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  • 201.
    Nydahl, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    I fyrkens tid: Politisk kultur i två ångermanländska landskommuner2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Nydahl, Erik; I fyrkens tid. Politisk kultur i två ångermanländska landskommuner 1860-1930

    [Voting by income: The political culture of two Swedish municipalities, 1860–1930]

    Department of Humanities, Mid Sweden University, SE-871 88 Härnösand, Sweden

    ISBN: 978-91-86694-05-0, ISSN 1652-893X, Doctoral thesis nr: 100 (2010).

    Swedish text with a summary in English

     

    This dissertation analyses the development of political culture in two Swedish municipalities between the 1860s and the 1930s – a period during which Swedish society underwent major changes. The purpose is to examine the direct and indirect consequences of an evolving industrial society's economic, social and political structures on political culture at local levels.

    The following factors are the base of the study. At the start of the 1860s, a long-standing Swedish tradition of local self-government was reinforced through a major reform, the Local Government Ordinance of 1862 (1862 års kommunalförfattningar). From this point, each parish formed its own municipality. The new municipalities were given the right to levy taxes and made responsible for welfare and schools, thereby becoming a prominent arena for the exercise of power at local levels. The municipal reform of 1862 was carried out at a time when Swedish society was transitioning as the industrialisation process accelerated during the latter part of the 1800s. Gradually, the old structure of an agricultural society was cast aside in favour of a new, modern industrial society. Naturally, also the municipalities changed – directly and indirectly. For some municipalities, adjustments were significant; for others, less so. Part of this process was the reformation of voting rights from plutocratic to public and equal. Another part was the reorganisation of municipal government from direct government via municipal meetings to representative government via municipal councils.

    Two main issues are formulated and answered in the dissertation. The one addresses who or which had the power over local politics and how the situation changed over time. The second addresses in what way municipal representation changed form with the modernisation of the municipalities.

    The empirical survey comprises a comparative case study between two municipalities in the northern part of Sweden. The one municipality, Ytterlännäs, was early the site for large-scale sawmill industry. The second municipality, Stigsjö, retained its agricultural structure throughout the entire period in question. The comparison makes it possible to analyse the impending industrial society from two different poles.

    In the 1800s, local politics was considered to be a completely different sort than politics at a national level. The difference was that local politics, referred to as “the municipal”, was seen as non-political and unaffiliated with those conflicts addressed at national levels, referred to as “the political”. The dissertation demonstrates two different models of how modern municipal politics evolved from the municipal meetings of the 1800s. While the starting point was the same in both municipalities, the paths diverged in the early 1870s. In the agricultural municipality of Stigsjö, it was “business as usual”. In the industrial municipality of Ytterlännäs, however, confrontation arose between enterprises and farmers and eventually, a labour movement emerged demanding the right of participation. The dissertation shows that the distinction between “municipal” and “political” was obliterated in the beginning of the 1900s, paving the way for a new concept – municipal politics. This process occurred in a very palpable way in Ytterlännäs but eventually, Stigsjö was forced to conform. The new municipal politics was, so to speak, the final station in both municipalities. In conjunction with party politicisation of local politics, the criteria and seats for the municipal representatives changed. When party affiliation became an important criterion, professional affiliation became less relevant. Party bloc seats replaced the independent seats, and representatives were eventually paid remuneration.

     

     

    Keywords: Political culture, politics, voting right, municipal politics, industrial society, industrialisation, elected representatives, representation, temperance movement, labour movement, popular movements, political parties, modernisation

  • 202.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ecophysiological responses of Baltic and Atlantic Fucus vesiculosus to environmental factors2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor ecosystem where marine species coexist with freshwater species. The Baltic Sea offers low salinity, low content of inorganic carbon, long cold winters and no tides.One of the few marine species that can be found in the Baltic, is the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, which is regarded as ecologically the most important alga in this area. The aim of the present thesis was to examine physiological (photosynthesis and growth) differences between F. vesiculosus in the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic) and the Atlantic. Measurements were performed with plants in their natural seawaters and under changed conditions of salinity, temperature, nutrients and inorganic carbon concentrations.

  • 203.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Styrideal och konflikt: Om friskoleetablering i tre norrländska kommuner2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, the public sector in Western democracies has undergone drastic changes. These changes have meant privatization and a more diverse service provision. Because of privatization, activities that were previously reserved for the public sector can now be conducted by the private sector. This has led to the traditional hierarchical model to be challenged by a new governing style throughmarket mechanisms, which was introduced during the 1980s. Both the hierarchical model and market model have since been supplemented by the network model that was introduced in the 1990s. The new organization has meant that steering is currently done in a complex environment with varying outcomes. In the foreground of the theoretical concepts that captures the development describedearlier is governance. The starting point of the governance perspective is that the traditional bureaucracy model for governing is challenged by new forms of organization and steering. In the early 1990s, it became possible, due to a change in legislation, to startindependent schools with public funding. This legislation change has had a major impact on the Swedish school system in terms of organization and steering issues. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the ideals of hierarchy, market andnetworking appear in the municipal steering of the local school system, and how these ideals affect the development and the intensity of the conflicts in the surveyed municipalities. The focus of the empirical study is three municipalities from the northern parts of Sweden, which are equal in terms of population, number of school pupils, the number of independent schools and with the samepolitical majority. The overall result of the thesis is that different governing ideals affect the levels of conflict in different ways. The municipality governed by marked ideals exhibit thehighest degree of conflict and the municipality governed by the network ideal exhibit lower levels of conflict. The municipality governed by the hierarchical ideal in the middle of the conflict scale.

  • 204.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Regionalpolitik i förändring: en fallstudie av regionalpolitikens aktörer och former i Åre kommun2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional politics is changing; it is transforming from being mainly a responsibility of the central state to a concern that is more for the regional or local governments. At the same time, there are signs of a transformation of the political system in general. The development indicates a decreasing hierarchy as the power of the state is challenged and the political agents are increasing in number. This indicates that the political agents are changing but there are also indications that the political forms are transforming. The politics is increasingly characterised by project and process politics, networks, cooperation and partnerships. This transformation is generally described as the transformation “from government to governance”. New governance is one of the most frequently discussed issues in contemporary political science literature, and this has led to a wide variety of conceptualizations. Considering the changing regional politics and general changes as the political forms and agents, this thesis studies who governs the regional politics and how regional politics is governed.The purpose of this thesis is to provide empirical contributions in order to increase the understanding of changes in regional politics at the local level. This is done by dividing governance modes into typologies. Four political processes at the local level in the municipality of Åre between the years 1973-2007 are analyzed. The thesis is based on qualitative semi-structured elite interviews. The informants have been selected by snowball sampling. The interviews have also been complemented by documentary studies. The documents that have been studied are the protocols from the municipal assembly from 1973, when the municipality was created, to􀂒􀂟2007. The documents also consist of the parish archives (sockenkrönikor) governmental reports and official documents of the local and state-level government. The material has been analyzed by using process tracing.The main results of the study are that there have been changes in the regional politics at the local level in relation to the political agents and the forms of politics. The 1970s were characterized by strong state power and hierarchy. The political processes have increasingly been characterized by the typology of the new governance. The study has shown that in practice the regional politics in Åre is characterized by both traditional governance and new governance at the same time there has not been a paradigmatic shift. The elements of new governance are increasing but there are still significant signs of the traditional bureaucratic system such as hierarchy and ordered rule. As the signs of new governance increase, the political entrepreneurs play a bigger role in the processes being analyzed. The study also shows that the critique of traditional forms of governance relating to participation and influence has not become irrelevant as the signs of new governance increases.

  • 205.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Forest-Fuel Systems: Comparative Analyses in a Life Cycle Perspective2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest fuels can be recovered, stored and handled in several ways and these different ways have different implications for CO2 emissions. In this thesis, comparative analyses were made on different forest-fuel systems. The analyses focused on the recovery and transport systems. Costs, primary energy use, CO2 emissions, storage losses and work environment associated with the use of forest fuel for energy were examined by using systems analysis methodology in a life cycle perspective. The bundle system showed less dry-matter losses and lower costs than the chip system. The difference was mainly due to more efficient forwarding, hauling and large-scale chipping. The potential of allergic reactions by workers did not differ significantly between the systems. In difficult terrain types, the loose material and roadside bundling systems become as economical as the clearcut bundle system. The stump and small roundwood systems showed the greatest increase in costs when the availability of forest fuel decreased. Stumps required the greatest increase in primary energy use. Forest fuels are a limited resource. A key factor is the amount of biomass recovered per hectare. Combined recovery of logging residues, stumps and small roundwood from thinnings from the same forest area give a high potential of reduced net CO2 emissions per hectare of forest land. Compensation fertilization becomes more cost-effective and the primary energy use for ash spreading becomes low – about 0,25‰. The total amount of available forest fuel in Sweden is 66 TWh per year. This would cost 1 billion €2007 to recover and would avoid 6.9 Mtonne carbon if fossil coal were replaced. In southern Sweden almost all forest fuel is obtainable in high-concentration areas where it is easy to recover. When determining potential CO2 emissions avoidance, the transportation distance was found to be less important than the other factors considered in this work. The type of transportation system did not have a significant influence over the CO2 avoided per hectare of forest land. The most important factor analysed here was the type of fossil fuel (coal, oil or natural gas) replaced together with the net amount of biomass recovered per hectare of forest land. Large-scale, long-distance transportation of biofuels from central Sweden has the potential to be cost-effective and also attractive in terms of CO2 emissions. A bundle recovery system meant that more biomass per hectare could be delivered to end-users than a pellet system due to conversion losses when producing pellets.

  • 206.
    Olande, Oduor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Students' narratives from graphical artefacts: Exploring the use of mathematics tools and forms of expression in students' graphicacy2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Flexibilitetens främlingar: - om anställda i bemanningsföretag2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary Work Agencies (TWAs) are an example of a trend towards flexibility in the labour market. By hiring staff from TWAs organisations can keep their staff numbers down. This however, refers to the client companies´ use or temps, and omits the intermediary, the TWA, which also needs various flexibility strategies in its activities.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to study the organising of TWAs supply of manpower to different clients companies, and how managers and temps experience their terms of employment, working conditions and relationships with regular employees at the client companies.

    Two qualitative case studies were conducted. In study one, interviews have been carried out with managers and temps in a TWA and a client company in Jämtland. In the second study, managers and temps in an international TWA in Sweden were interviewed.

    The results show that both managers and temps work under complex conditions and demands on flexibility. The managers shall, by flexible prioritising, satisfy demands from the TWA on profitability, demands from client companies´ for an adaptable workforce and temps need of employment and community. The results also indicate that temps have to balance between a position as stranger and outsider, and handle insecurity of the assignments duration and spatial location. They have to be able to manoeuvre between the power inequalities, stigmatisation and exclusion they encounter in working conditions and social interactions in client companies. To handle such situations the ideal temp and manager have to be able to vary between distance and nearness in spatiality and indifference and involvement in social relations.

  • 208.
    Olofsson, Madelen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    On the investigation of chemical parameters reflecting microbial activity linked to nutrient availability in forest soil2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As agrarian society developed, the most fertile soils able to sustain the nutritional requirements needed for high crop yield were assigned to farming, while the more penurious soils were left to uphold the forest ecosystems. Some temperate forests are developed on acidic soils considered to be nutrient poor, as much of the inorganic nutrients are entrapped in poorly weatherable soil minerals and not easily accessed by plant roots. In an undisturbed ecosystem, the largest contribution of available nutrients comes from the recycling of organically bound nutrients via the decomposition of dead plant material. If biomass is removed, for instance with a more intensified exploitation of the forest ecosystems including whole tree harvesting, this source of nutrients is consequently decreased. The importance of soil mineral weathering as a source of nutrients, and especially that promoted by soil biota, is thereby emphasized.

    This thesis addresses biotic parameters associated with mineral weathering. Different aspects of soil solution sampling strategies and analysis of different organic ligands as well as biomarkers for the estimation of fungal biomass were investigated. These chemical parameters were also evaluated as indicators of microbial activity in relation to mineral nutrient availability in soil.

    With the assumption that the current nutrient status of a soil will affect the microbial interest of certain minerals as sources of inorganic nutrients, a mineral amendment trial was performed in a Swedish boreal forest soil. Overall, the amended soil presented good nutrient status, but with a possible shortage of iron. Due to this, it was hypothesized that the amended mineral with the highest iron content i.e. biotite would cause an elevation of microbial activity in its vicinity when compared to the bulk soil.

    The level of microbial activity in the vicinity of the amended minerals was evaluated via quantification of organic acids and siderophores, as well as estimation of fungal biomass and enzymatic activity.

