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  • 1951.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University.
    Tourism and protected areas: Motives, actors and processes2006In: The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, ISSN 1745-1590, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the paradigm shift in nature conservation policy towards the inclusion of local inhabitants in planning and management of protected areas, tourism is emphasized as a way to achieve economic development in peripheral areas. Governance issues and the real impacts from tourism on development are thus often under scrutiny. In this article, the focus is on the role of tourism in the political process of protected area designation. How does the inclusion of the tourism argument affect designation processes? What kind of tourism is being promoted and how can it be conceptualized with regard to human views of the use of nature? An ecostrategic framework is presented to illustrate the essential land use choices available. Three cases of protected area designation processes are used to address the issue of tourism; the failure of the Kiruna National Park proposal and the successfully implemented snowmobile regulation area in Funäsdalen and Fulufjället National Park. The analysis shows that tourism indeed may increase local acceptance of protected areas, but how powerful this argument is depends on contextual and process factors as well.

  • 1952.
    Zakariasson, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Carlsson, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Upplevd arbetstillfredsställelse2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1953.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Big Five Inventory (BFI): Utprövning för svenska förhållanden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Big Five Inventory (BFI) är ett test bestående av 44 påståenden avsett att mäta de fem grundläggande personlighetsdimensionerna Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism och Openness (John & Srivastava, 1999). Testet har utformats främst för forskningsändamål men någon systematisk utprövning för svenska förhållanden har inte gjorts. Enkäter distribuerades till fem olika undersökningsgrupper med varierande bakgrund (n=431, 45% män och 55% kvinnor), i ålder varierande från 18 till 80 år. Testet analyserades i relation till demografiska variabler, samt arbetslivsrelaterade faktorer såsom arbetsmotiv, intressen, yrkes- och utbildningsval, samt attityder och fördomar. Resultaten visade på en god reliabilitet (Cronbach’s alpha-koefficienter varierande mellan .73 och .84), en tydlig faktorstruktur samt låga till måttliga korrelationer mellan dimensionerna. De fem personlighetsdimensionernas samband med de arbetslivsrelaterade faktorerna var i allmänhet i förväntad riktning. Särskilt tydligt var detta för dimensionen Openness. Inte i något fall visade resultaten samband som gick i motsatt riktning mot vad som förväntades. Slutsatsen är att BFI är ett tillförlitligt test som fungerar väl att användas främst i forsknings- och utbildningssyfte.

  • 1954.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Construction of a short version of the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) scale2005In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 863-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an attempt to develop a short (15 item) version of the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) scale (Altemeyer, 1998). Participants were three samples of high school and university students (1750 years old). The scale developed had items that were shorter, with less extreme wording, and less reference to specific groups (e.g., women, homosexuals), i.e., relating to attitudes to be predicted from RWA, rather than being part of the RWA concept itself. The scale displayed reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) varying between 0.72 and 0.80 in the three samples. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the short RWA scale substantially contributed to the variance in ethnic tolerance, racism, and sexism (when controlling for social dominance orientation). It was discussed that this version of the RWA scale presumably taps a somewhat narrower authoritarianism concept, but still functions as predicted from theory and earlier research. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 1955.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Engagement in voluntary associations and socio-political attitudes and behavior: A tentative test of the causal direction: Paper presented at ISSID conference, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, July 18-22.2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1956.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Finns det skillnader i medborgarkultur i Sverige? 2001In: Kooperation, socialt kapital och medborgerliga insatser, Stockholm: Fören. Kooperativa studier , 2001, p. 143-171Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 1957.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Gender differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Gender invariance may be situation invariance2008In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 59, no 3-4, p. 254-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of gender differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) have investigated settings more or less hierarchy-enhancing. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in SDO (1) within social structures varying in equality-enhancement, i.e., communities differing in political equality between men and women, and (2) settings where equality was maximized and held constant, i.e., democratic, voluntary associations, but varying in gender composition, using survey data from a random sample of 831 Swedish adults (median age = 47 years). There was a significant interaction effect between gender and membership in voluntary associations dominated by women, with men and women displaying equally low levels of SDO. In all other instances the main effect of gender remained statistically significant.

