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  • 151.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Vad är problemet med Husby?2016In: Bortom kravallerna: konflikt, tillhörighet och representation i Husby / [ed] Paulina de los Reyes och Magnus Hörnqvist, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag , 2016, p. 103-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Lidström, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kommunerna och medborgarna2009In: Kan norra Sverige regionaliseras?: Beslutsprocesser och medborgarperspektiv / [ed] Lidström Anders, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Statsvetenskapliga institutionen , 2009, p. 153-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Adding Validity and New Results to the Global Explanations of e-democracy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in democratic processes, often summarized by the term e-democracy, has seldom been analysed from a global perspective. Although the UN eParticipation index provides one of the few examples of an international measurement of e-democracy, it has been thoroughly criticized. At the same time, however, a number of studies have added knowledge in the field of global determinants of e-democracy by using this very index. In this study I resolve this by: (1) examining whether the UN index is a valid measurement of e-democracy; (2) inquiring whether there are alternative measurements of e-democracy and finally (3) retesting the determinants of e-democracy using the UN index and alternatives together with a larger data set and more suitable estimations than have previously been used in this field.  The paper gives answer to these questions. First, even if the index has flaws it is not necessarily as problematic as assumed. Second, combining this index with measurements of democracy corresponds with the emphasis in the literature on e-democracy being embedded in democracy. Third, the determinants of e-democracy on a global scale show the positive importance of technology but also of socio-economic variables and population size.

  • 154.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assessing countries' success in digital politics – still a lot more to be explained2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Challenges of Digital Politics at the Subnational Level in Sweden: Descriptions and Explanations of Social Media Usage2018In: Sub-National Democracy and Politics Through Social Media / [ed] Soabachi, Mehmet Zahid och Hatipoğlu, İbrahim, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 47-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since a number of years the use of social media in political processes appears to have had a significant effect on the political landscape. Irrespective of advantages or disadvantages of such technologies scholars have revealed great differences in how digital technologies have been adopted among subnational entities. Citizens risk facing substantial varieties in preconditions for the utilization of digitally based tools based on their residency. In this book chapter on Swedish municipalities adoption of social media both descriptions and patterns explaining variation in such adoption are studied. Findings indicate that an overwhelming majority of Swedish municipalities use social media. Based on the time period applied it can also be noticed that this proportion has increased annually. The explanatory models reveal particularly two noteworthy findings. First, larger municipalities with an already well-developed website are more inclined to adopt social media. As an additional predictor, municipalities with certain funding for democratic development shows a similar pattern. Second, when assessing municipalities versatility in social media usage two of the these predictors show relevance. Lager municipalities with an advanced website are more inclined to utilize social media for different reasons. Since this book chapter shows that certain resources, such as an already developed website and a larger population, will pose influence on social media usage the distribution of this form of digital technology can be distributed unequal over societies.

  • 156.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Digitala former för politik i lokalsamhället2016In: Thule: Kung. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2016 / [ed] Jacobsson, Roger, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Från demokrati till e-demokrati: En jämförande studie av demokratiutveckling i det moderna samhället2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This mainly deductive study examines what factors explain the variation of e-democracy and if, why a causal pathway exists. The deductive feature is carried out through examining the predictions of the modernization theory, testing hypotheses concerning the link between economic development and wealth in relation to e-democracy. Deriving from a theoretical point of departure where e-democracy is conceptualized with the help of democratic theory, this phenomenon is studied in three different but linked empirical parts. A cross-sectional global study did establish a relationship between some of the indicators derived from the theory; however, the magnitude of the explanatory power was lower at the level of e-democracy than at the level of democracy. A cross-sectional national study of all Sweden’s municipalities did show that especially high levels of education were clearly related to high levels of e-democracy. Approaching the questions of causal mechanisms and deviations from the found pattern, case studies did emphasize that the linkage between the structural conditions and actor’s-orientated explanations largely could verify what is deducted from theory. However, the importance of economic possibilities and internal prioritizations inside the political organization was essential for the development of e-democracy and was found through more inductive approaches.

    The main contribution of this thesis is the results that, both on an aggregated and a micro level, verify the theory but also add other important explanations. Another important conclusion is the creation of a model for e-democracy where a complete e-democracy is linked to democratic theory and not only maintains information, discussion, and decision-making processes through information and communication technology but also does this while strengthening political participation and political equality.

