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  • 1751.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The Impact of Financing Pattern on Firm Growth: Evidence fromSwedish Micro Firms2012Ingår i: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. 16-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the impact of financial structures on the growth of micro firms in Sweden. The objective of

    this paper is to explore whether firms’ growth can be associated with patterns of financial acquisition and

    whether these patterns influence firms’ growth differently when the source is either internal or external. Based

    on agency cost theory, hypotheses were formulated and tested with panel data consisting of 12 101 micro firms,

    using 84 707 observations for the period 2006–2007. The data were analysed using the seemingly unrelated

    regression (SUR) model. The empirical results reveal that internal financial sources – retained profit –

    significantly influence firm growth. Similarly, short-term debt and growth are positively related. However, firm

    growth is generally more sensitive to retained profit than short-term debt. Interestingly, long-term debt generally

    has no effect on growth. The findings also indicate that size, age, and industry affiliation influence firm growth. Finally, agency cost theory is relevant in explaining the relationship between financing pattern and growth.

  • 1752.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The patterns of financial bootstrapping behaviour: An empirical explorative study of Swedish SMEs in Jämtland.2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the patterns of financial

    bootstrapping behaviour of SMEs in Östersund/Sweden. The present research is

    based on a structured questionnaire survey and focuses on a sample of 146

    SMEs. ‘Financial bootstrapping’ denotes a set of techniques such as reliance on

    internal funding sources, low-cost acquisition of financial resources, and

    avoidance of external financial resources. The empirical results show that the

    sample firms use a wide variety of bootstrapping techniques. In addition,

    although the internal resources and social oriented techniques emerged as the

    most- and second most highly used financial bootstrapping techniques

    respectively, other techniques such as minimising accounts receivable,

    minimising capital, and subsidy bootstrapping have been ranked as the most

    important bootstrapping techniques. The results from this study contribute to

    the understanding of informal financial behaviour of SMEs.

  • 1753.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Ethnicity and aquisition of external capital at start-up stage: differences between small native Swedish- and immigrant-owned firms2012Ingår i: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 442-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explain empirically the differences in external financing between native- and immigrant-owned small businesses in terms of ethnicity and other relevant variables. A sample of 2,814 native- and immigrant-owned small businesses, based on a unique and comprehensive database gathered through interviews, was analysed employing several univariate and multivariate methods. The results suggest that ethnicity is an important explanatory variable differentiating between acquisitions of external capital at start-up stage. Owner characteristics such as age, experience of starting businesses and education also have an impact on finance-seeking behaviour and thereby on the acquisition of external capital. The findings indicate that characteristics of the firm, such as personal start-up capital, firm size, legal form and industrial sector, do partly influence access to external capital. Since knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start-up.

  • 1754.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Ethnicity and the pattern of capital acquisition at start-up stage:: differences between small Swedish native and immigrant-owned firms2013Ingår i: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 357-371Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explain empirically the differences in external financing between native– and immigrant–owned small businesses in terms of ethnicity and other relevant variables. A sample of 2,814 native– and immigrant–owned small businesses, based on a unique and comprehensive database gathered through interviews, was analysed employing several univariate and multivariate methods. The results suggest that ethnicity is an important explanatory variable differentiating between acquisitions of external capital at start–up stage. Owner characteristics such as age, experience of starting businesses and education also have an impact on finance–seeking behaviour and thereby on the acquisition of external capital. The findings indicate that characteristics of the firm, such as personal start–up capital, firm size, legal form and industrial sector, do partly influence access to external capital. Since knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start–up.

  • 1755.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Gender and the use of external business advice: A Swedish study2015Ingår i: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 105-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine whether there are significant differences betweenfemale and male entrepreneurs’ use of consultation during business start-ups.Design/methodology/approach – Using several statistical tools, including ANOVA and seeminglyunrelated regressions, empirical analyses are conducted on a unique and firm-level panel database of837 female- and 1926 male-owned active small firms.Findings – The results indicate that gender may be an important variable in the use of advice amongsmall business owners in Sweden. Female owners in this study are shown to be more eager than maleowners to use external business advice, and do so to a higher extent.Practical implications – One implication of this study is that firms may not be able to use allbusiness advice types simultaneously during their start-up stage, so an ordered list of consultancyservices would help them prioritize and adjust their needs accordingly. Because the use of businessadvice is context-based, the findings of this study may not be generalized to firms in othercountries. This paper shows some gender-based attributes/features relating to the use of businessadvice, which need to be better integrated into policymaking for the future assistance of smallbusinesses.Originality/value – This article focuses on an important issue and is unique partly because fewstudies have examined the relationship between gender and external business advice. By explicitly andempirically examining this issue, this article makes a contribution to the small- and medium-sizedenterprises’ literature.