    The highest microbial activity was measured for the O horizon of the investigated podzol, although nothing indicated an elevated association with the amended minerals. In the E horizon, however, elevation in microbial activity was observed in the vicinity of the biotite mineral when compared with bulk soil, although only a few of the investigated parameters differed significantly when evaluated separately.  

    To enable this study, a highly sensitive analytical method employing liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed to quantify a number of hydroxamate siderophores. On-line pre-concentration enabled detection of these organic ligands in the pico-molar range – a necessity when analyzing natural samples.

    Furthermore, an analytical method was developed for the estimation of fungal biomass via quantification of chitin-derived glucosamine, which also employed liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Unlike currently available methods, the one presented in this thesis did not involve analyte derivatization, which resulted in high sample throughput while simultaneously avoiding complications involved with the additional derivatization procedure.

    The distribution of a group of organic ligands known as aromatic low molecular mass organic acids was also studied in a boreal forest podzol soil. Different sampling and samples preparation techniques, namely tension-lysimeters, soil centrifugation and liquid-soil extraction, were compared when analyzing soil solution components. Significant differences in analyte amount and species type were found between these sampling techniques. Some of the differences could be accounted for by variation in soil composition at different depths of the investigated podzol, but others could be attributed to structural differences within the studied analyte group. This clearly illustrated the intricacy of sampling and analysis when working with a sample matrix as complex and diverse as soil.

    As previously, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to quantify the analytes of interest. A highly sensitive analytical method was developed that was able to detect eleven aromatic low molecular mass organic acids in the nano-molar range. High selectivity was ensured by applying multiple reaction monitoring enabled by collision induced fragmentation of the analytes.

     

  • 209.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nanomechanics – Quantum Size Effects, Contacts, and Triboelectricity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanomechanics is different from the mechanics that we experience in everyday life. At the nano-scale, typically defined as 1 to 100 nanometers, some phenomena are of crucial importance, while the same phenomena can be completely neglected on a larger scale. For example, the feet of a gekko are covered by nanocontacts that yield such high adhesion forces that the animal can run up on walls and even on the ceiling. At small enough distances, matter and energy become discrete, and the description of the phenomena occurring at this scale requires quantum mechanics. However, at room temperature the transitions between quantized energy levels may be concealed by the thermal vibrations of the system. As two surfaces approach each other and come into contact, electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces may cause redistribution of matter at the nano level. One effect that may occur upon contact between two surfaces is the triboelectric effect, in which charge is transferred from one surface to the other.This effect can be used to generate electricity in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), where two surfaces are repeatedly brought in and out of contact, and where the charge transfer is turned into electrical energy.

    This thesis concerns nanomechanics addressing whether quantum mechanics play a role in elastic deformation, as well as various mechanical aspects of nanocontacts including electric charging. The objectives are to contribute to the understanding when quantum effects are of importance at the nanolevel, increase the fundamental understanding of the mechanisms responsible for triboelectric phenomena and apply the triboelectric effect to a wind harvesting device.

    For more insight into whether quantum effects are of importance in nanomechanics, we use a one dimensional jellium model and the standard beam theory allowing the spring constant of an oscillating nanowire cantilever to be calculated. As the nanowire bends, more electron states fit in its cross section, giving rise to an amplitude dependent resonance frequency of the nanowire oscillations.

    Furthermore, a model for electric field induced surface diffusion of adatoms was developed. The model takes electrostatic forces and van der Waals forces into account as a voltage is applied between a scanning tunneling microscope tip and a sample. The calculated force on the adatoms at the surface of the sample, which is stemming from the inhomogeneous electric field and the dipole moment of the adatoms, is relatively small, but due to thermal vibrations adatoms diffuse and form mounds at the sample.

    When bringing two different materials into contact, the difference in triboelectric potentials between the materials results in electric charging. To increase the understanding of triboelectricity, a two-level Schottky model, assuming ion transfer, was developed to describe the temperature dependence of the triboelectric effect for a TENG. The two levels correspond to the binding energy for ions on the two surfaces that are brought into contact, where the difference in binding energy enters the Boltzmanndistribution. The model describes the decreasing triboelectric effect in TENG:s with increasing temperature as described in the literature, and results in a separation energy, which is of the right order of magnitude for physically adsorbed atoms.

    It was recently demonstrated that TENGs can convert wind energy into electrical energy. Here, a TENG based on a plastic film fluttering between two copper electrodes was constructed. It was found that the frequency of the the fluttering film increases linearly with the wind speed. TENG:s designed in this way generate electricity already at low wind speed, and we therefore expect such TENG:s to be useful both as generators and speed sensors in the future.

    While quantum mechanics is of importance in a limited number of nanomechanical systems, nanocontacts have a broader meaning, and are crucial for the understanding of triboelectric phenomena. We anticipate that the findings in this thesis will contribute to a better understanding of nanomechanics, in particular the mechanism of triboelectricity.

  • 210.
    Olsen, Rose Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Informasjonsutveksling mellom sykepleiere i hjemmesykepleie og sykehus ved overføring av eldre pasienter2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of communication and coordination between health care organizations is a

    subject of worldwide concern. In Norway, the Coordination Reform has focused on

    the need for increased cooperation between the primary and secondary health care.

    The aim of this thesis was to develop knowledge in regard to home care and

    hospital nurses' information exchange during transfer of older patients between

    home care and hospital medical department.

    This thesis includes four studies (I‐IV). In study I, focus group interviews were

    used to explore nurses' experiences of barriers that influence their information

    exchange during the transfer of older patients between hospital and home care. In

    study II and III, transfer documents and background data of older hospitalized

    home care patients was analysed. The objectives of study II were to evaluate the

    prevalence of nursing transfer documents, and identify patient and transfer

    characteristics associated with the presence of nursing transfer documents. In

    study III, the objectives were to examine the content of nurses' discharge notes,

    and investigate the association between the content of discharge notes and

    characteristics of patient and transfer. Study IV was a multiple case study

    including nine patient transfers. Using observations, qualitative interviews, and

    document reviews, the objective was to identify and describe the process and

    content of the patient information exchange between nurses in home care and

    hospital during hospitalization of older home‐living patients.

    In study I, there were found several barriers that negatively influence the

    information exchange and may put the older patients in a vulnerable and exposed

    situation. The barriers could be described by three main themes and several subthemes.

    The first theme, Barriers associated with the nurse, consisted of three subthemes:

    "lack of motivation," "lack of control," and "lack of knowledge." The

    second theme, Barriers associated with interpersonal processes, consisted of three subthemes:

    "lack of accessibility," "different views," and "lack of confidence." The

    third theme, Barriers associated with the organization, consisted of four sub‐themes:

    "lack of resources," "unclear responsibilities," "lack of staff continuity," and

    "inappropriate routines and policies."

    Results from study II showed that nursing admission notes were present in 1%

    of the patient transfers from home care to the hospital, while discharge notes were

    present in 69% of the transfers from the hospital to home care. Patient and transfer

    characteristics associated with the presence of a nursing discharge note were age,

    gender, medical department facility, and length of hospital stay.

    Results from study III showed that information relating to physical health was

    more frequently reported than information relating to mental health. The discharge

    notes (N=70) were structured in accordance with the VIPS model. Significant

    differences for mean scores on used VIPS keywords in the discharge note were

    found for gender, age, and medical department facility. While gender and medical

    department facility were significant predictors of mental related keywords in the

    discharge note, medical department facility was a significant predictor of physical

    related keywords.

    Results from study IV showed that the information exchange between hospital

    and home care nurses mainly occurred at discharge. In none of the cases was there

    information provided from the home care nurses to the hospital nurses.

    Information regarding physical care was more frequently reported than other

    caring dimensions in both the verbal and written communication. Descriptions of

    the patients' subjective experiences were almost absent, and occurred only in the

    verbal communication. Differences were found in the written and verbal

    communication related to psychosocial status and composite assessment. Nursing

    interventions and evaluations were rarely described.

    The studies show a gap in the information flow, as well as inaccuracy and

    incompleteness in the content of information exchanged between home care and

    hospital nurses during transfer of older patients. When adequate information

    regarding the patient's health status during transfer is lacking, it constitutes a

    challenge to nurses at the next level to provide appropriate care to the patient's

    specific needs. The study revealed several barriers to information exchange, and

    the description of these barriers will help both nurses in practice and their leaders

    to be more attentive to the prerequisites needed to achieve a satisfactory nursing

    information exchange and enhance continuity of care.

  • 211.
    Olsson, Helen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Att minska risken för våld och att främja återhämtning i den rättspsykiatriska vården: Patienters och personalens erfarenheter av vägen mot återhämtning2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta avhandlingsarbete är utfört inom en rättspsykiatrisk vårdkontext och återspeglar patienters[1] och personals[2] erfarenheter och upplevelser av vändpunkter i samband med minskad risk för våld och återhämtning. Med utgångspunkt från ett holistiskt och salutogent hälsovetenskapligt perspektiv har avhandlingen ett tvärvetenskapligt förhållningssätt.   Teoretiska ämnesdiscipliner såsom psykiatrisk omvårdnad, kriminologi och sociologi har influerat arbetet.

    Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att utifrån de salutogena aspekterna i det rättspsykiatriska omvårdnadsarbetet undersöka vad som är relaterat till vändpunkter i samband med minskad risk för våld och vad som bidrar till återhämtning. Avhandlingen baseras på fyra olika studier. Syftet med den inledande kvantitativa delstudien (I) var att identifiera och jämföra rättspsykiatriska patienter som sänkt sin bedömda risk för våld med 30 % eller mer enligt riskbedömningsinstrument HCR-20. Resultatet visade att den bedömda risken för våld minskade över tid. En demografisk analys genomfördes för att studera skillnader mellan de patienter som sänkt sin bedömda risk för våld och de som inte sänkt sin risk. Det framgick att rättspsykiatriska patienter som bedömts med hjälp av riskbedömningsinstrumentet HCR-20, minskade den bedömda risken för våld, både på kort och på lång sikt. Den rättspsykiatriska vården fungerade bäst när det gällde att förbättra de kliniska riskfaktorerna (C-skalan).

    Riskhanteringen (R-skalan) gällande eventuell utskrivning och framtida friförmåner visade inte samma goda progress. Demografiska karaktäristika såsom ålder, alkohol och drogmissbruk och psykiatriska diagnoser var inte relaterade till minskad risk för våld, dock var kvinnliga patienter och patienter utan psykopatidiagnos mer benägna att sänka sin risk för våld. Ett urval av de patienter som minskade sin risk för våld med 30 % eller mer utgjorde basen för delstudie II och III.

    I delstudie II intervjuades tretton rättspsykiatriska patienter om upplevelser och erfarenheter kring vad som bidrar till minskad respektive ökad risk för våld inne på en rättspsykiatrisk avdelning. Data analyserades med hjälp av en tolkande beskrivning (Interpretive Description). Studien visade att orsakerna till ökad respektive minskad risk för våld var processrelaterad, där interaktioner mellan personal och patienter bidrog till en utveckling som antingen präglades av välbefinnande eller disharmoni. Delstudie II utgjorde en viktig kunskapskälla som präglade ansatsen i delstudie III och IV. Detta med hänvisning till att flertalet patienter i delstudie II lämnade intressanta beskrivningar av vändpunkter i samband med minskad risk för våld och återhämtning.

    Sålunda intervjuades i delstudie III, tio rättspsykiatriska patienter om deras upplevelser av förändringsprocesser i samband med vändpunkter och återhämtning. Dataanalysen skedde med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Processen beskrevs utifrån tre faser där man i högriskfasen upplevde kaotiska och överväldigande känslor. Vändpunkten upplevdes som ett känsligt skede som präglades av att tvingas hitta en ny, konstruktiv väg i livet. Återhämtningsfasen präglades av ett accepterande och en mognad. Stöd och erkännande från omgivningen ansåg främja dessa processer.

    Delstudie IV bestod av intervjuer med tretton personal. Syftet var att belysa upplevelser och erfarenheter kring rättspsykiatriska patienters vändpunkter och återhämtning. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för att analysera data. Beskrivningar kring hur en vändpunkt kunde bevaras och främjas baserades på vikten av att vara uppmärksam, lyhörd och att inte skynda på processen. En vändpunkt upplevdes genom att patienten uppvisade synbara positiva förändringar. Sammansättningen på personalen och patienterna ansågs påverka atmosfären på avdelningen, och bidrog till huruvida processen mot vändpunkter och återhämtning underlättades eller försvårades.