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  • 158.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Inequality in local digital politics: How different preconditions for citizen engagement can be explained2016In: Policy & Internet, ISSN 1944-2866, E-ISSN 1944-2866, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 270-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies have struggled to achieve more equal participation in politics, the so-called “unresolved dilemma of democracy.” Previous research has emphasized the drivers of involvement in digital politics from an individual perspective, but studies looking at the general prerequisites of online engagement in politics are lacking. Not much attention has been directed toward the supply side, namely the online presence of political actors and the structures created by them. Applying a mixed-method design, this article examines the supply of channels for digital politics distributed by Swedish municipalities. Quantitative data collected from municipality websites are used for both a description and explanation of the varying opportunities for involvement encountered by Swedish citizens as a result of where they live. Two extreme cases are then examined in depth in which preconditions for involvement are particularly weak. We find that significant variation exists between municipalities and that these patterns are explained primarily by population size, but also by economic conditions and education levels. The cases show how a lack of policies and unenthusiastic politicians creates poor possibilities for development. The findings also verify previous notions that without demand from citizens, in combination with internal ambition from politicians, successful provision of services for digital politics will be hard to achieve.

  • 159.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Integrationspolitik i lokala valkampanjer2018In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Nord, Lars, Grusell, Marie, Bolin, Niklas & Falasca, Kajsa, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, DEMICOM , 2018, p. 77-78Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 160.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Is e-democracy more than democratic?: An examination of the implementation of socially sustainable values in an e-Democratic processes2016In: Leading Issues in e-Government Research: Volume 2: for Researchers, Teachers and Students / [ed] Singh, S & Castelnovo, W, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2016, p. 171-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Is e-democracy more than democratic?: An examination of the implementation of socially sustainable values in e-democratic processes2012In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing literature tries to contribute to a more balanced view of the concept of e-democracy. However, one seldom discussed aspect is the concept’s inadequate dimension on what a desirable development of society consists of. By adding certain values, today most pronounced in the theory of social sustainability, this article examines the awareness of such in three e-democratic projects in Swedish municipalities. This is carried out through a qualitative inquiry that uses different types of data and that regards social sustainability as an ongoing process that is suitable to be analysed in relation to other structures in society. The empirical part reveals different important topics. First it shows that the consciousness of socially sustainable values varies between the examined cases. Second, this variation can be due to both the varying success of e-democracy and to conditions inside the political organizations. In conclusion, this paper reveals that the consequence of adding a socially sustainable perspective to e-democracy is that it provides adequate opportunities for analysing social development without missing out qualities that are desired in a democratic society.

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  • 162.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Progress in Global Assessments of E-Democracy: Refined Measurements and New Findings2018In: International E-Government Development: Policy, Implementation and Best Practice / [ed] Laura Alcaide Muñoz och Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 215-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Qualities of e-democracy: Examples from Sweden2013In: Participatory Democratic Innovations in Europe: Improving the Quality of Democracy? / [ed] Geissel, Brigitte & Joas, Marko, Opladen: Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2013, p. 225-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Supply of and demand for e-democracy: A study of the Swedish case2013In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 217-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field that tries to answer, through comparative research, the question of what factors explain the existence of e-democracy is, despite several recent contributions, quite undeveloped. Due to strong theoretical foundations and extensive quantitative data, this article adds to this field with an overall ambition of not only explaining variation in supply of and demand for e-democracy but also examining how these two dimensions are related. The case in this article is Sweden and the analyses report several unexpected findings. E-democracy provided by Swedish municipalities is positively related to citizens’ level of education and population figures but not to the level of technological development. With an analogous logic, citizens in Sweden are more inclined to use e-democratic functions if they have high levels of income and education and, also have experiences of using computers. However, no significant variation exists among different genders or age groups. When these two perspectives are combined no significant relationship emerges, indicating a discrepancy between supply of and demand for e-democracy. Finally, the fact that this inclination for citizens’ involvement in e-democracy is solely determined by micro characteristics points to the importance of theoretical development.