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  • 1756.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    The Determinants of Informal Capital in the Financing of Small Firms at Start-Up:: An Ethnic Comparison of Small Firms in Sweden2013Ingår i: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 62-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains empirically the differences in the use of informal financing between native- and immigrant-owned small businesses in terms of ethnicity and other relevant variables. A sample of 2814 native- and immigrant-owned small businesses, consisting of a unique database gathered, was analysed and several univariate and multivariate methods employed. The results suggest that ethnicity is a significant explanatory variable and an important factor in informal capital access in the start-up stage in terms of loans from family members and friends. Moreover, the other independent variables, namely gender, age, experience of starting businesses, the amount of start capital, and firm size, affect loans from family members, whereas loans from friends are influenced by age, size, and industry affiliation. Since knowledge about informal capital determinants is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of the variables that explain the financing behaviour of small businesses at start-up.

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    Determinants_Yazdanfar
  • 1757.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Brouder, Patrick
    School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Business Advice Strategies of Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Sweden2015Ingår i: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 98-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are any significant differences between native Swedish and immigrant entrepreneurs in business advice sought at start-up.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study, based on a unique and large database consisting of 304 immigrant and 2,512 native-owned firms, applies several univariate and multivariate statistical methods including ANOVA and regression analysis.

    Findings – According to the results there are certain similarities and differences between Swedish native- and immigrant-owned firms concerning the type of external business advice they seek. The results suggest there are significant differences between native and immigrant-owned firms for four of 20 types of advice received. Native-owned firms, on average, tend to seek more advice on accounting and on the choice of business form as well as the help of a knowledgeable person. On the other hand, immigrants seek, on average, more advice on export questions than their native counterparts.

    Research limitations/implications – This research contributes to policy-making by helping authorities gain a better understanding of the impact of immigrant background on business network decisions at the nascent stage of development. Immigrant access to good advice in the nascent stage should increase new firm survival. This study does not, however, measure performance. As this research is based on aggregate level secondary data, more specific analysis has been impossible. This is an important limitation of this paper. In addition, immigrants are not homogenous groups and they differ in age, education, work experiences, etc. The results should therefore be interpreted carefully.

    Originality/value – This paper is one of the first and few empirical studies investigating the issue of immigrant business advice strategies in the Swedish context. The study provides a detailed overview of how ethnicity influences entrepreneurs’ use of external business advice in the firm formation stage for micro and small firms.

  • 1758.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Jahandar, S.
    Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, Chaucer 4711, Nottingham NG1 4BU, United Kingdom.
    Acquisition of external capital at start-up stage: Differences between Swedish female- and male-owned firms2012Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 435-451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores differences in external capital acquisition between female- and male-owned firms at start-up stage in Sweden. The study sample is taken from a unique and large database including 836 female- and 1928 male-owned firms in 2008, giving a total of 47,022 observations. ANOVA, multinomial logistic regression, and other robust statistical tests are employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that two variables, i.e., loans from family members and government grants, are significant in distinguishing between female- and male-owned firms in terms of external start-up capital. The findings also indicate that owners' previous experience and having an additional job outside one's own business influence the use of external capital at start-up stage. Knowledge of the difference between female- and maleowned firms' use external capital at start-up stage is limited and ambiguous. The present results contribute to research into small firm financing by adding insight into the relationships between capital acquisition, gender, and other variables. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 1759.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Jahandar, Sara
    School of Business and Economics,Loughborough University.
    The impact of internal finance on growth,: empirical evidence from Swedish firm-level data2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1760.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Lindvert, Märta
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The impact of capital structure on productivity among micro firms: Empirical Evidence from Swedish firm-level data2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1761.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The bankruptcy determinants of Swedish SMEs.2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 1762.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The Life Cycle of Growth Path among Micro Firms: Swedish Data2012Ingår i: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 107-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether the implications of the life cycle model hold on the growth path of a sample of Swedish micro firms. The study is based on a sample containing 22001 Swedish micro firms across six industries for the year 2007. Several methods are used to analyse the impact of the life stage and two control variables, size and industry, to analyse the impact on firm growth. The empirical results of the study confirm a clear pattern of the growth life-cycle process among Swedish micro firms. Young micro firms, generally, grow on average more than their older counterparts and as they age and develop, their growth rate decreases. Additionally, firm growth among firms of different sizes and in various industries still follows the general pattern of the total sample. Thus, it appears from the results that the growth rate of Swedish micro firms included in the sample follows a systematic and predictable pattern associated mainly with the life stage.