    Avhandlingen visar hur ett ständigt växelspel mellan patienter och mellan personal bidrog till huruvida vårdatmosfären upplevdes såsom hälsofrämjande eller ej. Vidare framgår att processer kring vändpunkter i samband med minskad risk för våld och återhämtning präglades av känslor av sårbarhet och utsatthet. Processen beskrevs som ett känsligt förlopp som behövde understödjas av förtroendefulla relationer med andra, samt möjligheter att få vistas i en trygg miljö.

    [1] Den vetenskapliga litteraturen använder sig av begrepp såsom client, consumer, service user eller forensic patient för att beteckna människor som är inskrivna inom den rättspsykiatriska vården. Inom det psykiatriska svenska fältet kan begreppen brukare, vårdtagare eller patient förekomma. I denna avhandling kommer begreppet patient och vårdtagare omväxlande att användas för att beteckna de människor som är föremål för den rättspsykiatriska vården. De patienter som deltagit i avhandlingens två delstudier kommer omväxlande att benämnas såsom deltagare eller patienter, för att åstadkomma en varierande och läsvänlig text.

    [2] I denna avhandling anser begreppet personal den personalkategori som arbetar med omvårdnad inom en rättspsykiatrisk kontext. Det är främst sjuksköterskor och skötare som inkluderas i begreppet omvårdnadspersonal inom den vetenskapliga litteraturen. Sjuksköterskor benämns såsom registered mental health nurses eller registered nurses. Övrig omvårdnadspersonal tituleras till exempel som nurse manager eller assistant nurses. När begreppen personal, vårdare eller omvårdnadspersonal används i denna avhandling avses då den personalkategori som arbetar närmast patienten med omvårdnad och ingen åtskillnad kommer att göras mellan de båda yrkesgrupperna. Personalen som deltar i delstudie IV har omväxlande kallats för personal eller vårdare.

  • 212.
    Olsson, Marianne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    G-Convergence and Homogenization of some Monotone Operators2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we investigate some partial differential equations with respect to G-convergence and homogenization. We study a few monotone parabolic equations that contain periodic oscillations on several scales, and also some linear elliptic and parabolic problems where there are no periodicity assumptions. To begin with, we examine parabolic equations with multiple scales regarding the existence and uniqueness of the solution, in view of the properties of some monotone operators. We then consider G-convergence for elliptic and parabolic operators and recall some results that guarantee the existence of a well-posed limit problem. Then we proceed with some classical homogenization techniques that allow an explicit characterization of the limit operator in periodic cases. In this context, we prove G-convergence and homogenization results for a monotone parabolic problem with oscillations on two scales in the space variable. Then we consider two-scale convergence and the homogenization method based on this notion, and also its generalization to multiple scales. This is further extended to the case that allows oscillations in space as well as in time. We prove homogenization results for a monotone parabolic problem with oscillations on two spatial scales and one temporal scale, and for a linear parabolic problem where oscillations occur on one scale in space and two scales in time. Finally, we study some linear elliptic and parabolic problems where no periodicity assumptions are made and where the coefficients are created by certain integral operators. Here we prove results concerning when the G-limit may be obtained immediately and is equal to a certain weak limit of the sequence of coefficients.

  • 213.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Synthesis, Coding, and Evaluation of 3D Images Based on Integral Imaging2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years camera prototypes based on Integral Imaging (II) have emerged that are capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) images. When being viewed on a 3D display, these II-pictures convey depth and content that realistically change perspective as the viewer changes the viewing position.

    The dissertation concentrates on three restraining factors concerning II-picture progress. Firstly, there is a lack of digital II-pictures available for inter alia comparative research and coding scheme development. Secondly, there is an absence of objective quality metrics that explicitly measure distortion with respect to the II-picture properties: depth and view-angle dependency. Thirdly, low coding efficiencies are achieved when present image coding standards are applied to II-pictures.

    A computer synthesis method has been developed, which enables the production of different II-picture types. An II-camera model forms a basis and is combined with a scene description language that allows for the describing of arbitrary complex virtual scenes. The light transport within the scene and into the II-camera is simulated using ray-tracing and geometrical optics. A number of II-camera models, scene descriptions, and II-pictures are produced using the presented method.

    Two quality evaluation metrics have been constructed to objectively quantify the distortion contained in an II-picture with respect to its specific properties. The first metric models how the distortion is perceived by a viewer watching an II-display from different viewing-angles. The second metric estimates the depth-distribution of the distortion. New aspects of coding-induced artifacts within the II-picture are revealed using the proposed metrics.

    Finally, a coding scheme for II-pictures has been developed that inter alia utilizes the video coding standard H.264/AVC by firstly transforming the II-picture into a pseudo video sequence. The properties of the coding scheme have been studied in detail and compared with other coding schemes using the proposed evaluation metrics. The proposed coding scheme achieves the same quality as JPEG2000 at approximately 1/60th of the storage- or distribution requirements.

  • 214.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Antenna robustness modelling2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Osong, Sinke Henshaw
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Mechanical Pulp-Based Nanocellulose: Processing and applications relating to paper and paperboard, composite films, and foams2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with processing of nanocellulose originating from pulps, with focus on mechanical pulp fibres and fines fractions. The nanocellulose materials produced within this research project were tested for different purposes ranging from strength additives in paper and paperboard products, via composite films to foam materials. TAPPI (Technical Association of Pulp & Paper Industry) has recently suggested a standard terminology and nomenclature for nanocellulose materials (see paper I). In spite of that we have decided to use the terms nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC), microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and nanocellulose (NC) in this thesis . It is well-known that mainly chemical pulps are used as starting material in nanocellulose production. However, chemical pulps as bleached sulphite and bleached kraft are quite expensive. One more cost-effective alternative can be to use fibres or fines fractions from thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) and chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP).

     

    In paper II-IV, fractionation has been used to obtain fines fractions that can easily be mechanically treated using homogenisation. The idea with this study was to investigate the possibility to use fractions of low quality materials from fines fractions for the production of nanocellulose. The integration of a nanocellulose unit process in a high-yield pulping production line has a potential to become a future way to improve the quality level of traditional products such as paper and paperboard grades.

     

    Paper III describes how to utilise the crill measurement technique as a tool for qualitative estimation of the amount of micro- and nano-material produced in a certain process. The crill values of TMP- and CTMP-based nanocelluloses were measured as a function of the homogenisation time. Results showed that the crill values of both TMP-NLC and CTMP-NLC correlated with the homogenisation time. In Paper V pretreating methods, hydrogen peroxide and TEMPO are evaluated. Crill measurement showed that hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (1% and 4%) and mechanical treatment time did not improve fibrillation efficiency as much as expected. However, for TEMPO-oxidised nanocelluloses, the crill value significantly increased with both the TEMPO chemical treatment and mechanical treatment time. In paper V-VII TEMPO-mediated oxidation systems (TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO) are applied to these fibres (CTMP and Sulphite pulp) in order to swell them so that it becomes easy to disrupt the fibres into nanofibres with mechanical treatment.

     

    The demand for paperboard and other packaging materials are steadily increasing. Paper strength properties are crucial when the paperboard is to withstand high load. A solution that are investigated in papers IV and VI, is to use MFC as an alternative paper strength additive in papermaking. However, if one wish to target extremely higher strength improvement results, particularly for packaging paperboards, then it would be fair to use MFC or cationic starch (CS). In paper VI CS or TEMPO-based MFC was used to improve the strength properties of CTMP-based paperboard products. Results here indicate significant strength improvement with the use of different levels of CS (i.e., 20 and 10 kg t–1) and 5% MFC. The strengthening impact of 5% MFC was approximately equal to that of 10 kg t–1 of CS.

     

    In paper VII, NFC and nanographite (NG) was used when producing composite films with enhanced sheet-resistance and mechanical properties. The films produced being quite stable, flexible, and bendable. Realising this concept of NFC-NG composite film would create new possibilities for technological advancement in the area of high-yield pulp technology.  Finally, in paper VIII, a new processing method for nanocellulose is introduced  where an organic acid (i.e., formic acid) is used. This eco-friendly approach has shown to be successful, a nanocellulose with a uniform size distribution has been produced.

  • 216.
    Palm, Klas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Balancing Control and Breakthrough in Public Management2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that a good balance between focus on development of existing processes with development of new and innovative products, processes or services has a positive effect on organizational excellence. However, the relationship between these two quality perspectives is not easy to maintain and it is a challenge for every organization to find an appropriate balance between them. Previous research shows also that there is often a striking overemphasis on continuous improvement and stepwise refinement at the expense of working with innovations. Consequently, it has become necessary to find forms for development of the balance between improvement of existing processes and innovations. It is a question of how to manage both exploitation (improvement of existing processes) and exploration (innovations). Being able to manage both exploitation and exploration and maintain a good balance is known as organizational ambidexterity.

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop existing knowledge of how organisational ambidexterity and innovation can be understood and developed as an approach to increasing customer value in the context of the public sector. In order to meet the purpose, the research behind this thesis was conducted through six studies. The results have been presented in six scientific articles. The analytical focus in the research has been on management of public organization. Thus, the unit of analysis has been public sector management both at national, regional and municipal level. The studies have been conducted with a qualitative approach and data collection has primarily been done through semi- structured interviews. Most of the data has been collected in Sweden.

    Through the studies, it appears that the current quality practice in the Swedish public sector to a large extent relates to and supports exploitation, but not exploration. The empirical findings give examples of organizations that have a large focus on systematic measurement and control of the work process. An inhibition of increased customer value is indicated in the studied organizations’ current emphasis on exploitation at the expense of exploration. The research also shows that there are a number of impediments for the public organizations studied to combine their current quality practice with an improved ability to explore. It appears that there is a need for development of the leeway for exploration in order to increase the ability to be ambidextrous.

    The research behind this thesis empirically identifies a number of enablers the public organization may need to work actively with in order to develop organizational ambidexterity. Some of these enabling factors harmonize with quality movement core values. This applies to core values like committed leadership, focus on customers and a holistic system perspective. In addition, the following factors are perceived to be enabling factors for organizational ambidexterity: specific budgets for both exploration and exploitation; development of a culture in which employees feel that they are allowed to make mistakes; a good dialogue both internally and with external stake holders; focusing on the implementation of innovations and clear incentives for work on exploration as well as for work on exploitation. Finally, the empirical data also shows that an enabling factor is to get different professions involved in explorative processes. This can be achieved by working through ambassadors who can promote the explorative processes.

    The enablers, which have been empirically identified in this research as important for organizational ambidexterity, have also previously been identified by scholars as enablers for innovations. The research behind this thesis contributes to the empirical sorting out which - out of a wide range of factors - may be the most important factors for organizational ambidexterity. 

  • 217.
    Palmius, Joel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Organization-level information systems: Tools for supporting the development process2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All organizations have an information system. An information system is all that which contribute to the distribution within an organization, and without the information system, the organization would not survive. Despite this, work with changing or constructing information systems often end up with suboptimal results. In recent scientific articles, and within profession-specific newspapers, the figures on how many such project end up as failures range between 70 and 80 percent. One source of problems with information systems work is deficiencies of the governance of the change processes. Further, many methods applied to information systems work are in fact software systems method and may thus be suspected to miss important aspects of the information system. In this thesis I have studied approaches for supporting the information systems development process. These approaches have all included trying to find aspects of the information system and trying to measure, simulate or in other ways asses them in order to get an overview of where effort has to be added in the development process.The results of the thesis include recommendations surrounding the simulations of such aspects, as well as a model where the aspects have been formulated into criteria for information system evaluation. The CISE model (Criteria for Information Systems Evaluation) is the main product, and it is available to useas a checklist during information systems work.

  • 218.
    Partanen, Petri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assessment and Remediation for Children with Special Educational Needs: The role of Working Memory, Complex Executive Function and Metacognitive Strategy Training2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the role of different assessment tools and training regimens in assessment and remediation for children with special educational needs in school. A central purpose of assessment explored was that it should inform remediation, teaching and instruction. The concepts of working memory, complex executive function and metacognitive strategy training for children with special educational needs were specifically explored in relation to this purpose of assessment. Complex executive function refers to planning and metacognitive ability, that many children with special educational needs struggle with, and which they are expected to handle in learning during school day. Of particular interest in the thesis was the contrast between working memory and complex executive function and how these concepts inform assessment and remediation practices. In this context, special attention was given to mathematical learning difficulties.

