps we should consider indicators and best practices as “sensitizing concepts” to help orient our research and evaluation activities rather than as fixed constructs that lock us into specific modes of inquiry.

     

    In conclusion, I am enthusiastic about the prospects of a research and evaluation strategy for the UCCN – and even more so if we can give thoughtful attention to the issues above.

  • 235.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gelbman, Alon
    Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee.
    Community-based Tourism and Sustainability: The Case Study of a Hostel in the Old City of Nazareth2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Jewiss, Jennifer
    Department of Leadership and Developmental Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA.
    Mitchell, Nora
    Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA.
    Toward Landscape-Scale Stewardship and Development: A Theoretical Framework of United States National Heritage Areas2013In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 762-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing recognition that many of today's environmental challenges will be addressed most effectively if management is conducted at landscape or regional scales. This article describes the development of a theoretical framework of one approach to such management, namely, U.S. National Heritage Areas (NHAs). This well-established federal approach enables communities to retain local management but receive national attention and stature through congressional designation. NHAs create networks of private and public partners, including the National Park Service, that engage new constituencies in the stewardship of nationally significant landscapes. The framework synthesizes common characteristics of heritage areas identified from in-depth case studies of three NHAs and further analysis by researchers and prominent NHA managers. Findings from this project emphasize the importance of three factors for future NHA and related landscape-scale efforts: (1) use of “heritage” as a public engagement strategy, (2) collaborative approaches to management, and (3) development of intersectoral networks.

  • 237.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Mitchell, Nora J
    University of Vermont.
    Jewiss, Jennifer
    University of Vermont.
    Barrett, Brenda
    Living Landscape Observer, USA.
    Lessons Learned from U.S. Experience with Regional Landscape Governance: Implications for Conservation and Protected Areas2015In: Nature Policies and Landscape Policies: Towards an Alliance / [ed] R Gambino and A Peano, Springer, 2015, p. 323-330Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally acknowledged that protected areas do not encompass the scale necessary for effective conservation of socio-ecological systems. Consequently, there have been repeated calls for a "new paradigm" for conservation that transitions from "islands" to "networks." By extending conservation to reflect wider landscape perspectives, this approach integrates community development and economic and quality of life interests, thereby forging productive relationships between protected areas and their regional context. This broadened agenda involves many more landowners, organizations, and levels of government and requires coordination, partnerships, and new forms of governance. Drawing from nearly a decade of research, this contribution examines US experience with this new paradigm for conservation and models of network governance. The findings from this research program indicate that three key dimensions are fundamental to governance: engaging a diversity of stakeholders and building consensus, creating and sustaining ongoing networks of partners, and developing a central hub for the network. This central coordinating and facilitating function appears to be an essential governance element as it is the activity of these networks of private and public partners that deliver accomplishments. This contribution suggests that despite their challenges, networked-based models can strengthen social capital at regional levels, thereby increasing capacity for innovation, adaptation, and resiliency.

  • 238.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Shamma, Linda
    Kulturarv som arena för dialog: Israel-Palestina-konflikten betraktad ur konstens och samhälls-vetenskapens perspektiv2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 239.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Skoglund, WilhelmMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Development2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    New Challenges for Managing Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: An Exploratory Study of the European Landscape Convention in Sweden2015In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1126-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘‘Sustainable tourism’’ has emerged as the dominant paradigm for managing visitor use in protected areas. An important consequence of this approach is that management tends to focus on issues inside protected-area boundaries. Recently, broader landscape-oriented approaches have gained attention (e.g., the European Landscape Convention [ELC]). These strategies strive to achieve sustainable landscape protection and often identify tourism as a key development strategy. Using Sweden as an example, this article explores the intersection of the landscape concept—as articulated in the ELC—with the contemporary notion of sustainable tourism management in protected areas. This exploratory study was conducted using qualitative research methods. While study participants reported strong potential in landscape-oriented approaches, they also identified key challenges including ‘‘institutional negotiation and conflict’’ and ‘‘confusion and uncertainty about the landscape concept.’’ The article concludes by addressing the implications for enhancing sustainable tourism management through adoption of landscape-oriented approaches.