  • 1763.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Life Cycle of profitability among Swedish micro firms2013Ingår i: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 340-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year (2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

  • 1764.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level: Swedish micro firm data2012Ingår i: International journal of economics and finance, ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses job-creation determinants at the firm level for a panel of Swedish micro firms across four industry sectors, using the GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) system to analyse a database consisting of 12532 Swedish micro firms during 2007. It was found that the firms’ size and age, the importance of debt financing and increased availability of liquidity are positively related to job creation as well as industry affiliation. Finally, the results suggest that a resource-based approach is at work in explaining job creation in micro firms. Unlike the majority of previous studies, this study is characterized by being based on a large and cross-sectoral firm-level dataset, testing a number of hypotheses driven from the resource-based approach. The present study contributes to the literature on the determinants of employment at the firm level as it investigates the importance of liquidity and financial leverage to firm labour demand dynamics in Sweden.

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    Fulltext
  • 1765.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level Swedish Micro Firm Data2012Ingår i: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, nr 12, s. 105-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year 2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

  • 1766.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Turner, S.
    School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, United Kingdom .
    The impact of internal finance on growth empirical evidence from Swedish firm level data2013Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 51-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of firms' internal liquidity access and related firm characteristics on the growth of Swedish micro firms across six industry sectors, based on a database of over 62,000 observations covering 10,383 Swedish micro firms over the 2007-2008 period. Using a seemingly unrelated regression model with four explanatory variables (i.e., liquidity access, size, age, and industry affiliation), this study found a significant relationship between growth and the explanatory variables. Consistent with much previous research, this paper demonstrates that liquidity access positively affects firm growth. Furthermore, other firm-level variables, such as size, age, and industry affiliation, significantly affect firm growth. This article contributes to the literature by employing a seemingly unrelated regression model to analyse a comprehensive, cross-sectoral sample. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 1767.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Turner, Sara
    School of Business and Economics,Loughborough University.
    The structure of external financing at start-up stage: The differences between Swedish Female- and Male-Owned firms2012Ingår i: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, The International Journal of Business and Globalisation, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 157-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies the differences in external capital acquisition pattern between female- and male-owned firms at start-up stage in Sweden. The study sample is based on a unique and compressive database including 836 female- and 1,928 male-owned firms in 2008. Various statistical tests, such as factor analysis, are employed to analyse the data collected. The results indicate that significant differences exist in external capital structure between female and male-owned firms with regards to the use of individual financial sources. The structure of financing sources was also found having a different pattern at start-up stage between male and female owners. While the female owners prefer to use the formal capital sources, their male counterparts prioritise informal capital sources. In addition, female business owners prefer government grants as the third financing alternative before the risk capital while male counterparts behaved the opposite.

  • 1768.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Debt financing and firm performance: an empirical study based on Swedish data2015Ingår i: The Journal of Risk Finance, ISSN 1526-5943, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 102-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between debt level and performance among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach– Unlike the vast majority of previous research, this study uses three-stage least squares (3SLS) and fixed-effects models to analyse a comprehensive, cross-sectoral sample of 15,897 Swedish SMEs operating in five industry sectors during the 2009-2012 period. Findings– This study confirms that debt ratios, in terms of trade credit, short-term debt and long-term debt, negatively affect firm performance in terms of profitability. As a high debt ratio seems to increase the agency costs and the risk of losing control of the firm, SME owners and managers tend to finance their businesses with equity capital to a fairly high degree.

  • 1769.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Growth and job creation at the firm level: Swedish SME data2018Ingår i: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 345-358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between firm sales growth and employment level as a proxy for job creation among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The hypotheses were empirically examined by performing several univariate and multivariate regressions to investigate a large panel data set of 13,548 Swedish SMEs in four industry sectors in the four-year period from 2009 to 2012. Findings: The results indicate that growth, in terms of sales, as a competitive advantage is positively related to the number of employees hired by the sampled firms. In addition, the size and age variables are also positively associated with the number of employees hired. The results support the suitability of implementing the resource-based view to explain job creation by SMEs. Originality/value: While previous studies have mostly ignored the impact of these firm-level variables on job creation, the current study highlights the effect of firm-specific characteristics such as sales growth, size, age and industry. The authors use a combination of models to analyse a large cross-sectoral data set regarding the association, in SMEs, between the firms’ sales growth and job creation.