    The thesis was based on four studies (I‑IV). Study I explored the prevalence of different assessment tools, and dilemmas and challenges as perceived by assessment professionals, teachers and parents, in the work with children with special educational needs in Europe. In Study II, a metacognitive strategy training framework was developed as a training regimen, guided by research on complex executive function, and applied on working memory training. Effects of working memory training were compared between the two training regimens, with and without metacognitive strategy training, and also the overall effect of working memory training on cognitive functioning and the school related skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. In Study III, different types of measures of working memory and their predictive capacities in relation to mathematics achievement in national curriculum assessments were explored, as well as the effects of working memory training on mathematics achievement. In Study IV the role of working memory and complex executive function in identifying risk for mathematical learning difficulties in children with special educational needs was explored.

    The results from Study I suggested that assessment and remediation practices can contribute to a deficiency‑oriented outlook on children with special educational needs. In contrast parents and teachers in Sweden also reported that assessment could help them to better understand the needs of the child. Results from studies II-IV showed that only the use of a metacognitive strategy training regimen targeting complex executive function resulted in improvements following working memory training. The results also indicated that working memory training strongly predicted mathematical performance in national curriculum assessments of mathematics in school, and that a more complex change measure of working memory was a better predictor than simple working memory measures in this regard. Finally, the results also showed that complex executive function, defined as planning ability, was a better predictor than simple working memory in the assessment of risk for mathematical learning difficulties.

    The results from the studies were discussed in relation to the purpose of assessment to inform remediation, teaching and instruction for children with special educational needs. It was concluded that, in addition to working memory, as complex executive function – planning and metacognitive ability - seems to be an important cognitive function related to learning, this should be addressed both in the assessment of children with special educational needs as well as in the remediation when designing training regimens and interventions for children with special educational needs in general, and children at risk for mathematic learning difficulties in particular. It was also highlighted that in remediation, the role of the teacher as a mediator of metacognition and complex executive function seems vital.

  • 219.
    Perselli, Ann-Katrin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Från datasal till en-till-en: En studie av lärares erfarenheter  av digitala resurser i undervisningen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a study upper secondary school teachers’ experiences from using digital resources is presented. The study was carried out in two upper secondary schools where the students had each recently been given their own laptop, a so-called one-to-one computer. The purpose of the study was to describe and analyse the teachers’ experiences of using digital resources in teaching. Four teachers, three men and one woman, from two upper secondary schools in a Swedish municipality, participated in the study. Empirical material was collected during autumn 2010 and spring 2012. The methods used in the collection were interviews and participatory observations, so-called go-along observations. The study’s theoretical approach has its foundation in phenomenological philosophy. In the result care, time and teachers’ lived experiences of didactic work emerge as important for the utilisation of digital resources in teaching. In the teaching, the teachers’ experiences and knowledge of their subjects, teaching, digital resources, and life experiences and knowledge seemed to interact. This interaction between experiences and knowledge is described in the study as lived experiences of didactic work. The study shows that teachers dealt with the new digital technology and designed learning environments for the students with the starting point of their lived experiences of didactic work and assumptions about the students’ interest for digital resources. The teachers’ care with relationship building and creation of trust and confidence was shown to have importance for how, and to what extent, digital resources could be used in teaching. Both similarities and differences in the teachers’ experiences of, and knowledge about, how teaching is carried out with one-to-one computers emerged in the study. Two of the teachers were more experienced users of digital resources in comparison with the two others. The teachers’ experiences of digital resources are often related to their own interest in these, but their experiences are also related to the lack of time for learning to use digital resources as pedagogical tools. 

  • 220.
    Persson, Charlotte
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Implementing Community Based Re/habilitation in Uganda and Sweden: A Comparative Approach2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our global world, ideas in general and social work models in particular are spread and implemented in a variety of socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts, generating different outcomes. Many ideas and services launched in different countries by international organisations or governments in order to bring social justice to marginalised and oppressed groups, such as people with disabilities, have been criticised for not reaching or involving those such services aim to serve. Low impact of social programs on the welfare of people and communities has put the effectiveness of such programs into question and can leave people with disabilities dissatisfied with the social services available in their environment.

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to examine how an international idea for social work practice, as community based rehabilitation (CBR), is implemented in different structures and institutional contexts. To examine how an idea is implemented in different contexts, following research questions have guided the work: “How was the idea of CBR introduced to and implemented in Uganda and Sweden?”, “What contextual factors influenced the implementation of CBR in these countries?”, “What limitations and possibilities affected CBRs chances of continuity and institutionalisation in the two countries?” and finally“Can international ideas and models for social work be successfully used in different structural and institutional contexts?”.

    The study is based on a qualitative design with a comparative approach using qualitative content analysis for analysing data collected through official documents and interviews with parents to children with disabilities and professionals working in the children’s surrounding. The results show how difficult it is to monitor development through projects in both non-Western and Western countries. International ideas of social work, such as CBR, can make a difference in both Uganda and Sweden for the improvement of the living condition of those in need of services; at least, as long as there are funding for the projects and cooperation between authorities, NGOs and the parents of children with disabilities.

    The results show also that there are many differences in the process of the implementation of CBR in Uganda and Sweden. The colonial past of Uganda and its weak welfare state make CBR an important project for the improvement of the life conditions of children with disabilities. Meanwhile, the Swedish strong welfare state and legal protection of children with disabilities make CBR much more marginal in Sweden than in Uganda. However, CBRs successes to promote social justice for children with disabilities and their families makes it necessary to integrate the project to the existing organisation of the welfare state in the two countries. Changing existing welfare services requires engagement in political decision-makings, cooperation, and a critical examination of structural and institutional arrangements, in order to include successful projects in the daily functions and duties of the welfare state of every country. This will prevent an international idea for social work to not only be a temporary trend to follow, but also an established working method for helping people in need of proper services.

  • 221.
    Persson, Jens
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Selected Topics in Homogenization2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of the present thesis is on the homogenization of some selected elliptic and parabolic problems. More precisely, we homogenize: non-periodic linear elliptic problems in two dimensions exhibiting a homothetic scaling property; two types of evolution-multiscale linear parabolic problems, one having two spatial and two temporal microscopic scales where the latter ones are given in terms of a two-parameter family, and one having two spatial and three temporal microscopic scales that are fixed power functions; and, finally, evolution-multiscale monotone parabolic problems with one spatial and an arbitrary number of temporal microscopic scales that are not restricted to be given in terms of power functions. In order to achieve homogenization results for these problems we study and enrich the theory of two-scale convergence and its kins. In particular the concept of very weak two-scale convergence and generalizations is developed, and we study an application of this convergence mode where it is employed to detect scales of heterogeneity.

  • 222.
    Persson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    On dynamic crack growth in discontinuous materials2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis work numerical procedures are developed for modeling dynamic fracture of discontinuous materials, primarily materials composed of a load-bearing network. The models are based on the Newtonian equations of motion, and does not require neither stiffness matrices nor remeshing as cracks form and grow. They are applied to a variety of cases and some general conclusions are drawn. The work also includes an experimental study of dynamic crack growth in solid foam. The aims are to deepen the understanding of dynamic fracture by answering some relevant questions, e.g. What are the major sources of dissipation of potential energy in dynamic fracture? What are the major differences between the dynamic fracture in discontinuous network materials as compared to continuous materials? Is there any situation when it would be possible to utilize a homogenization scheme to model network materials as continuous? The numerical models are compared with experimental results to validate their ability to capture the relevant behavior, with good results. The only two plausible dissipation mechanisms are energy spent creating new surfaces, and stress waves, where the first dominates the behavior of slow cracks and the later dominates fast cracks. In the numerical experiments highly connected random fiber networks, i.e. structures with short distance between connections, behaves phenomenologically like a continuous material whilst with fewer connections the behavior deviates from it. This leads to the conclusion that random fiber networks with a high connectivity may be treated as a continuum, with appropriately scaled material parameters. Another type of network structures is the ordered networks, such as honeycombs and semi-ordered such as foams which can be viewed as e.g. perturbed honeycomb grids. The numerical results indicate that the fracture behavior is different for regular honeycombs versus perturbed honeycombs, and the behavior of the perturbed honeycomb corresponds well with experimental results of PVC foam.

  • 223.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Making the Systemically Desirable Culturally Feasible: Towards the Integration of Gender-Knowledge into Informatics Study Programs2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation scrutinizes the problem domain of gender-knowledge integration into Swedish higher education study programs in informatics. This integration has been expressed as desirable by for example the Swedish government, individual universities and university colleges and the student union alike. In Swedish informatics study programs however, gender-knowledge seems to have been integrated to a limited extent and there is a dearth of research in this area as well. This indicates that gender-knowledge has so far only to a limited extent been recognized as important for Swedish informatics study programs. The purposes of this research is to 1) increase the insight of managers and developers of informatics study programs into the potential of gender-knowledge to enrich informatics as a subject; and to 2) inspire commitment and provide a means for the design of informatics study programs in which gender-knowledge is integrated. The overarching research question for this project is: What are the crucial challenges for a successful integration of gender-knowledge into Swedish informatics study programs?

    To address the overarching research question, several studies have been conducted through scrutinizing documents like articles, reports, evaluations and syllabuses, as well as listening to the accounts of experiences of the gender-knowledge integration process communicated by lecturers, PhD students and study program coordinators following a hermeneutic research approach. The results of these studies indicate that the process of integrating gender-knowledge is challenging and that there is a need of support for getting the process up and running. For this, a guide that identifies different important questions to be addressed related to challenge categories like knowledge, organization, pedagogical, and resistance has been developed. The knowledge challenge seems to be particularly challenging hence special attention is paid to the development of a basic theoretical gender-knowledge base that, along with some concrete examples on how the basic theoretical gender-knowledge base, could be integrated into areas of concern for informatics study programs.

    The different types of support suggested above should be considered food for thought and perhaps pointers of where to start looking. After all, only the local informatics community can integrate gender-knowledge into a study program in an enriching way thus making the systemically desirable culturally feasible.

  • 224.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Political Entrepreneurship in Swedish: Towards a (Re)Theorization of Entrepreneurial Agency2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public policies affect all of us, regardless of who we are or where we live. The study of public policymaking necessarily entails the study of the entire political system and to this end, researchers employ a multitude of frameworks, theories, and models, which tend to be complementary rather than mutually exclusive. The focus of this dissertation is on political entrepreneurship as an actor-based framework to examine and understand policy change. The dissertation’s main aim is to conceptually enhance entrepreneurship and the entrepreneur in the polis by leveraging them in the Swedish political context. In this research, political entrepreneurship and the political entrepreneur are examined in the background of the Swedish corporatist policymaking system with its consensual sensibilities. The five (two theoretical and three empirical) papers as well as the cover essay comprising this dissertation attempt to answer the following questions: first, how do contextual factors inform the realization of entrepreneurial agency? Second, how do contextual factors inform the strategies entrepreneurial actors use to affect change? Third, what is the role of political entrepreneurship and the political entrepreneur in macro-level theories such as critical junctures and policy transfer? Contextual factors here are understood to be the general political system; the level of governance; the substantive policy sector, and the stage of the policy process. Predominantly qualitative methods and a variety of analytical tools, ranging from formal social network analysis (SNA) to process tracing are used to investigate the research questions in the national, regional, and local levels of governance and in the fields of crisis management, risk governance, and economic development respectively. Findings suggest that overwhelmingly, political entrepreneurs come from the ranks of public officials and thus political entrepreneurship is a feature of the policy implementation stage rather than the agenda setting stage of policymaking. There is not a place for the outsider, single issue entrepreneur in the Swedish consensual system, which provides for extensive inclusion, but of actors organized in interest groups. Political entrepreneurs are action-oriented, problem solving doers, characterized by perseverance and resourcefulness and are key in consolidating policy change in the aftermath of a crisis. Though in broad terms the strategies political entrepreneurs use in the Swedish context are concomitant with the ones used in pluralistic contexts, specificities diverge. In the Swedish corporatist consensual system, political entrepreneurship becomes a conduit facilitating interconnections among a multitude of actors; opens up additional channels of communication, while the political entrepreneur is a network maker. Finally, political entrepreneurship is focused on forging a consensus rather than winning the competition: the art of quiet cooperation and collaboration. 