  • 241.
    Lethbridge, Emily
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Ctr Medieval Res, Reykjavik, Iceland; Arni Magnusson Inst Iceland Studies, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hartman, Steven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Inscribing Environmental Memory in the Icelandic Sagas and the Icelandic Saga Map2016In: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, ISSN 0030-8129, E-ISSN 1938-1530, Vol. 131, no 2, p. 381-391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Music fans as tourists: the mysterious ways of individual and social dimensions2018In: The Routledge handbook of popular culture and tourism / [ed] Christine Lundberg & Vassilios Ziakas, New York: Routledge, 2018, p. 234-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Eriksson, Lars-Börje
    Razormind AB.
    Olausson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Defining tasks and creating financial innovations: Challenges of a Swedish local DMO2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Larson, Mia
    Lunds Universitet.
    Lundberg, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    The virtual fan(g) community: Social Media and Pop Culture Tourism.2013In: Tourism Social Media: Transformations in Identity, Community and Culture / [ed] S. Gyimóthy, A. M. Munar and L. Cai, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, p. 133-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Olausson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Vintersportorten året runt Del II: Produkt och marknadsföring – nuläge, trender och benchmark2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 246.
    Lidmar-Bergström, Karna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olvmo, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Geovisiona AB, Järfälla.
    The South Swedish Dome: a key structure for identification of peneplains and conclusions on Phanerozoic tectonics of an ancient shield2017In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 139, no 4, p. 244-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between different denudation surfaces/peneplains formed across crystalline basement rocks give valuable information to the tectonic development of ancient shields. The denudation surfaces can be identified by the aid of their landforms, tilt and remnant weathering mantles in relation to cover rocks. Three types of denudation surfaces are identified across south Sweden (1) a tilted flat plain, (2) a tilted hilly surface with relative relief below 150 m and (3) stepped horizontal plains with residual hills. All three types of denudation surfaces are peneplains, denudation surfaces graded to specific base levels. The re-exposed parts of the inclined flat sub-Cambrian peneplain (SCP) extend as a landscape feature from below cover rocks in the north and east and reaches up on the highest summits of the South Swedish Uplands. The SCP (the exact unconformity) is encountered again below Cambrian covers outside the west coast. Thus south Sweden is a geological dome, the South Swedish Dome (SSD), in relation to the Cambrian cover. The southern and western low flanks of the exposed part of the dome are instead characterized by a hilly peneplain, the inclined sub-Cretaceous denudation surface, with remnants of thick, kaolinitic, clayey saprolites. This sub-Cretaceous peneplain is cut off at a distinct level in the south and west by the almost horizontal South Småland Peneplain, a never covered, epigene, peneplain. The uplift history of the SSD aids to the understanding on the development of late Tertiary drainage systems of the Baltic Basin by the Eridano River.

  • 247.
    Lif, Lina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sundin, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    En resa för mänskligheten: En studie av studenters etiska uppfattning vad gäller turism till länder där mänskliga rättigheter kränks2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 248.
    Lindahl, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Turism och samarbeten i gränsregionala områden: En studie om hinder och möjligheter i SITE-regionen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 249.
    Littzell, Andrea
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Thorsson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    En kvalitativ studie om svenska kommuners sponsring av sportevenemang2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 250.
    Lundberg, Christine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Going for the Green? The Role of Money among Nature-Based Tourism Entrepreneurs2014In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 373-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research note suggests that the relationship between nature-based tourism entrepreneurs and money is complex and not fully understood. Based on observations from the Swedish supply data, four propositions are presented to illustrate why this is the case. We argue that (1) the identity of the entrepreneurs are not compatible with profit and growth, (2) niche markets and limited market knowledge obstruct opportunity for growth, (3) dependence of natural resources put sustainability ahead of growth and (4) nature-based tourism firms have limited control over their production process. These propositions can assist in better understanding how nature-based tourism companies can contribute to regional development and serve as a point of departure for further research.

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