  • 1770.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    The growth-profitability nexus among Swedish SMEs2015Ingår i: International Journal of Managerial Finance, ISSN 1743-9132, E-ISSN 1758-6569, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 531-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the growth-profitability nexus among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach – The data comprise 106,884 observations covering 26,721 Swedish SMEs in six industry sectors over the 2008-2011 period. The data were analysed using several statistical techniques, including two-stage least squares regression, fixed-effects and random regressions, and bootstrapped quantile regression. Findings – Consistent with the hypotheses derived from the resource-based approach, the results indicate that current profitability significantly and positively affects firm growth. The firm-level control variable size significantly and positively affects firm growth, though firm age significantly and negatively affects growth. Firm industry affiliation also affects firm growth. Research limitations/implications – Since SME performance is commonly equated with access to knowledge, consultancy services or business training programmes sponsored by governmental organizations can help SMEs improve their management skills and thereby their performance. Moreover, adopting advanced financial management practices can improve the use of financial resources, leading to higher profitability and thereby sustainable growth. This implies that managers should change their strategy from “growth now, profitability later” to “profitable growth now”. Originality/value – Unlike most previous studies, this study employs several multivariate methods to analyse a comprehensive, cross-sectoral sample comprising non-financial, independent, and active SMEs in several industries. This study focuses explicitly on SMEs, which play a fundamental role in the Swedish economy. © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 1771.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    The impact of credit supply on sales growth: Swedish evidence2015Ingår i: International Journal of Managerial Finance, ISSN 1743-9132, E-ISSN 1758-6569, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 329-340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the impact of credit supply on sales growth among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach – The three-stage least square (3SLS) method was used to analyse a cross-sectional panel data set covering 13,548 Swedish SMEs across four industry sectors from 2009 to 2012. Findings – The study provides empirical evidence that trade credit in terms of accounts receivable significantly and positively affects sales growth, indicating that SMEs investing more in accounts receivable are more likely to achieve growth. Furthermore, lagged sales growth and firm size are positively, while firm age is negatively, related to growth. Practical implications – Managers can increase firm growth by efficiently managing the supply of credit to their customers, especially liquidity-constrained firms, thereby increasing sales growth. Originality/value – To the authors’ best knowledge, this is one of the first empirical studies of the impact of credit supply in terms of accounts receivable on sales growth. The study applies the 3SLS method to a comprehensive cross-sectoral sample. ©Emerald Group Publishing Limited

  • 1772.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism.
    Homayoun, Saeid
    Univ Gävle, Gävle.
    Financial crisis and SME capital structure: Swedish empirical evidence2019Ingår i: Journal of economic studies, ISSN 0144-3585, E-ISSN 1758-7387, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 925-941Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine capital structure determinants of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) during and after the global financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach Statistical methods, including ordinary least squares and the generalised method of moments, were used to analyse a sample of over 40,800 Swedish SMEs operating in four industries during the 2008-2015 period. Findings The results indicate that the independent variables - i.e. financial crisis, profitability, size, tangibility and industry affiliation - to various degrees explain changes in short-term debt (STD) and long-term debt (LTD) ratios. In particular, the empirical findings indicate that the sampled SMEs tended to rely more on STD and LTD during (2008-2009) than after (2010-2015) the financial crisis. Originality/value This study is one of few examining determinants of short- and long-term SME debt during and after the global financial crisis, using data from a large-scale cross-sectional database.

  • 1773.
    Yderfält, Åsa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    Umeå Universitet.
    Mejtoft, Sara
    Umeå Universitet.
    Customer centric innovation processes and timing to deliver renewed value in mature and declining industries: A case study of the graphic arts industry2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has shifted industries closer to each other and disruptive innovation has been a major reason for the success and failure of many products and industries. Hence, the need for innovative business models and extend the innovation process beyond the technological features have become more prominent recently. The objective of this case study of the graphic arts industry is to discuss the use of customer centric open innovation processes, in a longitudinal sense, as a mean to change the competitive posture. The results of this case study are based on 11 interview series with 54 firms (43 printing firms, 7 direct customers toprinting firms and 4 media and advertising agencies).

  • 1774.
    Ymsjö Sjögren, Anna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Nilsson, Rasmus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Verkställande direktörers aktieförmögenhet och CSR-rapporters kvalitet2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att analysera sambandet mellan verkställande direktörers (VDs) aktieförmögenhet i det egna företaget och kvaliteten i dessa företags CSR-rapporteringar, samt företagens branschtillhörighet. Rapporternas kvalitet analyserades i termer av längd och dess innehåll. Studien baseras på 126 amerikanska multinationella företag vars rapporter hämtades från Global Reporting Initiatives (GRIs) databas. Data analyserades genom korrelation- och regressionsanalyser samt Anova-tester. Resultatet visar inget signifikantsamband mellan VD:s aktieförmögenheter och kvaliteten på CSR-rapporteringarna. Det spelar heller ingen roll inom vilken bransch företagen verkar inom.