  • 225.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of Polymeric Multilayer Treatment on Out-of Plane Properties of CTMP-Based Paperboard2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Pierre, Anne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The influence of wicked problems on community-based entrepreneurship in rural Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship research has, since the 1930’s, mainly focused on so-called traditional entrepreneurship and studies have to a large part discussed management processes. During the past 40 years social entrepreneurship research and research into community-based entrepreneurship and practice has emerged, as a response to changes in society due to global, regional and local events that affect local development. Such changes often affect rural areas severely, for instance depopulation, which often leads to a decrease in small business development, a decrease in social services such as healthcare, schools, banks and road maintenance, and a decrease in local and regional economic health. These structural changes are usually due to political decisions taken at a governmental level, which trickle down through society and affect local economic development and, indirectly, small business development. Local enthusiasts, business associations and in particular entrepreneurs often try to meet these structural changes through community-based entrepreneurship, which involves processes through which new businesses are created and can operate within the existing social structure of the local community. However, the practical problem is that there are factors influencing communitybased entrepreneurship and hence the establishment of small businesses and local development, such as wicked problems, which in the rural context in this thesis refers to structural changes and complex relations. The theoretical and practical research gap is found in that there is a lack of studies exploring how wicked problems influence community-based entrepreneurship in rural contexts. Complex relations can be found in the three pillars of institutions based on regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive elements, where the same person can have many different roles, hence influencing local rural development. For this thesis, the theories of community-based entrepreneurship, state-society synergy, and small business development have been used to explore how wicked problems (structural changes and complex relations) influence community-based entrepreneurship in rural Sweden. Two literature studies were made on social entrepreneurship and community-based entrepreneurship, followed by three case-studies. The context of the first case-study was rural areas in the county of Jämtland and is based on results from the findings in the cross-disciplinary project on societal entrepreneurship in sparsely populated areas (SESPA). The context of the second case-study is the municipalities of Berg, Krokom and Östersund in the county of Jämtland, where a total of 23 interviews were conducted with farm owners, participants in the service social farming and municipal officials and politicians. The context of the third casestudy is the municipality of Sorsele in the county of Västerbotten and the municipality of Berg in the county of Jämtland, which are both situated in rural areas, where a total of 39 interviews were conducted with owners of small businesses, municipal officials and politicians. Results show that the development of community-based entrepreneurship research has furthered the possibilities to better understand the processes of entrepreneurship in local rural contexts. Furthermore, results indicate that the complex relations influencing communitybased entrepreneurship that appear in this thesis call for caution. The structural changes that are interrelated with community-based entrepreneurship are, in spite of facilitating increased interest, not necessarily positive for local rural development. It was also seen that the rural context studied is a semi-stable institution, indicating that local rural development, and thereby small business development, is incoherent. If a municipality and the owners of small businesses are well in tune with the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive elements in their rural context, have an understanding of what wicked problems are, and if they are properly understood and dealt with, then there is a chance that, although experiencing a semistable institution, local rural development can be attained. The theoretical contributions of this thesis pertain to entrepreneurship in rural contexts, community-based entrepreneurship, and wicked problems. This thesis concludes that wicked problems, in the shape of structural changes and complex relations, are present in the rural contexts studied. These wicked problems influence communitybased entrepreneurship by being disruptive factors, affecting policy creation and implementation by the municipality. A flow-chart model has been created in order to show how wicked problems influence community-based entrepreneurship and hence local rural development. 

  • 227.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carbon Balance Implications Of Forest Biomass Production Potential2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests in boreal and temperate forest-ecosystems have an important function since they sequester atmospheric carbon by uptake of carbon-dioxide in photosynthesis, and transfer and store carbon in the forest ecosystem. Forest material can be used for bio-fuel purposes and substitute fossil fuels, and supply wood products, which can replace carbon- and energy-intensive materials. Therefore it is vital to consider the role of forests regarding today´s aim to mitigate climate change. This thesis assess (i) how climate change affects future forest carbon balance, (ii) the importance of different strategies for forest management systems, and biomass production for the carbon balance, (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance in a lifecycle perspective, and (iv) how the Swedish carbon balance is affected from the standpoint of both the actual use of forest raw material within Sweden and what Swedish forestry exports. The analysis was made mainly in a long-term perspective (60-300 year) to illustrate the importance of temporal and also the spatial perspective, as the analysis includes stand level, landscape level, and national level. In this thesis, forestry was considered a system. All activities, from forest regeneration to end use of forest products, were entities of this system. In the evaluation, made from a systems perspective, we used life-cycle analysis to estimate carbon stock in different system flows. Different forest management systems and forest production were integrated in the analyses. Different forest management scenarios were designed for the Swedish forest management in combination with the effect of future climate change; (i) intensive forest practice aiming at increased growth, (ii) increased forest set-aside areas, changes in forest management systems for biomass production, and (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance (construction material, bioenergy and other domestic use). The results showed that future climate changes and intensive forest management with increased production could increase the biomass production and the potential use of forest raw material. This has a positive effect on carbon storage for the forest carbon stock, litter production and carbon storage in the ground etc. and help mitigating carbon-dioxide. Increased forest set-aside areas can increase the short-term carbon stock in forest ecosystems, but will reduce the total long-term carbon balance. The net carbon balance for clear-cut forestry did not differ significantly from continuous-cover forestry, but was rather a question of level of growth. Most important, in the long term, was according to our analysis, how forest raw material is used. Present Swedish forestry and use of forest raw material, both within Sweden and abroad, reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and mitigate climate change. The positive effect for the total carbon balance and climate benefit take place mostly abroad, due to the Swedish high level of export of wood products and the higher substitution effects achieved outside Swedish borders. One strategy is to increase production, harvest and change the use of Swedish forest raw material to replace more carbon intensive material, which can contribute to significant emission reduction. Carbon-dioxide mitigation, as a result of present Swedish forestry, was shown to be almost of the same level as the total yearly emission of greenhouse gases. The total carbon benefit would increase if the biomass production and felling increased and if Swedish wood products replaced carbon intensive materials.This thesis shows also that, by changing forest management, increase the growth and the use of forest raw material and export of forest material we can contribute to even larger climate benefits. In a long-term perspective, the substitution effects and replacement of carbon- and energy-intensive materials are of greater significance than carbon storage effects in forests. A more production oriented forestry needs to make balances and increase the prerequisite for biological diversity, improve recreation possibilities, and protect sensitive land areas and watersheds.Climate benefits, from Swedish forestry, are highly dependent on policy decision-making and how that can steer the direction for the Swedish forestry.

  • 228.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Imagining Tourist Spaces as Living Spaces: Towards a Relational Approach to Alternatives and Morals in Tourism2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many actors are taking advantage of the flexible barriers to entry of the tourist industry to engage in the production of varied forms of tourism closely related to their lifestyle, professional and communal ambitions. With the increased popularity of forms of tourism bringing the guest close to the host, it becomes relevant to ask questions related to lived experiences and close encounters in tourism scholarship. This is a moral conviction that the plurality of human experiences and critical reflexivity matter in the conception of tourist spaces and their management. In this thesis, I look for new ways to conceptually embed local people in their living spaces by approaching forms of tourism displaying non-economic elements as phenomena that create new and complex relations imbued with various implications. Tourism geography highlights the negotiated and fragmented nature of tourism, and its performative and embodied character. I apply relational geography to apprehend the multiple relations that make up local spaces and identities. With its post-structural character, relational geography uncovers voices once neglected in research, and proposes new ways of being in the world. My two qualitative case studies reflect my interest in exploring the northern European context. Firstly, I investigate craft-artists on Bornholm, Denmark and their relation to the tourist season. I do this through interviews and narrative analysis. My second case study, a focused ethnography at Sólheimar eco-village, Iceland, centres on the management of host and guest interactions.  In terms of spatial formation, results show that local actors have the agency to form networks and redefine their identities in the wake of tourism development. They form a hybrid space by fulfilling goals related to their lifestyle, livelihood and professional ambitions simultaneously. Moreover, mundane practices are presented as an integral part of a tourist landscape. In terms of management, results show that the various spatial complexities faced by communities exacerbate host and guest relations. This will require a commitment from local coordinators and managers to promote a reflexive and critical exchange during these close encounters. I ultimately argue for the imagination of tourist spaces as living spaces, where I conceptualize tourism as a mundane, yet complex, material and social experience for those living in tourist spaces. I propose two new discursive anchors that reflect the metaphor of the living space: dwelling in the tourist landscape, and sincere encounters. I contend that researching living spaces finds its moral grounds in its openness to the various ways local people dwell and encounter during tourism, and to the diverse ways researchers make sense of these practices, and of their own.

  • 229.
    Proitsaki, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Empowering Strategies at Home in the Works of Nikki Giovanni and Rita Dove2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the presence of Black women characters in domestic contexts in the early poetry of African American poets Nikki Giovanni and Rita Dove and examines the strategies these women employ, individually and in close relationships, in order to empower themselves and sustain those around them. It provides a joint exploration of the work of two major contemporary poets from a literary and interdisciplinary perspective, mapping instances of the poetic expression of Black feminist politics. The theoretical approach builds on a range of understandings of empowerment, strategy, and the central importance of home in an African American context, as conceptualized primarily in the work of Black feminists, in particular Patricia Hill Collins and bell hooks. Structurally, the study follows the cycle of a woman’s life from girlhood to old age. Thus, poems involving the empowerment strategies of girls at home are explored first. They are followed by poems where the domestic lives of adult women and then elderly women are addressed, with a focus on their respective empowering strategies. Discussed last are strategies of empowerment evident in the interactions of (largely) Black women of different generations in poems depicting intergenerational contacts and relationships.

    Homeplaces created by Black women have historically been experienced as sheltering African Americans from the perils of the dominant white society and thereby Black women’s domestic experiences have generally been linked to privilege rather than to confinement and victimization. In the poems, when at home, Black women utilize different strategies to assert themselves and each other, implicitly or explicitly, emerging strong and resilient, even though sometimes they may merely derive satisfaction from their poor circumstances. Strong connections to the past and a sense of belonging, partaking in legacies and storytelling, as well as memory, imagination, dreaming and hiding, are recurring elements of their empowerment processes. However, their enjoyment of loving bonds and their sharing of African-derived knowledges and ways of being emerge as the most significant aspects contributing to their empowerment.

  • 230.
    Rad, Alexander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bank risk management: How do bank employees deal with risk at the strategic and operational levels?2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Active queue management for quality of service in heterogeneous networks: design of active queue management for access routers2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Rahmani, Rizan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Structure elucidation of semiochemicals related to: Polygraphus poligraphus, Polygraphus punctifrons, Trioza apicalis, Whittleia retiella, Neodiprion edulicolus, Neodiprion scutellatus, Neodiprion knereri and Neodiprion virginianus2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Det digitala läsandet: Begrepp, processer och resultat2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this doctoral dissertation project has been to investigate and describe the reading comprehension of digital texts related to the reading of traditional texts by gender differences, computer-game playing, and socioeconomic background factors. The dissertation is based on four studies. In the first study, the results from a reading comprehension test delivered on screen is compared to a test delivered on paper and administered to 235 Swedish students 14-15 years of age. The students managed the test in the paper mode slightly better than that in the screen mode. The difference was particularly evident for boys. The second study used Swedish data from the PISA 2009 survey in an analysis conducted with a structural equation modelling technique. A digital reading factor nested within the overall reading was identified. A gender difference in favour of boys was found in this factor. This difference was perfectly mediated by the larger amount of time that the boys spent on computer-game playing. The third study, conducted on Swedish and Norwegian PISA data from 2009, focussed on equity aspects in reading comprehension and indicated that the unique aspects of digital reading were not influenced by cultural capital, neither on the student nor on the school level, in contrast to what was the case for traditional reading comprehension. The fourth study, using qualitative data, aimed at exploring the abilities and skills important for digital reading. The analysis resulted in five categories: traditional literacy, multimodal literacy, pathfinding, IT abilities, and information abilities. Drawing on a mixed-methods approach, the overall conclusion drawn from the results of the four studies was that reading comprehension of digital texts has unique aspects in addition to those required for reading comprehension of traditional texts. Three other important conclusions were pointed out as well. The first was that reading comprehension is influenced by the context of the texts; the second was that particular skills and abilities are required for digital reading; and the third was that there seems to be less of an influence of background factors on the performance of digital reading compared to traditional reading among Swedish (and Norwegian) youth. The results are discussed in relation to a Dual Level Theory formulated by Leu et al., as well as the validity issues with an outset in Bachman’s conversation analysis. The implications for schooling have been considered.

  • 234.
    Razaz, Ghadir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Problems in the Aluminium DC Casting Process Associated with Melt Treatment Operations2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of DC cast Al alloys is highly dependent on melt batch composition and impurity level in the molten alloy. The chemical composition and cleanliness of a melt is controlled through the melt treatment operations, carried out while the melt is still in the furnace before casting starts. The present work has studied some of these operations and associated problems such as slow dissolution of alloying elements, non-reproducibility in chemical composition analysis and inclusions.