  • 1958.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kön och makt: Relationen mellan sociala strukturer, kön och identitet2007In: Genusmaraton 2007: Mittsveriges genusforskare på frammarsch, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2007, p. 63-68Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1959.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sex differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Is male dominance inevitable?: ISPP 27th annual meeting, Lund, Sweden, 14-18 July, 20042004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1960.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Anderzén, Marie
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lenell, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sandelin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ambivalent sexism: A tool for understanding and improving gender relations in organizations2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested predictions regarding ambivalent sexism, previously studied cross-culturally, here ‘‘within-culturally’’, between groups from different organizational settings. Based on three samples (334 adults in general, 744 industrial employees, and 189 high school students), completing a Swedish version of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the results revealed that men scored higher on hostile and benevolent sexism than women, and high school students scored higher than both adult samples on both forms of sexism. The results generally confirmed the predictions; the gender gap in benevolent sexism decreased as a function of increasing levels of general sexism and the correlation between hostile and benevolent sexism decreased with higher levels of general sexism. In fact, the groups scoring highest on general sexism displayed significant negative correlations indicating a polarized ideology of women among these groups. Implications, both theoretical and practical, derived from these results are discussed.

  • 1961.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tolerance, SDO, RWA, and perceived upbringing in Sweden: Paper presented at the ISPP 25th conference in Berlin, Germany, July 16-19, 2002.2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1962.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vem får vara med och vem bestämmer?: Om exklusion och inklusion i idrottsföreningars beslutsfattande2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 40-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tanken är att idrott ska vara till för alla, av alla. Idrotten fyller också andra funktioner än enbart bollsparkande och skidåkande, särskilt utanför städerna. Vi kommer i denna artikel att presentera resultat från två olika studier. I den första behandlas frågan om hur styrelserna i några mindre idrottsföreningar hanterar dilemman mellan olika intressen. Är det så att alla får vara med eller finns intressen och grupper som exkluderas? Den andra studien handlar om hur dessa dilemman hanteras i beslutande organ om förutsättningarna systematiskt varieras, i fråga om hur målet för verksamheten definieras och ifråga om hur könssammansättning ser ut. Studierna har finansierats med medel från CIF och EU:s strukturfonder (Mål 1).

  • 1963.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Skoglund, Wilhelm
    Jämtland läns institut för landsbygdsutveckling.
    Jonsson, Gun
    Naturvårdsverket.
    Löfstrand, Pär
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Idrottens roll i lokal samhällsutveckling: bortom Real Madrid och storstädernas mångfald2008Report (Other academic)
  • 1964.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Emotions in motion: Tourists' experiences in time and space2012In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 505-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology enables the study of tourists’ activities and movement patterns in real time. But what does this information tell us about tourists’ subjective experiences? The present paper accounts for the results from four case studies: two event studies and two destination studies. Two of these took place in the wintertime, and two in the summertime. Visitors carried a GPS device for one day, after which they answered a brief questionnaire. A total of 241 visitors participated in the study. Based on cluster analyses of distance measures calculated from the GPS data, several movement patterns were revealed. Three of these, labelled Main attraction visitors, Wanderers, and Specialists, emerged in all four cases. The reported experiences differed between the clusters, especially concerning negative experiences. In the destination studies, the clusters differed with regard to what was considered a negative experience, while in the event studies, the clusters differed with regard to how the tourists responded emotionally to their experiences. The authors conclude that GPS technology is a promising tool for tourism research but that, if one is to gain a full understanding of tourists’ experiences and mobility, it ought to be combined with other methods.