  • 1775.
    Yuan, M
    et al.
    Lakehead University, Thunder Bay ON, Canada.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The relationship between recreation experience preferences and revealed activity choice in the North Shore Lake Superior region2010Ingår i: Tourism in Marine Environments, ISSN 1544-273X, Vol. 6, nr 2-3, s. 133-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for tourism in rural regions necessitates much information about the visitor. The goal of most planning efforts is to understand visitor expectations and predict participation patterns. When demand is understood, the provision of appropriate supply can be more effective and efficient. This study examined the degree to which the experience preference-activity relationship holds for the three primary target market groups (Northwest Ontario, rest of Canada, US) to the Ontario North Shore Lake Superior region. For this study, 464 visitors who engaged in activities along Lake Superior or related activities in the communities and land adjacent to the water were used in the analysis. The results suggest that there is a weak relationship between experience preference and activity choice, but when results are examined by more defined market segments, some moderate relationships appear. This suggests that associated promotion and advertising in the region should focus its message and images based on these significant relationships. © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

  • 1776.
    Yuan, Mike
    et al.
    Lakehead university, Canada.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap (-2013).
    A Call for a Broad Spatial Under-standing of Outdoor Recreation Use.2008Ingår i: Management for protection and sustainable development. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas. Montecatini Terme, Italy, 14-19 October, 2008. / [ed] Raschi, A. & Trampetti, S., 2008, s. 169-173Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand the scope of outdoor recreation in a pan Europe context, many agencies and organizations have attempted to collect data at various spatial levels and for a multitude of uses. The aim of this paper is to suggest a need for better and broader understanding of outdoor recreation use at various spatial levels. Case examples from Swedish data collection efforts are provided and suggestions are made to have a better understanding of horizontal harmonization and vertical data integration.

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  • 1777.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University.
    Tourism and protected areas: Motives, actors and processes2006Ingår i: The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, ISSN 1745-1590, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the paradigm shift in nature conservation policy towards the inclusion of local inhabitants in planning and management of protected areas, tourism is emphasized as a way to achieve economic development in peripheral areas. Governance issues and the real impacts from tourism on development are thus often under scrutiny. In this article, the focus is on the role of tourism in the political process of protected area designation. How does the inclusion of the tourism argument affect designation processes? What kind of tourism is being promoted and how can it be conceptualized with regard to human views of the use of nature? An ecostrategic framework is presented to illustrate the essential land use choices available. Three cases of protected area designation processes are used to address the issue of tourism; the failure of the Kiruna National Park proposal and the successfully implemented snowmobile regulation area in Funäsdalen and Fulufjället National Park. The analysis shows that tourism indeed may increase local acceptance of protected areas, but how powerful this argument is depends on contextual and process factors as well.

  • 1778.
    Zackariasson, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dymek, Mikolaj
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Video Game Marketing: A student textbook2016 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry has been one of the fastest-growing cultural phenomena of our times with market conditions that demand a specific skill set from its marketers. To a new generation of "indie gamers", being a game developer isn’t just about design and production, a successful video game demands entrepreneurial skills and astute business acumen. The creators need to know what their customers want, how to reach those customers and how to sell to them.

    Video Game Marketing: A student textbook is for development students or aspiring developers who want to know how to promote and sell the results of their efforts. This book is a much-needed guide to:

    • the essentials of marketing strategy;

    • video games as products or services;

    • marketing research for game development;

    • branding video games;

    • marketing through game: gamification, advergames.

    Replete with pedagogy to aid learning such as objectives and discussion questions for each chapter, this book is all that aspiring video game developers will need to unleash the potential of their games.

  • 1779.
    Zadmirzaei, M.
    et al.
    Univ Guilan, Gilan, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Univ Guilan, Gilan, Iran.
    Amirteimoori, A.
    Islamic Azad Univ, Rasht Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Efficiency Analysis of Paper Mill Using Data Envelopment Analysis Models: (Case Study: Mazandaran Wood and Paper Company in Iran)2015Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (JAST), ISSN 1680-7073, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 1381-1391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the relative performance of Mazandaran Wood and Paper Company as a major supplier of paper products in Iran was measured. Network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models with parallel structure were used to evaluate and measure its performance. GAMS software version 23.4 was used for data analysis. Results indicated that this company in all studied years had good performances based on the parallel DEA models. Also, according to the same models with parallel structure, 2007 and 2008 had better efficiency score than the other years. Finally, results indicated that, using the cross efficiency models, the company had the best performance in 2007. This result could be due to the input-oriented nature of the models. Consequently, by proper management and optimum consumption of the resources, the company had the best performance in 2007.