     The results of the dissolution of the alloy elements Mn and Fe showed different behaviors.  For Mn three intermediate phases were involved, all of which exhibited a smooth interface between Mn and the liquid. These three phases were identified as the γ2, Al11Mn4, and µ phases, which grow slowly towards the dissolving Mn particles. The results from the Fe dissolution revealed that only one phase dominates the process, Al5Fe2, which penetrates the Fe particles with an irregular interface.

    The interaction between Mn and Ti additions to AA3003 alloys and consequences for the solidification and precipitation behavior was investigated. The study could map the limits for formation of an earlier unknown AlMnTi phase, which formed large particles, detrimental for subsequent rolling operations.

    Different sampling procedures for chemical composition analysis were studied, and a novel approach was proposed. A mould with an insulated periphery provided one-dimensional solidification, which gave compositions close to nominal.

     Inclusion distributions along as-cast billets were studied as a function of different holding times, and thus different grades of sedimentation. Holding times longer than 30 minutes did not show any improvements.  It was also shown that if melt remaining in the furnace at end of casting is less than about 3000 kg, the sedimented inclusions are stirred into the bulk again, and can enter into the end of the billet.

    The impact on hot tearing susceptibility of different Cu and Fe contents for AA3000 alloys was studied. Cu contents in a range from 0.3 to 1.2 wt%  significantly increase the hot tearing tendency, which was attributed to bad feeding at end of solidification. Decreasing of the Fe content below 0.2 wt%, gives a strong cracking tendency, owing to decreased precipitations of the Al6(Mn,Fe) phase, which contributes to early bridging and thus reinforcement between grains.

  • 235.
    Reyier Österling, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Distributions Of Fiber Characteristics As A Tool To Evaluate Mechanical Pulps2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical pulps are used in paper products such as magazine or news grade printing papers or paperboard. Mechanical pulping gives a high yield; nearly everything in the tree except the bark is used in the paper. This means that mechanical pulping consumes much less wood than chemical pulping, especially to produce a unit area of printing surface. A drawback of mechanical pulp production is the high amounts of electrical energy needed to separate and refine the fibers to a given fiber quality. Mechanical pulps are often produced from slow growing spruce trees of forests in the northern hemisphere resulting in long, slender fibers that are well suited for mechanical pulp products. These fibers have large varieties in geometry, mainly wall thickness and width, depending on seasonal variations and growth conditions. Earlywood fibers typically have thin walls and latewood fibers thick. The background to this study was that a more detailed fiber characterization involving evaluations of distributions of fiber characteristics, may give improved possibilities to optimize the mechanical pulping process and thereby reduce the total electric energy needed to reach a given quality of the pulp and final product. This would result in improved competitiveness as well as less environmental impact. This study evaluated the relation between fiber characteristics in three types of mechanical pulps made from Norway spruce (Picea abies), thermomechanical pulp(TMP), stone groundwood pulp (SGW) and chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP). In addition, the influence of fibers from these pulp types on sheet characteristics, mainly tensile index, was studied. A comparatively rapid method was presented on how to evaluate the propensity of each fiber to form sheets of high tensile index, by the use of raw data from a commercially available fiber analyzer (FiberLabTM). The developed method gives novel opportunities of evaluating the effect on the fibers of each stage in the mechanical pulping process and has a potential to be applied also on‐line to steer the refining and pulping process by the characteristics of the final pulp and the quality of the final paper.

    The long fiber fraction is important for the properties of the whole pulp. It was found that fiber wall thickness and external fibrillation were the fibercharacteristics that contributed the most to tensile index of the long fiber fractions in five mechanical pulps (three TMPs, one SGW, one CTMP). The tensile index of handsheets of the long fiber fractions could be predicted by linear regressions using a combination of fiber wall thickness and degree of external fibrillation. The predicted tensile index was denoted BIN, short for Bonding ability INfluence. This resulted in the same linear correlation between BIN and tensile index for 52 samples of the five mechanical pulps studied, each fractionated into five streams(plus feed) in full size hydrocyclones. The Bauer McNett P16/R30 (passed 16 meshwire, retained on a 30 mesh wire) and P30/R50 fractions of each stream were used for the evaluation. The fibers of the SGW had thicker walls and a higher degree of external fibrillation than the TMPs and CTMP, which resulted in a correlation between BIN and tensile index on a different level for the P30/R50 fraction of SGW than the other pulp samples. A BIN model based on averages weighted by each fiber´s wall volume instead of arithmetic averages, took the fiber wall thickness of the SGW into account, and gave one uniform correlation between BIN and tensile index for all pulp samples (12 samples for constructing the model, 46 for validatingit). If the BIN model is used for predicting averages of the tensile index of a sheet, a model based on wall volume weighted data is recommended. To be able to produce BIN distributions where the influence of the length or wall volume of each fiber is taken into account, the BIN model is currently based on arithmetic averages of fiber wall thickness and fibrillation. Fiber width used as a single factor reduced the accuracy of the BIN model. Wall volume weighted averages of fiber width also resulted in a completely changed ranking of the five hydrocyclone streams compared to arithmetic, for two of thefive pulps. This was not seen when fiber width was combined with fiber wallthickness into the factor “collapse resistance index”. In order to avoid too high influence of fiber wall thickness and until the influence of fiber width on BIN and the measurement of fiber width is further evaluated, it is recommended to use length weighted or arithmetic distributions of BIN and other fiber characteristics. A comparably fast method to evaluate the distribution of fiber wall thickness and degree of external fibrillation with high resolution showed that the fiber wallthickness of the latewood fibers was reduced by increasing the refining energy in adouble disc refiner operated at four levels of specific energy input in a commercial TMP production line. This was expected but could not be seen by the use of average values, it was concluded that fiber characteristics in many cases should be evaluated as distributions and not only as averages.

    BIN distributions of various types of mechanical pulps from Norway spruce showed results that were expected based on knowledge of the particular pulps and processes. Measurements of mixtures of a news‐ and a SC (super calendered) gradeTMP, showed a gradual increase in high‐BIN fibers with higher amounts of SCgrade TMP. The BIN distributions also revealed differences between the pulps that were not seen from average fiber values, for example that the shape of the BINdistributions was similar for two pulps that originated from conical disc refiners, a news grade TMP and the board grade CTMP, although the distributions were on different BIN levels. The SC grade TMP and the SC grade SGW had similar levels of tensile index, but the SGW contained some fibers of very low BIN values which may influence the characteristics of the final paper, for example strength, surface and structure. This shows that the BIN model has the potential of being applied on either the whole or parts of a papermaking process based on mechanical or chemimechanical pulping; the evaluation of distributions of fiber characteristics can contribute to increased knowledge about the process and opportunities to optimize it.

  • 236.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Advanced X-ray Detectors for Industrial and Environmental Applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation of X-ray free electron laser sources arecapable of producing light beams with billion times higherpeak brilliance than that of the best conventional X-ray sources.This advancement motivates the scientific community to pushforward the detector technology to its limit, in order to de-sign photon detectors which can cope with the extreme fluxgenerated by the free electron laser sources. Sophisticated ex-periments like deciphering the atomic details of viruses, filmingchemical reactions or investigating the extreme states of matterrequire detectors with high frame rate, good spatial resolution,high dynamic range and large active sensor area. The PERCI-VAL monolithic active pixel sensor is being developed by aninternational group of scientists in collaboration to meet theaforementioned detector requirements within the energy rangeof 250 eV to 1 keV, with a quantum efficiency above 90%.In this doctoral researchwork, Monte Carlo algorithm basedGeant4 and finite element method based Synopsys SentaurusTCADtoolkits have been used to simulate, respectively, theX-rayenergy deposition and the charge sharing in PERCIVAL. Energydeposition per pixel and charge sharing between adjacent pixelsat different energies have been investigated and presented.Novel methods for industrial and environmental applica-tions of some commercially available X-ray detectors have beendemonstrated. Quality inspection of paperboards by resolv-ing the layer thicknesses and by investigating orientation ofthe cellulose fibres have been performed using spectroscopicand phase-contrast X-ray imaging. It was found that, usingphase-contrast imaging it is possible to set burn-out like qualityindex on paperboards non-destructively. X-ray fluoroscopicmeasurements have been conducted in order to detect Cr inwater. This method can be used to detect Cr and other toxicelements in leachate in landfills and other waste dumping sites.

  • 237.
    Riabacke, Ari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Development of Elicitation Methods for Managerial Decision Support2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision‐makers in organisations and businesses make numerous decisions every day, and these decisions are expected to be based on facts and carried out in a rational manner. However, most decisions are not based on precise information or careful analysis due to several reasons. People are, e.g., unable to behave rationally as a result of their experiences, socialisation, and additionally, because humans possess fairly limited capacities for processing information in an objective manner. In order to circumvent this human incapacity to handle decision situations in a rational manner, especially those involving risk and uncertainty, a widespread suggestion, at least in managerial decision making, is to take advantage of support in the form of decision support systems. One possibility involves decision analytical tools, but they are, almost without exception, not efficiently employed in organisations and businesses. It appears that one reason for this is the high demands the tools place on the decision‐maker in a variety of ways, e.g., by presupposing that reliable input data is obtainable by an exogenous process. Even though the reliability of current decision analytic tools is highly dependent on the quality of the input data, they rarely contain methods for eliciting data from the users. The problem focused on in this thesis is the unavailability and inefficiency of methods for eliciting decision information from the users. The aim is to identify problem areas regarding the elicitation of decision data in real decision making processes, and to propose elicitation methods that take people’s natural choice strategies and natural behaviour into account. In this effort, we have identified a conceptual gap between the decision‐makers, the decision models, and the decision analytical tools, consisting of seven gap components. The gap components are of three main categories (of which elicitation is one). In order to study elicitation problems, a number of empirical studies, involving more than 400 subjects in total, have been carried out in Sweden and Brazil. An iterative research approach has been adopted and a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods has been used. Findings made in this thesis include the fact that decision‐makers have serious problems in many decision situations due to not having access to accurate and relevant data in the first place, and secondly, not having the means for retrieving such data in a proper manner, i.e. lacking elicitation methods for this purpose. Employing traditional elicitation methods in this realm yield results that reveal an inertia gap, i.e. an intrinsic inertia in people’s natural behaviour to shift between differently framed prospects, and different groups of decisionmakers displaying different choice patterns. Since existing elicitation methods are unable to deal with the inertia, we propose a class of methods to take advantage of this natural behaviour, and also suggest a representation for the elicited information. An important element in the proposed class of methods is also that we must be able to fine‐tune methods and measuring instruments in order to fit into different types of decision situations, user groups, and choice behaviours.

  • 238.
    Richardson, Matt X.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hematological changes arising from spleen contraction during apnea and altitude in humans2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Rising Holmström, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    The Health Dialogue concept: School children's Self-Reported-Health in a Swedish Context2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe schoolchildren's selfreported-health based on the Health Dialogue concept as well as to identify healthindicators and their possible associations in the perspective of 6 to 16 year-olds,and to provide an analysis of school nurses´ experiences of using the HealthDialogue concept, in the County of Västernorrland. The thesis was based on fourstudies (I-IV). Study I was qualitative using a descriptive design, based onindividual interviews with school nurses who had working experience of using theHealth Dialogue concept. Studies II-IV were quantitative with cross sectional andlongitudinal design based on statistical data from the Health Dialogue concept, apopulation survey among schoolchildren. The data were analyzed usingqualitative content analysis (I) and regression analyses (II-IV).Study I showed that the school nurses had developed their own commonapproach, a health promotion model derived from experiences of working with theHealth Dialogue concept. Study II showed that the most important health variablesinfluencing pre-schoolchildren´s positive self-reported-health were experience ofcomfort in preschool, good sleep, absence of headaches, being physicalactive/playing daily, and not being a victim for bullying. Both boys and girlsneeded to experience comfort, being physical active, and not being bullied. Forgirls, positive self-reported-health seemed to be more dependent on comfort, beingphysical active/playing, and not being bullied, whereas boy’s health was moredependent on eating school lunch daily and not experiencing headaches.Study III revealed that in 10-year-old children´s positive self-reported-health,comfort in school, normal iso- body mass index and absence of headaches wereshown to be significantly important health indicators. Normal iso- body massindex (girls) and absence of headaches (boys) were shown to have a potentiallycausal effect on 10-year-old children's positive self-reported-health. Study IVrevealed several significantly important health indicators in schoolchildren´shealth during three school transitions in the Swedish Education system (betweenthe ages of 6-10, 10-13 and 13-16); not experiencing being sad/depressed,afraid/worried, experiencing the school environment positively (schoolyard andivrestrooms), not being bullied, having good sleep, daily physical activity/play andability to concentrate. Gender and age differences were also identified. The HealthDialogue concept, contributes increased knowledge and a new cross sectional andlongitudinal perspective to individual, school, community and organization’sperception of schoolchildren´s self-reported-health. Furthermore, these resultsdemonstrate the importance and validity of children´s experiences in the context ofhealth and should contribute to future health promotion activities and schoolbasedinterventions.Key words: Health promotion, health dialogue, longitudinal design, school nurses,schoolchildren, self-reported-health.