  • 165.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Technology and democracy: Validity in measurements of e-democracy2015In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 698-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies in democratic processes, often summarized by the term e-democracy, has seldom been analysed from a global perspective. Although the United Nations E-Participation Index provides one of the few examples of an international measurement of e-democracy, it has been thoroughly criticized; at the same time, however, a number of studies have broadened our understanding of the global determinants of e-democracy by using this very index. In this study, I approach this problem by considering (i) whether the UN E-Participation Index is a valid measurement of e-democracy and (ii) whether any alternative measurements of e-democracy present themselves. In answer to these questions, it would seem that the index, despite its flaws, is not necessarily as problematic as is assumed, although there are observations that violate essential theoretical assumptions and so reduce its validity. Furthermore, its use in combination with measurements of democracy agrees with the emphasis in the literature on e-democracy being embedded in democracy, and results in a measurement that better corresponds with theoretical ideas of e-democracy.

  • 166.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The policy making of digital politics: Examining the local level in Sweden2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Theoretical foundations for analyzing dictatorships2011In: Annual meeting of the Swedish Political Science Association, Umeå University 27-28 October 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the third wave of democratization, dictatorships are still widespread global phenomena. However, in comparative research they are often treated merely as theoretical anomalies and empirical residual categories. By addressing this shortcoming, this research has three overall ambitions which are reached by reviewing, compiling and analyzing earlier research. First, different perspectives on how to define dictatorships are discussed. This makes it possible to approach the regimes in a more nuanced way compared with only classifying them as non-democratic. It is no understatement to claim that dictatorships are heterogeneous. Therefore, the second ambition of this research is to discuss different approaches to how to categorize these regimes more precisely. Theoretically valid categories are necessary when carrying out empirical inquiries. Third, and most absent in contemporary research, the ambition is to elaborate upon the factors that can explain dictatorships. In other words, what constitutes the explanans in an explanatory model of dictatorships and types of them? This includes both the existence of and transitions to dictatorship. To answer this question and to reach a theoretical framework for an explanation of dictatorship, contributions from a variety of research need to be put together. All in all, this paper will add greater theoretical understanding that is necessary for empirical examinations of dictatorships. Increased validity and increased confidence in explanations of dictatorships could be the result if the conclusions of this research are implemented in empirical studies.

  • 168.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Theories of Dictatorships: Sub-Types and Explanations2014In: Studies of Transition States and Societies, ISSN 1736-874X, E-ISSN 1736-8758, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 50-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the third wave of democratisation, dictatorships are still a widespread global phenomenon. In recent years, comparative scholars have shown a renewed interest in such regimes, which has resulted in a significant increase in the volume of research that has been produced. However, such research is not always carried out in a cumulative fashion and, therefore, lacks the traits of a more holistic perspective. Hence, it is appropriate to review this research to try to create opportunities for more systematisation in future studies. This study does this by focusing on two approaches: that is providing definitions of non-democracies, but also developing a framework for empirical explanations of these regimes. Addressing the first approach reveals gaps in previous definitions of dictatorships, which is something that is managed by stating a theoretically founded conceptualisation. Moreover, scrutinising the typologies of dictatorships and their variants provided by previous research reveals some loosely connected or almost arbitrary alternatives. Such flaws are discussed and solutions are given. Regarding the second approach, this article discusses findings on how both the existence of and the transition to dictatorships and their variants can be systematised. The outcome is a framework that can be applied in future research. To conclude, there is still much that is unknown about both the description and the explanation of dictatorships, but by systematising recent research this article sets out a more unified strategy.

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  • 169.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Åbo Akademi.
    Variationer i demokrati: En kvantitativ studie som utvärderar tänkbara förklaringar2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Why do some local authorities have such poor websites?: Insights from Sweden2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 171.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Analysing the intersections between technology, performativities and politics: The case of local citizen dialogue2013In: Transformations, ISSN 1444-3775, E-ISSN 1444-3775, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges to the theories of the political sphere posed by a digital society. It is suggested that this most evident at the intersection between understandings of technology, performativities, and politics that combines empirical closeness with abstract understandings of socio-political and cultural contexts. The paper exemplifies this by reporting on a study of online citizen dialogue in the making, in this case concerning school planning in a Swedish municipality. Applying these theoretical perspectives to this case provides some key findings. The technological design is regarded as restricting the potential dialogue, as is outlined in different themes where the participants enact varying positions—taxpayers, citizen consumers, or local residents. The political analysis stresses a dialogue that lacks both polemic and public perspectives, and rather is characterized by the expression of different special interests. Together, these perspectives can provide the foundation for the development of applying theories in a digital society.