  • 1780.
    Zadmirzaei Soleimandarabi, Majid
    et al.
    Department of Forestry, Faculty of natural resources, University of Guilan, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Department of Forestry, Faculty of natural resources, University of Guilan, Iran.
    Amirteimoori, Alireza
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.
    Deterministic Scenario vs. Stochastic Scenario in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): A Case on Iranian Forest Management Units2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the relative efficiency of Iranian forest management units withboth deterministic and stochastic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Towards this end, the required data were collected from 14 Iranian forest management units included 2 inputs (growing stock, plantation costs) and 2 outputs (harvesting revenues, forest protection tasks). In deterministic scenario, the most frequently applied DEA model-BCC is used in which results showed that most of the forest management units are operating at low efficiency levels (just 35.71% efficient units). However, in forestry, some external uncertain factors such as socio-economic and climate factors influence the magnitude of harvesting revenues of forest management units. Thus, in uncertain scenario, an output-oriented Chance Constrained Data Envelopment Analysis (CCDEA) is used. Results were significantly different according to different risk criterion levels (α). Nevertheless, using the Kendall's tau correlation test showed by increasing the probability levels (1-α) of CCDEA their result are closed to deterministic DEA, it meansthat there were 5 efficient units (2, 3, 8, 9, and 10) in the all scenarios. Therefore, according to the output-oriented nature of DEA models, the managers of the inefficient units should increase their output while their inputs proportions remain unchanged; otherwise they will not be able to promote their overall productivity.

  • 1781.
    Zandi, Solmaz
    et al.
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Amiri, Neda
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    An economic evaluation of a forest park using the individual travel cost method (a case study of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in northern Iran)2018Ingår i: Environmental & Socio-Economic Studies, ISSN 2354-0079, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 48-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The true economic value of ecosystem services may not be reflected in market transactions, because there is no real transaction for ecosystem services in the market. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the cost of time and travel to define the value people place on something in the absence of a market price. This study estimates the recreational value of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in the north of Iran using the individual travel cost method. This method is considered to be a substitute approach for the market. The data required were collected using questionnaires. Therefore, 271 questionnaires were randomly distributed between the visitors of the recreational site in 2016. In this study, a linear function is used to estimate the effects of explanatory variables including economic and social variables on the number of visits to estimate the recreational value of the forest park. Results showed that a consumer surplus of each person for their visit was 21500 Rials and the annual recreational value of the park was 78390595 Rials per ha. Furthermore, the variables such as travel expenses, income, distance, family size and visitor's age are effective factors in the recreational use of the park. The results of this study can improve the quality of environmental services of the Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park and could expand the variety of services that they could supply based on the demand of the people.

  • 1782. Zanker, Markus
    et al.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    Tuta, Mario
    Müller, Nina
    Evaluating Recommender Systems in Tourism: A Web-Usage Mining Approach2008Ingår i: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2008, Innsbruck, Austria, 2008 / [ed] O'Connor, Peter; Höpken, Wolfram; Gretzel, Ulrike, New York: Springer, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1783. Zanker, Markus
    et al.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Seebacher, Alexander
    Jessenitschnig, Markus
    Stromberger, M
    An Autometed Approach for Deriving Semantic Annotations of Tourism Products based on Geo-Spatial Information2009Ingår i: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2009 Proceedings of the International Conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009 / [ed] Höpken, Wolfram; Gretzel, Ulrike; Law, Rob, Viennna New York: Springer, 2009, s. 211-221Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High quality product data is a necessary prerequisite for supporting efficient browsing and recommendation procedures on e-commerce platforms. This is especially true for the tourism domain where an abundance of information can easily overwhelm users. Although classification data such as to which category (e.g. accommodation, restaurant or sight) a tourism product belongs is usually directly available, qualitative information, such as proximity to a lake or opportunities for dining or shopping, is rarely provided in a structured way. As a consequence, users can not restrict their search on these criteria; rather, it would require costly manual information acquisition efforts. In this paper we propose a knowledge-based approach that automatically associates such qualitative concepts with tourism products based on their geographic coordinates and their spatial proximity. An initial evaluation of the approach that considered automatically generated annotations within different regions suggests that it can be used as an alternative to domain experts.

  • 1784. Zanker, Markus
    et al.
    Jessenitschnig, Markus
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Automated semantic annotation of tourism resources based on geo-spatial data2009Ingår i: Information Technology & Tourism, ISSN 1098-3058, E-ISSN 1943-4294, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 341-354Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Web 2.0 applications, now common in the tourism domain, make it easy to share travel related experiences and opinions, thus, leading to the creation of enormous amounts of user generated content. This type of tourist information must, however, be preprocessed by structuring and aggregating it in order to avoid overwhelming users. In this article we, therefore, propose a knowledge-based approach that exploits spatial proximity to annotate resources with qualitative semantic concepts for tourism products, such as proximity to a lake or opportunities for specific sporting activities. Finally, the article describes the successful prototypical implementation of the proposed technique and provides insight into a practical usage scenario