  • 1965.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    "Det lilla extra" - om ekonomiseringen av vård och omsorg och det meningsfulla arbetet2008In: Arbete, hälsa och kön, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2008, p. 61-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1966.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Enclave Tourism: exclusive Spaces or Spaces of Exclusion?2012In: AAG Annual Meeting: New York 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1967.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Labor mobility in tourism and hospitality: effects on firms´capacity to innovate2012In: AAG Annual Meeting: New York 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to various theories of economic geography, agglomeration economies drive innovation and the dynamic benefits of clustering facilitate learning and innovation.  Additionally, many observers claim that labor mobility is a key factor when it comes to the diffusion of ideas and knowledge. In this paper we try to explore whether these theories also apply to firms in the service industry, notably tourism and hospitality. The majority of jobs in tourism and hospitality are poorly paid, highly feminized, semi-skilled or unskilled and temporary. Tourism and hospitality is also notorious for its high staff turnover.  In this paper we try to identify under what circumstances labor mobility might benefit or pose a problem to firms´ capacity to innovate and meet the demand for service quality. The discussion is based on interviews with directors and human resource managers in firms located in Åre (a mountain resort in the north of Sweden) and Stockholm (capital of Sweden). Apart from being located in regions with very different conditions concerning population, labor market mobility, seasonality, and so on, the selected firms represent different sub-sectors (hotel, restaurant, tourism supplier) and also vary in terms, for example, of their size and organization. The paper concludes with a discussion on labor mobility in connection to, on the one hand, knowledge diffusion and, on the other hand, knowledge-accumulation.

  • 1968.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tourism and Hospitality workers: the Internationalization of Reproductive Labor2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jobs in tourism are important for many localities large and small, and in many contexts they provide one of the very few employment opportunities. Nevertheless, considerable criticism exists concerning tourism-dependent jobs. Observers argue that these jobs are poorly paid, semi-skilled or unskilled, temporary, highly feminized and with limited career opportunities. Low salaries and poor benefits (combined with long hours and little appreciation) ensure that a large army of tourism workers have minimal incentives to stay on in their present job. Tourism workers might, depending on the spatial but also their individual socio-economic context, either "stay where they are" or choose to exit. This paper (the first of two papers in the session) will be based on a literature review aiming to give an overview of what we understand about the people working in this sector in general, and more specifically what we know and do not know about tourism workers in Sweden (in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, education, previous occupations, geographical and sectoral mobility etc). A presentation of a lifecycle perspective of Sweden's tourism workers will be offered.

  • 1969.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tourism and Hospitality Workers.: The Internationalization of Reproductive Work?2011In: Innovation Processes and Destination Development in Tourist Resorts, Östersund 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is moving, and so are we. People with a western life-style travel frequently and over longer distances, hence tourism is becoming increasingly international. At the same time international migration also increases, especially from the South to the North. This paper puts focus on the socio-spatial labor mobility in (and out of) tourism and hospitality. Tourism and hospitality are widely thought to be highly feminized sectors. Jobs are considered low paid, temporary and/or part-time, low skilled and with few career opportunities. What is more, staff turnover is high. However, tourism and hospitality is sometimes claimed to be gateways for immigrants and young people to enter the labor market. Moreover, in deindustrializing and in sparsely populated, rural regions, expectations of tourism and hospitality as remedies to rising unemployment are high. This paper suggests a study of labor and the socio-spatial labor mobility in tourism and hospitality from an intersectional perspective (gender, race, class) and in two different geographical settings: the urban and the rural. What patterns of socio-spatial labour (im)mobility can be discovered?  What patterns of division of labor in each context (urban/rural)? This paper also suggests that work performed by front-end workers in tourism and hospitality could be labeled “reproductive”. Internationalization is taking place since labour travel across state borders to be reproduced, or in many cases, to perform reproductive work.