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  • 172.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders Olof
    Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology.
    From 1.0 to 2.0: Swedish municipalities online2016In: Journal of Information Technology & Politics, ISSN 1933-1681, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 339-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examines the social media use of Swedish municipalities, detailing the potential relationship between traditional forms of e-government initiatives and social media engagement of municipal bodies. By bringing these two forms of digital politics together, a more valid measurement of the supply of online democratic tools for citizen engagement is suggested. Moreover, the potential variation in determinants influencing these two concepts is examined as well. The main results indicate that municipalities’ adoption of social media is related to the procuration of more traditional services through their Web sites. Hence, a tendency of a “rich-get-richer” effect is indicated. In this respect, drivers of the different types of government use of digital services are to some extent similar. According to previous research, population size has a positive effect on the studied phenomena. Somewhat surprisingly, however, other explanatory factors differ. For example, although socioeconomic factors appear to have a positive influence on more traditional forms of online services, previous ambitions of e-government development appear as important for social media adoption by municipalities.

  • 173.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms universitet.
    A framework for governance of local migration policy: Assumptions and theoretical consequences2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Evidence of Swedish municipalities' reception of unaccompanied minors: A multi-method approach2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden annually receives several thousands of unaccompanied minors who have left their home countries due to poverty or abuse or because they have become trapped in warzones. These children can either receive a residence permit that grants them the status of quota refugees or go through the process of applying for asylum. Swedish municipalities are responsible for the housing of and care of these children. Two empirical phenomena are associated with this reception. First, a variation exists between those who have a reception and those who do not. Second, in recent years a tremendous change has occurred in that the number of more positively inclined municipalities has grown. To examine these aspects, we derive from structural conditions and form a set of hypotheses that is based on assumptions about municipalities’ rational acting and then continue with a statistical examination of all the municipalities for a number of years. We complement these findings with intensive inquiries into two municipalities that have both established a reception during the examined time period, and we evaluate the structurally founded causal effects from a micro perspective. Our findings show that municipalities with a challenging demographical situation are more inclined to maintain or to start to offer reception of minors. Additional effects such as economic and political consequences could also influence decision-makers. However, this article also provides data that reveal the actual effect of leading politicians’ own desires and beliefs in shaping such local migration policy.

  • 175.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Explaining Local Swedish Refugee Policy2014In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 547-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish migration system, the local level plays a crucial role since the municipalities have full autonomy to accept or decline refugees. This has created a considerable variation in numbers of immigrants among municipalities, and there is a large variation in local societies' willingness to receive refugees. In this study, we focus on all the Swedish municipalities for a time span of several years and derive from economic, demographic, socio-cultural, and explanatory factors that have been put forward in earlier research. Through quantitative analysis, we can show how income, the unemployment rate, population, and support for the right-wing party negatively vary with the willingness to receive refugees. Moreover, the distribution of income results in the opposite significant direction. These results, partly contradicting theory, show the importance of a nuanced and holistic theoretical base in further research.

  • 176.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University.
    Governing Swedish Migration and Integration Policy2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of migration policy, it has become evident that subnational policies are important since they actually deal with local policy efforts in relation to the reception and inclusion of immigrants. This paper originates from a book project where local migration and integration policies in Sweden are in focus. An emerging literature verify such standpoints by showing how divergences in policies between national and local level appear. The theoretical starting point is taken in a Multi-level Governance perspective specified thru vertical and horizontal governance. To be able to understand the role of local migration policy a simple division between vertical and horizontal perspectives can be utilized. How power over policy is shared between different administrative levels is a question of vertical aspects whereas acknowledging different actors participating in networks, between and within organizations, is a question of a horizontal perspective. More complex, though, the intersection of dynamics generated by vertical and horizontal dimensions appear to be the setting for the inquiry of migration policy that also will involves the negotiating and bargaining between the involved actors on the output of policy. Empirically, this paper draws on an analysis of the development of the policy field, including previous reforms, combined with interviews with public officials representing both national and local actors. In summary, this material makes it possible to examine multi-level governance relations within this policy sector. The results show that there are significant challenges within this governance structure that involves tensions between national and local level when it comes to negotiations and bargains.