  • 1785.
    Zawar, Yannik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Sustainability in the Swedish Outdoor Clothing Industry: Interpretation, Implementation and Problems2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 1786.
    Zeppenfeld, Marie Theres
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    The use of social networks as marketing tool: – A cross-cultural study comparing German and Swedish consumer behavior2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 1787.
    Zetterkvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Ottestig, Christoffer
    Hur andelen kvinnor i styrelsen och medieexponering påverkar kvaliteten i CSR-rapporter2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    CSR-rapportering (Corporate social responsibility) har blivit en alltmer betydande faktor i relationen mellan företag och deras intressenter. Det medför en möjlighet för företag att visa sin välvilja genom att utge information till intressenter om hur de arbetar för att skapa ett positivt inflytande på samhället och miljön utöver vad som krävs enligt lag. Denna studie har som inriktning att analysera kvaliteten i CSR-rapporter och hur den påverkas. Syftet med studien är att analysera sambanden mellan andelen kvinnor i styrelsen, medieexponering samt kvalitet och även analysera huruvida medieexponering har en medlande roll i sambandetmellan andelen kvinnor och kvalitet. Dessa samband analyseras genom en serie av regressioner för de enskilda variabelförhållandena samt en mediatoranalys förmediatorförhållandet. Studiens resultat baseras på ett urval av 107 amerikanska företag och 75 europeiska företag och visar att andelen kvinnor i styrelsen har ett positivt och signifikant samband med både medieexponering och kvalitet. Medieexponering har ett positivt och signifikant samband med kvalitet och utgör även en full mediator i förhållandet mellan andelen kvinnor och kvalitet. Vidare finns det en signifikant skillnad i andelen kvinnor i styrelsen mellan företag verksamma inom en samordnad marknadsekonomi och en liberal marknadsekonomi.

  • 1788.
    Zhang, Xiaomei
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Sun Zis strategiska tänkande: Utveckling av managementsynsätt för att göra saker rätt2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 1789.
    Zhang, Xiaomei
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Sun Zis strategiska tänkande: Utveckling av managementsynsätt för att göra saker rätt2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 1790.
    Zhou, Chunyan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    From a university-run enterprise to a leading group of regional IT industrial clusters: In a perspective of an academia-government-industry triple helix2012Ingår i: Technological Entrepreneurship in China: How Does it Work? / [ed] Petti, C; Ederer, M, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, s. 66-85Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1791.
    Zhou, Chunyan
    et al.
    ITHI -International Triple Helix Institute, Palo Alto, USA.
    Lundström, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    The rise of social innovation parks2014Ingår i: Social entrepreneurship: leveraging economic, political and cultural dimension / [ed] A Lundström, C Zhou, Y von Friedrichs, E Sundin, Springer, 2014, s. 259-272Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 1792.
    Zhu, Liang
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Das, Monojit
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Assessing Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in Higher Education. Students' viewpoint from Mid Sweden University2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is identify how the students at MIUN perceive the higher education service delivered and what is most important to their over-all satisfaction with that service. It is also part of the purpose to find out if there are differences in the way Swedish and international students perceive the service quality performed.

     

     

    Method: We have used a quantitative approach in our collection of empirical data. The investigation is carried out as a survey on students at Mid Sweden University (MIUN), students that were selected through the convenience procedure. The Google Drive was used as a platform for collect data, and the survey was administered using the students e-mail addresses presented on MIUN student portal. The analysis has been carried out in two steps. First, we ran a factor analysis (rotated Varimax) and extracted factors that we tested in a reliability test (Cronbach’s Alpha). The created factors were then used in the second step that was a Regression Analysis in which they served as independent variables with a quality index as the dependent variable.

     

     

    Finding: The finding indicates that the most influential satisfied factors of service quality that students perceived at MIUN is ‘teaching’ and the least influential satisfied factor that students perceived at MIUN is ‘infrastructure’. Moreover another finding indicates  that,  there  have  differences  in  perceptions  of  service  quality  between Swedish students and international students.

     

     

    Implication: The outcome of this study can be used in order to improve internal and external  quality  of  higher  education  institutions  (HEIs).  More  specifically,  the outcome can be directly used by HEIs for improving quality as perceived by students. On top of that this research provides a view of the current condition of service quality of the MIUN and offered some suggestion that would be implemented to develop service quality.

  • 1793.
    Zhu, Liang
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Das, Monojit
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Assessing Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in Higher Education: Students' viewpoint from Mid Sweden University2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is identify how the students at MIUN perceive the higher education service delivered and what is most important to their over-all satisfaction with that service. It is also part of the purpose to find out if there are differences in the way Swedish and international students perceive the service quality performed.