  • 1970.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Tourism Labour Conundrum: Agenda for New Research in the Geography of Hospitality Workers2011In: Hospitality & Society, ISSN 2042-7913, E-ISSN 2042-7921, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this review, we argue that the study of tourism and hospitality labour geography must be re-addressed since it has, with few exceptions, only superficially been treated within the overall economic geography of tourism. Specifically, this past research has largely evaded the rigorous political economy approach advocated by many commentators over the last two decades. The resurrection of the labour theme is especially important since the tourism and hospitality sector is advocated as a significant job generator in many regions worldwide. However, jobs in this industry are often low-paid, low-skilled, temporary and/or part-time. These include the numerous lower-end employment positions within the hospitality sector where limited training appears to be the norm and long-term career opportunities are few. The hospitality workforce at this lower tier of the employment spectrum predominately consists of women, immigrants and young people. We argue that these individuals’ work is first and foremost reproductive; in other words, these hospitality workers’ tasks are associated with the housewife´s unpaid tasks within the home. Furthermore, staff turnover in this sector is notoriously high. Taken together this leads us to suggest a focus on the socio-spatial labour mobility and the division of labour from an intersectional perspective (sex, race and class) in an attempt to better understand the complex relations and processes at work expressed in a tourism and hospitality labour geography.

  • 1971. Zanker, M
    et al.
    Höpken, W
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Exploiting Feedback from Users of Innsbruck mobile for Personalization2011In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2011 / [ed] Law, R., Fuchs, M. & Ricci, F., New York: Springer, 2011, p. 63-74Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1972. Zanker, M
    et al.
    Höpken, W
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Innsbruck.mobile - A Collaborative Tourist Recommender based on Multiple Evidence: User Modelling and User-adapted Interaction2009In: Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, ISSN 1567-4223, E-ISSN 1873-7846Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1973. Zanker, Markus
    et al.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    Tuta, Mario
    Müller, Nina
    Evaluating Recommender Systems in Tourism: A Web-Usage Mining Approach2008In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2008, Innsbruck, Austria, 2008 / [ed] O'Connor, Peter; Höpken, Wolfram; Gretzel, Ulrike, New York: Springer, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1974. Zanker, Markus
    et al.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Seebacher, Alexander
    Jessenitschnig, Markus
    Stromberger, M
    An Autometed Approach for Deriving Semantic Annotations of Tourism Products based on Geo-Spatial Information2009In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2009 Proceedings of the International Conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009 / [ed] Höpken, Wolfram; Gretzel, Ulrike; Law, Rob, Viennna New York: Springer, 2009, p. 211-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High quality product data is a necessary prerequisite for supporting efficient browsing and recommendation procedures on e-commerce platforms. This is especially true for the tourism domain where an abundance of information can easily overwhelm users. Although classification data such as to which category (e.g. accommodation, restaurant or sight) a tourism product belongs is usually directly available, qualitative information, such as proximity to a lake or opportunities for dining or shopping, is rarely provided in a structured way. As a consequence, users can not restrict their search on these criteria; rather, it would require costly manual information acquisition efforts. In this paper we propose a knowledge-based approach that automatically associates such qualitative concepts with tourism products based on their geographic coordinates and their spatial proximity. An initial evaluation of the approach that considered automatically generated annotations within different regions suggests that it can be used as an alternative to domain experts.

  • 1975. Zanker, Markus
    et al.
    Jessenitschnig, Markus
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Automated semantic annotation of tourism resources based on geo-spatial data2009In: Information Technology & Tourism, ISSN 1098-3058, E-ISSN 1943-4294, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 341-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web 2.0 applications, now common in the tourism domain, make it easy to share travel related experiences and opinions, thus, leading to the creation of enormous amounts of user generated content. This type of tourist information must, however, be preprocessed by structuring and aggregating it in order to avoid overwhelming users. In this article we, therefore, propose a knowledge-based approach that exploits spatial proximity to annotate resources with qualitative semantic concepts for tourism products, such as proximity to a lake or opportunities for specific sporting activities. Finally, the article describes the successful prototypical implementation of the proposed technique and provides insight into a practical usage scenario