  • 240.
    Rondung, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychological perspectives on fear of birth: heterogeneity, mechanisms and treatment2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is medically safe to give birth in most western countries, the vast majority of pregnant women experience some kind of anxiety, fear or worry in relation to their pregnancy or the upcoming childbirth. Most pregnant women find ways of coping with these issues but, for many, fear of birth is a significant source of distress during pregnancy, with negative consequences both when giving birth and in the postpartum period.

    Previous research on fear of birth has for the most part had a medical perspective, investigating risk factors and consequences of this form of fear or anxiety, along with studies evaluating different forms of interventions. The general aim of this thesis was to approach fear of birth from a psychological perspective, by exploring the role of psychological factors in this form of fear, worry or anxiety.

    Four studies are included in the thesis. The first study is a randomized controlled trial, in which we compared a guided Internet-delivered self-help program, based on cognitive behavior therapy (guided ICBT), with standard care (midwife led fear of birth specific counseling), for the treatment of fear of birth. Despite poor adherence to the guided ICBT, the results showed a similar reduction in fear levels during pregnancy in both groups, with lower levels of fear of birth in the guided ICBT group one year after birth. The second study is a narrative literature review. This study adopted a psychological perspective on the existing literature describing fear of birth, with a special focus on the specificity of this form of fear or anxiety, the pathways of fear acquisition, and the physiological, cognitive and behavioral aspects of fear of birth. Using systematic procedures for the literature search, inclusion and exclusion, 89 original research papers were included and summarized in the study. The aim of the third study was to explore possible heterogeneity among pregnant women reporting high levels of fear of birth. Comparisons between primiparous and multiparous women revealed that these groups were very similar in their levels of fear of birth as well as in the psychological variables investigated. Using a series of hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, five possible subgroups based on psychological characteristics were identified, pointing to psychological heterogeneity among women fearing birth. In the fourth study, our aim was to take a first step in trying to identify psychological mechanisms relevant to the understanding of fear of birth. In this study, pain catastrophizing and intolerance of uncertainty were clear predictors of fear of birth, while parity was not.

    Taken together, the results of the four studies included in this thesis indicate that fear of birth is a concept in need of further investigation, and that psychological perspectives could offer an important contribution to our understanding of this form of fear or anxiety. Women fearing birth seem to be a heterogeneous group, and psychological characteristics (e.g. pain catastrophizing, or catastrophizing in general, and intolerance of uncertainty) might be of greater importance than parity in both describing this diversity and understanding the development and maintenance of fear of birth. Treating fear of birth using guided ICBT can be challenging, and before introducing this form of treatment as an alternative, further refinement and evaluation of the methods are needed.

  • 241.
    Rydblom, Stefani Alita Leona
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Development and Test of an Imaging Instrument for Measurement of Water Droplets in Icing Conditions2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural icing is a persistent challenge for the production of renewable energy from wind. It is mainly caused by supercooled atmospheric droplets of water, which are very common in cold climates. In the most exposed wind parks in Sweden, more than 10 per cent of annual energy production can be lost. Some properties of liquid water are included in current \gls{nwp} models and are used as input parameters for the estimation of icing, but they are rarely measured in-situ for verification or validation.

    To address this problem, a new instrument was developed. This compilation thesis is a collection of five articles describing the development, testing and verification of this instrument. Finally, icing and ice loads are measured and compared with a standard model and a model using \gls{ai} and empirical data.

    The new instrument, called \gls{dii}, is based on shadowgraph imaging using \gls{led} light as background illumination and digital image processing. The components were selected with the possibility of low-cost volume production in mind. The applications of a commercial instrument based on this technique include, for example, real-time in-situ icing condition measurements and assimilation and verification of data in \gls{nwp} models. The instrument, alongside a reference instrument, was tested in two locations with different icing conditions. Shadowgraph imaging and its limitations as a measurement method for droplet size and concentration were investigated.

    The work presented shows that measurements of the size and concentration of water droplets using shadowgraph images can be used for the comparison and validation of \gls{nwp} models and other instruments. The \gls{cv} for a given value of the concentration is lower than \SI{1.6}{\percent} for droplets \SI{25}{\micro\meter} in diameter, based on uncertainty in the size measurement only. The accuracy of the sampling volume can be improved by measuring the background light intensity in the position of the measured droplet.

    A fog chamber was used for initial tests. However, to evaluate models of ice accumulation, in-situ measurements are necessary. These measurements should use a temporal resolution of at least one sample per minute, preferably higher. With a limited amount of data, multivariate data analysis can be used to estimate the level of ice accretion. Together with a heuristic model of erosion/ablation, the resulting figures can be used to simulate the ice load.

    All of the instruments, as well as many other components used during the described field measurements, did at some point break due to the difficult weather conditions. An instrument for measurement of icing conditions needs to be designed with high environmental protection and endurance. The results in the attached papers may help and motivate further technical development of instruments that can measure atmospheric liquid water in icing conditions.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-28 12:05
  • 242.
    Rönngren, Ylva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Supporting healthy lifestyle habits in persons with mental disorders: The development of a nurse-led lifestyle intervention2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons with mental disorders have an increased risk of developing health problems. One reason for this is poor lifestyle habit support. The aim of this thesis was to develop and evaluate a nurse-led lifestyle intervention for persons with mental disorders. Two versions of the intervention were conducted in the municipality (versions I, II) and one in a primary healthcare setting (version III). The educational elements of the intervention were led by nurses and practically executed by nursing staff (study II and III). In study IV education was both led and executed in practice by nurses. Data were collected through focus groups, individual interviews, and measurements. Study I, a qualitative development study, showed that, when motivating for lifestyle changes, it was important to structure daily life and provide emotional support. Loneliness, lack of knowledge and support, and general resources were identified as barriers to lifestyle changes. Version I contained health education for nursing staff and individual lifestyle habit support to persons with mental disorders, which included physical exercises and cognitive support. Study II was a qualitative acceptability study of the intervention (version I) and its assessment tools. The intervention with its relational, educational, and supportive dimensions and the assessment tools was promising. In Study III (version II), a quantitative pilot study, persons with mental disorders received health education together with the nursing staff. The intervention provided improvements to various degrees in health-related variables of quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and waist circumference. Study IV (version III), a qualitative study, included health education and individual lifestyle habit support for young adults with mental illness. The young adults experienced challenges including psychiatric symptoms, loneliness, and a lack of social understanding. The thesis results showed that the core components of the intervention with interpersonal relationships, where nursing staff played an important role, and further components such as health education and health discussions, in addition to cognitive support, worked well together to support lifestyle habit changes. Those components already exist and may therefore be easy to implement into daily nursing practice in different housing conditions and with individuals of different ages and needs for mental health care support. Group education was a way not only to develop new health strategies but also to establish social relationships. The intervention may also be modified to work with other groups of persons who need more explicit lifestyle habit support. However, to better determine the efficacy and sustainability of the intervention, larger studies over a longer time should be conducted.

     

     

  • 243.
    Sabbani, Sunil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tuning lipase-catalysed resolution of chiral alcohols and acids & synthesis of achiral and chiral 1,2,4-trioxane antimalarials2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Sahlin, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Moving Beyond Internal Affairs: Making Sense of Principals' Leadership Practices in Collaboration for School Improvement2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis takes its point of departure from the recent interest in collaboration and networking as major school improvement strategies and the school leader’s crucial role in these processes. Educational research indicates that if schools are to meet future demands, then leadership must rest on trust within the organisation and a principal’s leadership must be understood in the frame of professional collaboration and social learning. The aim of this thesis is to, from an institutional perspective, deepen the understanding of regulative, normative, and cultural‐cognitive aspects of school leaders’ practices in collaboration beyond school at the local school level.

    The research undertaken in this thesis is a part of a larger research and school improvement project. This longitudinal study draws on data from a qualitative case study of three schools conducted over three years. Qualitative data including semistructured interviews, a part of a questionnaire to participating teachers with open‐response questions, and observations were used. Additional contextual data, such as field notes, document analysis, and project meeting notes were also used. The theoretical framework is based on institutional perspectives on organisations and sense‐making theory, used to provide an understanding of how principals and teachers make sense of principal leadership practices.

    This thesis builds on four separate papers (I‐IV) with their own aims and research questions but with the common goal of providing answers to the overall aim and research questions of the study. The four papers are complemented by this introductory part that ties them all together. Paper I, “Internationalization as an internal capacity builder for school improvement: a case study”, examines if and how the work with internationalization can build internal capacities for school improvement, but also examines the meaning of a principal’s leadership in relation to the work with professional collaboration and social learning. Paper II, “Collaboration With Private Companies as a Vehicle for School Improvement ‐ Principals’ Experience and Sense‐Making,” elaborates on principals’ experiences and sense‐making of a school collaboration with private companies from the local community of the school, focussing on leadership and school improvement. Paper III, “Making Sense of External Partnerships: Principals’ Experiences of School‐University Collaborations,” examine principals’ sense‐making of a school–university collaboration. Paper IV, “Teachers Making Sense of Principals’ Leadership in Collaboration Beyond School,” aims to create a deeper understanding of collaborations beyond the school with a focus on principals’ leadership and of how such processes reshape regulative, normative, and cultural‐cognitive aspects (Scott, 2008). The role of the formal leader is addressed in all four papers.

    Finally, the findings show that the principals have had the possibility to build professional capacity in their schools, create a supportive organization for learning, and connect with different external partners as a result of these beyond‐school collaborations. The different actors in the beyond‐school collaborations also became a part of the schools’ overall distributed leadership practices. The findings show that beyond‐school collaboration influences and affects the normative and cultural‐cognitive aspects that exist in the participating school to some extent. The development of collective commitments to guide collaboration, engagement in collaborative work, an increase in shared responsibility for work, and the fostering of learning‐oriented collaboration and research‐based knowledge construction are examples of norms and values that seem to have started to move during the various beyond‐school collaborations. From the cultural‐cognitive aspect, the study shows that aspects of this dimension appear more or less in the schools. The principals have interpreted and made sense of the value of beyond school collaboration in different ways. The cultural‐cognitive aspect also seems to affect the teachers somewhat, where they make sense of the importance of the formal leader in beyond‐school collaboration. They also emphasise the importance of having a pedagogical leader. The findings showed that there were challenges that became visible in the various beyond‐school collaborations. However, being aware of the challenges and broadening professional learning communities through collaboration that goes beyond school all in all seem to support the principals in their leadership practices at the local school level and also support development in a school’s practices.

  • 245.
    Saleem, Jawad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Power electronics for - and modelling of - resistance welding equipment2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 246.
    Sandin, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Det beslöjade rummet: Ideologiska samhällsbilder i grundskolans samhällskunskap2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A veiled space - Ideological Images of Society in Swedish Compulsory School Civics

    Lars Sandin

     This study deals with the ideological dimension of education in the Swedish compulsory school [grundskolan]. By focusing on the images of the social world which are configured in the content of education, the study pays attention to the reproduction of an ideological dimension which is latent in our social imaginary. The theoretical problem was formulated as a question about if, and in what form, critical knowledge content is offered as part of the reproduction of the social imaginary that takes place in education. The empirical aim was to interpret the images of society configured in policy documents and teaching practice in compulsory school civics [samhällskunskap] with regard to how the differentiation of social space appears in these images. A hermeneutic approach was used. In the first of the two parts of the study, a number of policy documents – curricula and syllabi – were interpreted. In these documents, the differentiation of social space was found to be made visible selectively. The gender dimension and the dimension termed “cultural diversity” were highlighted, while the link between social differences and the uneven distribution of resources could only be glimpsed sporadically. A clear pattern of individuality could also be interpreted. The second of the two parts of the study was designed as a multiple case study. In this, the teaching of two teaching contents in civics, politics and economics, were studied as two separate cases. Three different images of society could be interpreted: a rationalist, a functionalist and a socio-political image. Of these, only the socio-political image offered a transparent view into the differentiated social space. However, the socio-political image was given a weak and unclear legitimacy in the teaching. The dominance of the rationalist and functionalist images were related to traditions that embed the teaching of civics. In the discussion the results from the two parts of the study were taken together and related to the problem. Among other things, the results were interpreted as an example of a conflict between contemporary reproduction and historical reproduction in education.