    Method: We have used a quantitative approach in our collection of empirical data. The investigation is carried out as a survey on students at Mid Sweden University (MIUN), students that were selected through the convenience procedure. The Google Drive was used as a platform for collect data, and the survey was administered using the students e-mail addresses presented on MIUN student portal. The analysis has been carried out in two steps. First, we ran a factor analysis (rotated Varimax) and extracted factors that we tested in a reliability test (Cronbach’s Alpha). The created factors were then used in the second step that was a Regression Analysis in which they served as independent variables with a quality index as the dependent variable.

    Finding: The finding indicates that the most influential satisfied factors of service quality that students perceived at MIUN is ‘teaching’ and the least influential satisfied factor that students perceived at MIUN is ‘infrastructure’. Moreover another finding indicates  that, there  have differences  in  perceptions  of  service  quality  between Swedish students and international students.

    Implication: The outcome of this study can be used in order to improve internal and external quality  of  higher  education  institutions  (HEIs).  More  specifically, the outcome can be directly used by HEIs for improving quality as perceived by students. On top of that this research provides a view of the current condition of service quality of the MIUN and offered some suggestion that would be implemented to develop service quality.

  • 1794.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    A spatial approach on tourists’ travel routes in Sweden2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund

    Destinationer och deras attraktioner har varit föremål för omfattande forskning. Detta gäller

    emellertid inte de olika förfl yttningar som görs under en resa. Förfl yttningarna görs inte bara

    till och från en destination, utan också på själva destinationen. Under de sista åren har så kalllade

    multidestinationsresor blivit allt populärare, där turister reser från en plats till en annan

    längs en resrutt.

    I denna studie har turisters olika förfl yttningar i Sverige undersökts. Som målgrupp har tyska

    bilturister valts, som utgör en av de viktigaste inkommande besöksgrupperna när det gäller

    fl erdagsresor. I studien ingår både turister som gör en rundresa genom Sverige, och de som

    bor på en och samma plats och gör dagsutfl ykter därifrån.

    Syfte och metod

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur typiska resrutter ser ut och vilka faktorer som påverkar

    dessa. Vidare analyseras turisternas resvana i Sverige samt resans längd. Även frågan om

    det fi nns återkommande resmönster, som sker oberoende av attraktionerna, belyses.

    Data har samlats in med hjälp av resdagböcker som 70-talet tyska bilturister skrev under sin

    resa genom Sverige. Varje dag skrev de ned hur långt de körde, var och varför de stannade

    och vilka aktiviteter de deltog i. Dessutom ritade de upp sin dagliga resrutt på en karta. Datainsamlingen

    gjordes under sommaren 2004.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att de fl esta turisterna reser enligt en viss rytm, oberoende av attraktioner som

    besöks. Antalet tidigare besök i Sverige påverkar inte den individuella rytmen. Däremot visar

    det sig att ett större antal tidigare besök i Sverige ökar benägenheten att resa längre norrut.

    Tiden som turisten spenderar i Sverige är en viktig faktor för dagliga förfl yttning. Turister

    som är i Sverige kortare tid reser inte kortare total körsträcka, utan kompenserar en kortare

    vistelsetid med längre dagliga körsträckor.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 1795.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Bilden av Sverige i tyska guideböcker2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 1796.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Die Hansestadt Bremen als Ziel schwedischer Städtetouristen2003Ingår i: Norden, ISSN 0029-1226, nr 15, s. 33-43Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1797.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    German tourists and their use of guidebooks in Sweden2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 1798.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Germans' tourist behaviour in Sweden2008Ingår i: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 143-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism research has identified a number of factors that influence tourist behaviour, among them socio-demographic characteristics and the number of previous visits. This article argues that also tourists' spatial mobility, the time period within the holiday, the characteristics of the places visited, and the access to information act as important determinants for the level and choice of tourist activities. Focus in this analysis is lying on German car tourists in Sweden. For this study, a combination of methodologies is employed. This includes travel diaries on access to information as well as on type, place and length of activities, which were written by the respondents during their holiday in Sweden, and personal interviews, which were carried out after the respondents had returned home. Tourist behaviour was found to be similar to the respondents' behaviour at home, and place in combination with a limited time period and the absence of externally imposed routines was a major factor for this. In general, tourists took part in an activity for a relatively short period time before moving on. The level of spatial mobility was found to positively influence the level of tourist activity, and was to a great part responsible for the succession of activities. The time period within the holiday did not specifically influence activities, but so did access to tourist information, which affected the choice and duration of activities. Guidebooks were found to constitute the most important tourist information for the analysed tourist group.

  • 1799.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Guided tourism: the role of guidebooks in German tourist behaviour in Sweden2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1800.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Om tyskarnas kärlek till älgen2008Ingår i: Jämten 2009, Östersund: Jamtli , 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
3334353637 1751 - 1800 av 1842
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