  • 177.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University.
    How to understand governance of local migration policy: The creation of a theoretical framework2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Local varieties in integration policies: Experiences from the perspective of immigrants in Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lokal migrationspolitik: Om flyktingmottagande och integration i svenska kommuner. 2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 180.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lokalt flyktingmottagande: strukturer, aktörer och processer2015In: Lokalt beslutsfattande / [ed] Niklas Bolin, Sara Nyhlén och Pär M. Olausson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University.
    Reception of immigrants among Swedish municipalities2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of migration policy, it has become evident that subnational polities are important since they actually deal with local policy efforts in relation to the reception and inclusion of immigrants. In this manuscript, consisting of a draft of one of the chapters from a forthcoming monography that focuses on local migration and integration policy in Sweden, the reception of immigrants in Swedish municipalities is given attention. This mainly descriptive chapter focuses on the numbers that describe Swedish municipalities’ reception of immigrants. This will provide both a comprehensive quantitative review of the complete municipal sector in Sweden based on the issue of immigration but will also make it possible to notice important patterns that have occurred over the years. Considering the temporal focus, the first part of the chapter display data of key variables over long time series whereas the chapter thereafter will distinguish between the situation before and after the policy shifts that occurred in the wake of the refugee crisis in 2015. This design will enable comparisons both over time as well as allow comparisons between Swedish municipalities. In addition to describing the admission of immigrants, some attempts are given to also identify patterns that provide better understanding for the distribution among municipalities.

  • 182.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Reception of refugees in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish migration system the municipalities play a crucial role since they have full autonomy to accept or decline refugees. This has created a considerable variation in numbers of immigrants among municipalities’ and there is a large variation in local societies’ willingness to receive refugees. In this study we focus on all the Swedish municipalities for a time span of several years and derive from economic, demographic, socio-cultural and explanatory factors that have been put forward in earlier research. Through quantitative analysis we can show how income, the unemployment rate, population and support for the right-wing party negatively vary with the willingness to receive refugees. Moreover, the distribution of income results in the opposite significant direction. These results, partly contradicting theory, show the importance of a nuanced and holistic theoretical base in further research.

  • 183.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Refugee Policy and Local Decision-Making: Comparative Case studies from Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration flows are frequent topics of research in different disciplines. Focusing on the Swedish municipality level, we complement such earlier studies’ macro perspective with an intensive examination of how a few Swedish municipalities design their local refugee policy and thereby either accept or do not accept refugees. Combining this local perspective with micro theory, we derive from rationalistic premises of how political leaders and bureaucrats act to maximize their interests. By selecting municipalities that share several important characteristics except their attitude towards the reception of refugees, we can, through analyzing interviews and documents, show how a pragmatic view and internal constraints often shape local decision making in terms of outlining refugee policy.Doing this makes it possible to connect the actors’ behavior with structures forming the society and the municipality’s organization in which they are embedded.

  • 184.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Structure and Agency in Swedish Municipalities’ Reception of Unaccompanied Minors2016In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 39-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children without parents or guardians who leave their home country to start a new life somewhere else are a contemporary and global phenomenon that represents a significant proportion of the migration to developed states. Although, historically, Swedish municipalities have been, through traditions of local self-government, able to decide whether to receive unaccompanied children or not, a significant subnational variation does exist. This study addresses this variation by examining the factors that explain whether a municipality offers to receive such children. To examine these factors, we derive from structural conditions and form a set of hypotheses that is based on assumptions about municipalities’ rational action and then continue with a statistical examination of all municipalities for a number of years. We complement these findings with intensive inquiries into two municipalities that have established a reception during the examined time period. The findings reveal that political factors, such as support for parties that are sceptical about immigration, are negatively related to a receiving policy. In addition, structural characteristics such as population size and levels of human capital have a positive effect on the outcome of the policy. The results from case studies add to such findings and emphasize that, although economic aspects are ubiquitous and hard to neglect, decision makers do stress the real and long-term benefits of reception.