  • 247.
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Old-Growth Forests in the High Coast Region in Sweden and Active Management in Forest Set-Asides2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today´s intensively managed landscape, very few forests with old-growth characteristics and little human impact exist. One of the rare exceptions is pine forests on rocky soils, a forest type which has probably escaped extensive human use because of its low productivity. Our objective was to investigate the structure, dynamics, and history as well as the abundance and richness of wood-inhabiting fungi in these types of forest. We chose rocky pine forests situated in the High Coast Region to exemplify this forest type since the regional County Administration had already made surveys of the conservation value in 26 rocky pine forest stands in this region. We investigated the forests by recording tree species and measuring tree size and age in eight of the stands that were ranked with the highest conservation value. We also sampled dead wood to examine time since death and we sampled living and dead trees with fire scars to date fires. In addition, we made an inventory of wood-inhabiting fruiting bodies and took woodchip samples from logs to learn (by DNA analysis) whether five rare wood inhabiting fungi species were present as mycelia in logs.

    We found that rocky pine forests in the High Coast Region have a multi-sizedand multi-aged structure and old pine trees (approximately 13 ha-1 older than 300 years) are present. Fire has been common (an average of 42 years betweenfires) but they were likely to have been low-intense and small. Although the amount of dead wood is relatively low (4.4 m3 ha-1 on average) compared to many other boreal forests with old-growth characteristics, the share of deadwood of the total tree basal area (18%) was in line with other pine forests with low levels of human impact. The low dead wood volume is therefore likely to be an effect of the low productivity rather than dead wood extraction by humans. We also discovered that dead wood can be present for a really longtime without totally decomposing; we found logs and snags that had been dead for 500 years. This continuity of dead wood might be important for organisms dependent on dead wood as a substrate and even though we found that the species richness of wood-inhabiting fungi was somewhat low, we did find some rare species. Cinereomyces lenis and Hyphodontia halonata were present as fruiting bodies and we also found Antrodia albobrunnea, Antrodiainfirma, Crustoderma corneum and Anomoporia kamtschatica present as myceliain logs.

    The second part of this thesis reports two systematic reviews studying the effects of active management on the biodiversity in boreal and temperate forests. A systematic review follows certain guidelines and aims to compile the evidence base in well-defined topics, so that managers, researchers and policymakers can gain access to a high-quality compilation of current research. In our systematic map, we found almost 800 relevant papers but the set of papers turned out to be too heterogenic (many intervention types, e.g. thinning, burning, grazing and many types of outcomes) to allow any quantitative analysis. However, this map identified knowledge gaps and several detailed research questions that had sufficient data to provide aquantitative statistical analysis.

    One of these questions was: What is the impact of dead wood creation or addition on dead wood-dependent species? We focused on three types of interventions: creation of dead wood, addition of dead wood from elsewhere and prescribed burning. The selected outcomes were: saproxylic insects (rareand pest species), saproxylic fungi (rare species), ground-living insects and cavity-nesting birds. There was no significant negative effect on any of the investigated species groups but a positive effect on the abundance and richness of saproxylic insects and fungi. We also found that, although the amount of dead wood created was much less (50%) with prescribed burning, the abundance and richness of saproxylic insects showed similar positive effects to those of other intervention methods. A likely explanation for this is that burning results in a diversity of dead wood of various levels of quality (e.g. dense and/or charred wood), which creates a heterogeneity of dead woodtypes having a positive effect on the diversity of species dependent on deadwood. In summary, active management generally has a positive effect on biodiversity but the choice of management type should always be made carefully, and in consideration of the effect you want to achieve. In addition, there is a need for more long-term primary studies and more species groups in more geographical areas need to be incorporated so that the systematic reviews in this field will be even more informative in the future.

  • 248.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Life-Cycle Energy and Carbon Implications of Wood-Based Products and Construction2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests can be an important element of an overall strategy to limit the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) that contributes to climate change. As an integral part of the global carbon cycle, forests remove CO2 from the atmosphere as they grow, and accumulate carbon in tree biomass. Using wood products made from sustainably managed forests can reduce net CO2 emission by substituting in place of fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials. In this thesis the mechanisms by which wood product substitution can affect energy and carbon balances are studied. These include: the energy needed to manufacture wood products compared with alternative materials; the avoidance of industrial process carbon emission from e.g. cement manufacture; the use of wood by-products as biofuel to replace fossil fuels; and the physical storage of carbon in forests and wood materials.

    A methodological framework is first developed by integrating knowledge from the fields of forestry, industry, construction, and energy. A life cycle perspective is employed encompassing the entire product chain from natural resource acquisition to material disposal or reuse. Analytical challenges that are addressed include the functional unit of comparison, the fossil reference system, land use issues of wood vs. non-wood materials, and the diverse phases of the product life cycle. The methodology is then applied to two multi-storey wood-framed buildings in Sweden and Finland, compared with two functionally equivalent buildings with reinforced concrete structural frames. The results show that less primary energy is needed to produce the wood-framed buildings than the concrete-frame buildings. CO2 emission is significantly lower for the wood-frame buildings, due to reductions in both fossil fuel use and cement calcination process emission. The most important single factor affecting the energy and carbon balances is the use of biomass by-products from the wood product chain as biofuel to replace fossil fuels. Over the life cycle of the wood-framed buildings, the energy of biomass residues from forest operations, wood processing, construction and demolition is greater than the energy inputs to produce the materials in the buildings. Realisation of this benefit is facilitated by integrating and optimising the biomass and energy flows within the forestry, industrial, construction, energy, and waste management sectors.

    Different forest management regimes are studied in an integrated carbon analysis to quantify the carbon flows and stocks associated with tree biomass, soils, and forest products. Intensified forest management that produces greater quantities of biomass leads to net CO2 emission benefits by augmenting the potential to substitute for fossil fuels and non-wood materials. The increased energy use and carbon emission required for the more intensive forest management, as well as the slight reduction in soil carbon accumulation due to greater removal of forest residues, are more than compensated for by the emission reduction due to product substitution. Carbon stock changes in forests and wood materials can be temporarily significant, but over the building life cycle and forest rotation period the stock change becomes insignificant. In the long term, the active and sustainable management of forests, including their use as a source for wood products and biofuels, allows the greatest potential for reducing net CO2 emission.

    Implementation issues related to the wider use of wood-based materials to reduce energy use and carbon emission are also explored. An analysis of the effects of energy and taxation costs on the economic competitiveness of materials shows that the cost of energy for material processing, as a percentage of the total cost of finished material, is lower for wood products than for other common non-wood building materials. Energy and carbon taxation affects the cost of wood products less than other materials. The economic benefit of using biomass residues to substitute for fossil fuels also increases as tax rates increase. In general, higher taxation of fossil fuels and carbon emission increases the economic competitiveness of wood construction. An analysis of added value in forest product industries shows that greater economic value is added in the production of structural building materials than in other uses of forest biomass. Co-production of multiple wood-based products increases the total value that is added to the biomass produced on an area of forest land. The results show that production of wood-based building material is favoured economically by climate change mitigation policies, and creates high added value within forest product industries.

  • 249.
    Schwarz, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Gaining Depth: Time-of-Flight Sensor Fusion for Three-Dimensional Video Content Creation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful revival of three-dimensional (3D) cinema has generated a great deal of interest in 3D video. However, contemporary eyewear-assisted displaying technologies are not well suited for the less restricted scenarios outside movie theaters. The next generation of 3D displays, autostereoscopic multiview displays, overcome the restrictions of traditional stereoscopic 3D and can provide an important boost for 3D television (3DTV). Then again, such displays require scene depth information in order to reduce the amount of necessary input data. Acquiring this information is quite complex and challenging, thus restricting content creators and limiting the amount of available 3D video content. Nonetheless, without broad and innovative 3D television programs, even next-generation 3DTV will lack customer appeal. Therefore simplified 3D video content generation is essential for the medium's success.

    This dissertation surveys the advantages and limitations of contemporary 3D video acquisition. Based on these findings, a combination of dedicated depth sensors, so-called Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras, and video cameras, is investigated with the aim of simplifying 3D video content generation. The concept of Time-of-Flight sensor fusion is analyzed in order to identify suitable courses of action for high quality 3D video acquisition. In order to overcome the main drawback of current Time-of-Flight technology, namely the high sensor noise and low spatial resolution, a weighted optimization approach for Time-of-Flight super-resolution is proposed. This approach incorporates video texture, measurement noise and temporal information for high quality 3D video acquisition from a single video plus Time-of-Flight camera combination. Objective evaluations show benefits with respect to state-of-the-art depth upsampling solutions. Subjective visual quality assessment confirms the objective results, with a significant increase in viewer preference by a factor of four. Furthermore, the presented super-resolution approach can be applied to other applications, such as depth video compression, providing bit rate savings of approximately 10 percent compared to competing depth upsampling solutions. The work presented in this dissertation has been published in two scientific journals and five peer-reviewed conference proceedings. 

    In conclusion, Time-of-Flight sensor fusion can help to simplify 3D video content generation, consequently supporting a larger variety of available content. Thus, this dissertation provides important inputs towards broad and innovative 3D video content, hopefully contributing to the future success of next-generation 3DTV.

  • 250.
    Sefyrin, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sitting on the Fence – Critical Explorations of Participatory Practices in IT Design2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about participation in IT design. The problem background that I have outlined is that information technologies have far reaching consequences for societies and for individuals, and that the design of information technologies is one among many practices that shape the world in which we live. From a democratic point of view it is crucial that also women should be involved in these reality producing practices. In relation to this there are at least two stories about women’s participation in IT design; one about their absence from IT design, and one about their inclusion therein. Based on this problem background the purpose of my research is to critically explore participatory IT design practices, with a special focus on gender, power and knowledge. In order to fulfil the purpose I have three research questions: Who participated in the IT design practices? How did knowledge come into being in these practices? How was responsibility enacted?

    My frame of reference is based on two research fields. One is Participatory Design (PD) with its focus on practitioners as co-designers in IT design practices, and the other is feminist technoscience which focuses on theories, methods, approaches, knowledge processes, and gender in technoscience practices. These two frameworks shares an interest in power relations and democratic participation in IT design. My empirical material was gathered with the help of ethnographic methods, and comes from a large IT design project in a Swedish government agency. The project was an eGovernment project, and a central objective was to rationalise the business. My focus was some (women) administrative officers who participated as business process analysts. This material was analysed with the help of feminist technoscience methodologies, foremost agential realism and diffraction.

    My thesis is based on five research papers, and the results of these are discussed and related to the research questions and the purpose. Based on an expanded notion of IT design and of participation in IT design, I argue that the administrative officers in the IT design project participated as central actors in the project. These administrative officers were able to participate within the context provided by various entangled sociomaterial practices, such as the project method, boundaries between business and IT, gendered divisions of labour, eGovernment, rationalisation, the project objectives, and an innovation practice. I also argue that in the project knowledge did not simply exist, but came into being as a result of entanglements of these sociomaterial practices, foremost the project objectives and the method. As a result of the reconfigured knowledge the administrative officers were removed to the periphery of the project. An additional argument is that with participation comes responsibility, and that responsibility is related to agency. Responsibility was enacted in and as a result of entangled sociomaterial practices. In this project the administrative officers were given and took a lot of responsibility within the boundaries provided by the sociomaterial practices, but they also worked to widen their agency and thus extend their responsibilities in the project. In relation to gender my argument is that the administrative officers in the project – who were women – participated as central actors, but they were also marginalised and made invisible. Thus in this IT design project women were included as central actors.

    As one of my contributions to PD and to feminist technoscience I want to underscore the importance of sociomaterial practices in IT design, such as IT design methods, and project objectives. These may act to restrict actors’ possibilities to act and to exert influence. Another is that knowledge in IT design practices come into being and are reconfigured as a consequence of intra-acting sociomaterial practices. Reconfigurations of knowledge might shift the power balance among actors in IT design projects and marginalise previously central actors. Responsibility too comes into being, or is enacted, in entangled sociomaterial practices. Furthermore responsibility in IT design is closely related to agency and participation, and widened agency might lead to extended possibilities to take responsibility. Additionally if positions in IT design are understood as fixed, they might make invisible more shifting and intricate professional relations and activities, and once these become visible, more women may become visible as central actors in IT design. A further contribution is that an expanded notion of IT design and participation might make women visible as central participants in IT design and in eGovernment. However, also central participants may become marginalised, as happened in this project.

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