  • 1976.
    Zhou, Chunyan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    From a university-run enterprise to a leading group of regional IT industrial clusters: In a perspective of an academia-government-industry triple helix2012In: Technological Entrepreneurship in China: How Does it Work? / [ed] Petti, C; Ederer, M, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 66-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1977.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    A spatial approach on tourists’ travel routes in Sweden2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund

    Destinationer och deras attraktioner har varit föremål för omfattande forskning. Detta gäller

    emellertid inte de olika förfl yttningar som görs under en resa. Förfl yttningarna görs inte bara

    till och från en destination, utan också på själva destinationen. Under de sista åren har så kalllade

    multidestinationsresor blivit allt populärare, där turister reser från en plats till en annan

    längs en resrutt.

    I denna studie har turisters olika förfl yttningar i Sverige undersökts. Som målgrupp har tyska

    bilturister valts, som utgör en av de viktigaste inkommande besöksgrupperna när det gäller

    fl erdagsresor. I studien ingår både turister som gör en rundresa genom Sverige, och de som

    bor på en och samma plats och gör dagsutfl ykter därifrån.

    Syfte och metod

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur typiska resrutter ser ut och vilka faktorer som påverkar

    dessa. Vidare analyseras turisternas resvana i Sverige samt resans längd. Även frågan om

    det fi nns återkommande resmönster, som sker oberoende av attraktionerna, belyses.

    Data har samlats in med hjälp av resdagböcker som 70-talet tyska bilturister skrev under sin

    resa genom Sverige. Varje dag skrev de ned hur långt de körde, var och varför de stannade

    och vilka aktiviteter de deltog i. Dessutom ritade de upp sin dagliga resrutt på en karta. Datainsamlingen

    gjordes under sommaren 2004.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att de fl esta turisterna reser enligt en viss rytm, oberoende av attraktioner som

    besöks. Antalet tidigare besök i Sverige påverkar inte den individuella rytmen. Däremot visar

    det sig att ett större antal tidigare besök i Sverige ökar benägenheten att resa längre norrut.

    Tiden som turisten spenderar i Sverige är en viktig faktor för dagliga förfl yttning. Turister

    som är i Sverige kortare tid reser inte kortare total körsträcka, utan kompenserar en kortare

    vistelsetid med längre dagliga körsträckor.

  • 1978.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Bilden av Sverige i tyska guideböcker2005Report (Other academic)
  • 1979.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Die Hansestadt Bremen als Ziel schwedischer Städtetouristen2003In: Norden, ISSN 0029-1226, no 15, p. 33-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1980.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    German tourists and their use of guidebooks in Sweden2004Report (Other academic)
  • 1981.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Germans' tourist behaviour in Sweden2008In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 143-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism research has identified a number of factors that influence tourist behaviour, among them socio-demographic characteristics and the number of previous visits. This article argues that also tourists' spatial mobility, the time period within the holiday, the characteristics of the places visited, and the access to information act as important determinants for the level and choice of tourist activities. Focus in this analysis is lying on German car tourists in Sweden. For this study, a combination of methodologies is employed. This includes travel diaries on access to information as well as on type, place and length of activities, which were written by the respondents during their holiday in Sweden, and personal interviews, which were carried out after the respondents had returned home. Tourist behaviour was found to be similar to the respondents' behaviour at home, and place in combination with a limited time period and the absence of externally imposed routines was a major factor for this. In general, tourists took part in an activity for a relatively short period time before moving on. The level of spatial mobility was found to positively influence the level of tourist activity, and was to a great part responsible for the succession of activities. The time period within the holiday did not specifically influence activities, but so did access to tourist information, which affected the choice and duration of activities. Guidebooks were found to constitute the most important tourist information for the analysed tourist group.