  • 185.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Challenging Steering: Public and Private relations within Swedish integration policy2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Contradictions in government steering: analyzing the Swedish establishment reform2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2010 significant parts of Swedish migration policy were changed. Through ”establishment reform” a centralization was implemented in which the national level took over the responsibility of municipalities for the establishment of newly arrived immigrants. In today's system, the responsibility is shared between several authorities, and the municipalities, the Swedish Public Employment Service, the County Councils, the Swedish Migration Board, and publicly financed private services are the central actors. Recent governmental reports have described the current situations as being characterized by coordination problems and shortcomings in accountability. Having that said, this policy creates an institutional landscape that spans both vertical and horizontal dimensions, reflecting several levels of the public administration and, simultaneously, actors that originate from the governmental, regional, local, and private sectors. In this article we present one of the first Swedish studies on this reformed policy area and apply theoretically founded ideal types for analyzing the governing within the reform. Hence, the focus of the article is to analyze the complex steering processes that arise when the two quite contradictory elements of centralization and governance emerges. We examine one Swedish region in which parts of the establishment reform was applied as a pilot project before being applied to the rest of Sweden. Results are theoretically unexpected, both giving results of traits of governance steering but also of top-down perspectives and great restrictions for involved actors.

  • 187.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Forced cooperation from above: The case of Sweden's establishment reform2015In: Policy Studies, ISSN 0144-2872, E-ISSN 1470-1006, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 468-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2010, significant parts of Swedish integration policy were changed. Through the ‘establishment reform’, a centralization was implemented in which the national level overtook the responsibility of municipalities for the establishment of newly arrived immigrants. In today's system, the responsibility is shared between several authorities, the municipalities, and publicly financed private actors. Recent governmental reports have described the current situation as being characterized by coordination problems and shortcomings in accountability. This policy creates an institutional landscape that spans both vertical and horizontal dimensions, reflecting several levels of the public administration and actors that originate from several sectors. The purpose of this article is to explore the governance of Swedish integration policy, with a theoretical focus derived from the ideal types of hierarchy, market, and network. We examine one Swedish region in which parts of the establishment reform were applied as a pilot project before being applied to the rest of Sweden. The theoretically driven results are unexpected in that they reveal traits of governance steering but also of top-down perspectives and restrictions for involved actors in a way that counteracts theoretical logics.

  • 188.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Public and private networks in a multi-level perspective: A case of Swedish migration policy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent governmental reports, the migration policy area has been pointed out asbeing characterized by coordination problems and shortcomings in accountability.In today's system, the responsibility is shared between several authorities, and themunicipalities, the Swedish Public Employment Service, the County Councils, theSwedish Migration Board, and publicly financed private services are the centralactors. Having that said, Swedish migration policy represents an archetypalexample of a complex governing process that spans several vertical levels andincludes a variety of actors with sometimes- conflicting responsibilities. Our studyhas the purpose of inquiring into governing within the “establishment reform”,and we base it on interviews with key actors and derive from theoretical idealtypes of networks, markets, and hierarchies. The results are somewhat unexpected.Networking structures run parallel with uncertainties concerning responsibilitiesin this area. Although this is a general flaw in such forms of governance, theaspects of combining this model with strong constraints in self-governance aremore unexpected. Hence, networks are forced to have a top-down perspective,combined with great restrictions in autonomy for the involved actors.

  • 189.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Steering of integration policy: Public Private Relations within the Swedish Case2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Qvist, Martin
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Marknadsreformer innebär stora utmaningar2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 191.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wallman-Lundåsen, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Engagemang och motivation bland politiker i Västernorrlands landstingsfullmäktige2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 192.
    Lindblad Gidlund, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Swedish eGovernment in public use2010In: Information Society and Globalisation: Transformation of Politics, 22 October 2010,  Dubrovnik, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of eGovernment is often put forward as the main principal for public administrations to improve their government activities. One of the most emphasized arguments for eGovernment in the public discourse is the expectation of an increased interaction with and service toward citizens by enhanced e-services and the efforts in improving e-services in number and functionality undergo constant benchmarking tests. These benchmarking results are then often acting as incentives for further investments and action plans. , But we still lack sufficient analyses of actual usage, even though it is a quite natural next step in assessing success of what is supplied in other contexts. In this paper it is argued that Sweden is especially interesting given the high internet penetration, highly developed welfare system and the fact that Swedish authorities’ development of various e-services is rated quite high in these benchmarking efforts. The purpose of this paper is to address the question of how and when Swedish e-services are used by the public as an important issue for understanding the impact of eGovernment on the interactions between citizens and government. Our tentative empirical results indicate an interesting gap in use patterns in relation to supply (number and functionality) of e-services Further on use varies with age and level of education. In conclusion the fact that even though Sweden has so many of the necessary requirements, (iii) there is an incongruity between supply and use and (ii) the use is still very structurally divided  calls for a discussion of useworthiness and raise questions of whether eGovernment challenge any structural mechanisms.