  • 1982.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Guidebooks and the city: Guided city tours in German guidebooks on Sweden2009In: Guiding and guided tours / [ed] Adolfsson, P., Dobers, P., Jonasson, M, Göteborg: BAS , 2009, 1, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1983.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Guided tourism: the role of guidebooks in German tourist behaviour in Sweden2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1984.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Om tyskarnas kärlek till älgen2008In: Jämten 2009, Östersund: Jamtli , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1985.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Organising tourism development in peripheral areas -the case of the Subarctic network in northern Sweden2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1986.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Organising tourism development in peripheral areas: the case of the Subarctic network in northern Sweden.2006In: Tourism in peripheries: perspectives from the north and south, Wallington: CABI Publishing, 2006, p. 53-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1987.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The importance of guidebooks for the choice of tourist sites: a study of German tourists in Sweden.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 229-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guidebooks contain important sources of information for travellers. It can be assumed that they influence the reader's choice of tourist sites, as a selection of tourist attractions is presented in the books. In this study, the influence of guidebooks on German tourists' choice of tourist sites in Sweden was examined. Nine guidebooks were analysed. In order to analyse the relationship between the presentation in the guidebooks and tourist journeys to these places, a comparison between presented tourist sites and accommodation statistics (for the year 2002) was accomplished. Further, the content of the presented tourist regions was analysed. The results indicate that the distance from home affects how strongly tourists are influenced by guidebooks. In addition, it was found that individually created tourist regions are regularly used in guidebooks and that a stereotype picture of these tourist regions is provided.

  • 1988.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The power over tourist information – on the selection of tourist sites in guidebooks2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1989.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tourist routes: a time-geographical approach on German car-tourists in Sweden2007In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 64-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is often studied as if it was static. Yet, mobility constitutes an important part of the tourism system. The paper argues that tourists are travelling according to an individual travel rhythm, which can be defined as a travel pattern that tourists relate to, independent from the tourist sites that are visited. It was found out that there are long travel distances on the first and last day of the holiday, that mobility and stationariness are concentrated in time and that tourists along a round tour often spend the longest time in the region with the longest distance to the home region. The paper concludes that a travel rhythm exists, and that it is only partly influenced by the time the tourist spends at the destination, and the previous number of visits. Time geography was applied as underlying theory, and its use can be encouraged in forthcoming tourism studies.

  • 1990.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Turistinformationens produktion och betydelse: Forskningsrapport för Stiftelsen för kunskapsfrämjande inom turism.2007Report (Other academic)
  • 1991.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tyska bilturisters resor i Sverige: Rapport för Stiftelsen för kunskapsfrämjande inom turism.2005Report (Other academic)
  • 1992.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tyska bilturisters resrutter i Sverige: Forskningsrapport för Stiftelsen för kunskapsfrämjande inom turism.2005Report (Other academic)
  • 1993.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tyskar och älgar - en kärlekshistoria2008In: Alces alces: älskade älg / [ed] Zipsane, H., 2008, 1, p. 70-81Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1994.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Who has the power over tourist information? About the selection of tourist sites in guidebooksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1995.
    Åkerberg, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Flexibilitet - tillgång eller efterfrågan?: En kvalitativ studie av det organisatoriska fält som fokuserar på individer utanför aktiv anställning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie ämnar studera ansvarsområden, samverkan och upplevda gråzoner hos de organisationer i Sundsvalls Kommun som arbetar gentemot individer utan aktiv anställning. Berörda organisationer för denna studie är Arbetsförmedlingen, Försäkringskassan, Socialtjänsten, Faros, FAVI, Ungdoms- och Vuxencentrum som alla är verksamma inom samma organisatoriska fält, då de alla arbetar gentemot individer utanför aktiv anställning, alltså samma målgrupp.

    Studien undersöker om flexibilitet, som krav för en hög samverkan organisationerna emellan, ligger till grund för otydliga ansvarsområden. Även samverkan och överlämningar av ärenden mellan organisationerna kommer att undersökas. Slutligen hur respondenterna själva upplever eventuella gråzoner inom det organisatoriska fältet.

    Resultat visar att det framförallt är människor med multipla behov som riskerar att förbises inom det organisatoriska fältet. Respondenterna menar däremot inte att individerna hamnar utanför ansvarsområden, utan snarare att de fastnar inom dem. Det är slutligen graden av samverkan som ligger till grund för vilken hjälp individen får.

    Resultat tyder på att Socialtjänsten, liksom de organisationer som har Socialtjänsten som uppdragsgivare, är de organisationer som bäst samverkar kring individers multipla behov och har störst incitament för att göra så. Detta torde göra dessa organisationer till de mest troliga ensamma överlevarna inom det organisatoriska fältet.

  • 1996. Ångman, Maria
    et al.
    Wolvén, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Susanna
    Kloep, Marion
    Småföretagares levnadsvillkor och livsstilar: en studie av entreprenörskap i tre regioner.1996Report (Other academic)
  • 1997.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Evaluating realist explanations of internal conflict: The case of Liberia2001In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 10, p. 186-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1998.
    Ångström, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Ström, Lars-Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Survival of the most cited: Small political science communities and international influence : the case of Sweden2003In: European Political Science, ISSN 1680-4333, Vol. 2, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1999.
    Åström, Pia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Förväntningar och utfall av revisionen i nystartade mikroföretag2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Background: Since 1988, all Swedish limited companies, regardless of size have been obliged to have a qualified auditor to examine the accounts of the company. Today, Sweden is one of two countries in Europe that still has the auditing duty for small businesses. In the EU, there are provisions, which allow Member States to exempt small companies from auditing duty. Based on the exemption provisions, an investigation has been made in Sweden and an act proposal has been presented where 96.5 percent of all enterprises in Sweden can  choose if they want to be revised or not. The auditing duty's be or not to be has been discussed widely in Sweden and studies have been made concerning the relationship that the companies have with the auditor, the use of the audit and the factors that might come into play if audit is made voluntary. A focus that is not thoroughly explored is how newly established micro-enterprises view the audit duty, which leads up to the research questions.

    Research questions: What expectations had micro-enterprises on the audit and the auditor when starting their businesses? After the first audit, were the expectations of the audit and the auditor met? How will the micro-enterprises deal if the auditing duty disappears?

    Purpose: To describe newly established micro-enterprises' expectations and perceptions of the audit and the auditor, and to describe what the micro-enterprises benefit from the audit service.

    Method: To achieve the purpose of the paper, a qualitative study has been done. Data collection was done through personal interviews with five managers in micro-enterprises in Skellefteå. The interviews have been done on the basis of an interview guide. Other information was collected from articles, dissertations, printed works and homepages on internet.                   

    Conclusion: Micro-enterprises appear to be satisfied with what the auditor is performing and the majority thinks that they will keep the auditor if the auditing duty removes. Companies are demanding that the auditor will have a more advisory role. One factor, however, is the price that determines how much the auditor will be hired.

  • 2000.
    Öberg, Michael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Förvaltningen och verkligheten: Ett implementeringsperspektiv på verkställigheter av utvisningsdomar i brottmål2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    I det föreliggande arbetet undersöks dels huruvida verkställigheten av domstolsbeslut gällande utvisning med återreseförbud omgärdas av några implementeringsproblem, dels av vilken karaktär dessa är och ur vad de är sprungna. Undersökningen, som är inom ramarna för det som brukar kallas policyanalys, sker med utgångspunkt i en teoretisk modell som tar hänsyn till tre olika typer av generella villkor som måste vara uppfyllda för att en lyckad implementering av ett överordnat beslut skall kunna sägas vara för handen. Studien bygger på en numerär genomgång av alla utvisningsärenden  som handlagts av Polismyndigheten i Västernorrlands län under en femårsperiod, samt på intervjuer med tillämpare på olika nivåer. Syftet med arbetet är att svara på frågorna: finns implementeringsproblem i den studerade kontexten? Om så är fallet, vilken karaktär har problemen och vad är det som gör att de uppstår?

     

3738394041 1951 - 2000 of 2047
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