  • 193.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Karvonen, LauriÅbo Akademi.
    Nordisk demokrati i förändring1999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Loxbo, Karl
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Bolin, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Party Organizational Development and the Electoral Performance of the Radical Right: Exploring the Role of Local Candidates in the Breakthrough Elections of the Sweden Democrats 2002-20142016In: Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties, ISSN 1745-7289, E-ISSN 1745-7297, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 170-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is today commonplace to view radical  right parties as masters of their own fates. However, whereas most authors in the field focus on dominant leaders, the impact of party organizations remains understudied. To remedy some of this, we study the impact of three unique measures of organizational development on the electoral performance of the Sweden Democrats (SD) in four consecutive local elections between 2002 and 2014. When controlling for crucial demand- and supply-side factors, while holding the appeal of the national leadership constant, we find that the size, competence, and stability of the local candidate base were all decisive for explaining the success of the SD. These findings suggest that a developed organizational base not only matters to the long-term persistence of radical right parties, but also to their electoral breakthrough. Additionally, we suggest that party organizations are likely to have a greater impact in countries where radical right parties are already established. We conclude by arguing that our findings potentially provide insights into mechanisms that explain how new parties in general establish themselves.

  • 195.
    Lundblad, Julia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Öga för öga...eller vända andra kinden till?: - En komparativ studie av konfliktlösning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vissa internationella konflikter har pågått så länge att det är svårt att se något slut men trots detta är det vissa konflikter som, ibland något oväntat, når en lösning. Syftet med denna uppsats är förklara varför vissa konflikter når en lösning, i detta fall Nordirlandkonflikten, medan andra konflikter inte gör det, i detta fall Cypern- och Baskienkonflikten.

                Detta gjordes i denna uppsats genom att jämföra hur väl dessa tre konflikter uppfyller fem kriterier för konfliktlösning som sätts upp i teorin om dynamiska konflikter. De fem kriterierna är utomstående parter, samtal mellan parterna, skriftliga överenskommelser, icke-våldsaktörer samt förtroendeskapande åtgärder.

                Resultatet visar att Nordirlandkonflikten i högre grad uppfyller kriterierna om utomstående aktörer och skriftliga överenskommelser än de övriga två konflikterna och detta innebär att dessa två kriterier är de avgörande punkterna som förklarar varför Nordirland är en löst konflikt och inte Cypern och Baskien.

    Då resultatet som helhet visar att Nordirland uppfyller kriterierna i högre grad än Cypern och Baskien så kan vi även dra slutsatsen att denna uppsats styrker teorin om dynamisk konfliktlösning.

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  • 196.
    Lundquist, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Internationell aggression och krigs uppkomst: - En studie av två teoriinriktningars förklaringsvärde2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar två teoriskolor – Kosmopolitism och Kommunitarism – vilka är sammanfattande modeller som omfattar flera olika teoriinriktningar. Anledningen till dessa teoriers inkludering i rapporten var avsikten att förenkla den internationella arenan till att enbart omfatta två olika inriktningar, och på så sätt utröna om någon av dessa kunde användas till att förklara fenomenet internationell aggression.Arbetet har strukturerats så att tre konflikter har studerats för att finna bevis för närvaro av sex indikatorer som karakteriseras av de av de två teoriinriktningarna.Främst tryckta verk har nyttjats, men även några digitala tidningsartiklar samt elektroniska databaser har också använts.Slutsatsen efter studiens genomförande är att ingen av de två teoriinriktningarna enskilt kan nyttjas för att djupanalysera konflikter på den internationella arenan. Dock har resultatet visat på att en kombination av de två effektivt ger relevanta verktyg till att förklara uppkomsten av internationell aggression.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 197.
    Lundquist, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Mord och förvaltningsteori: Tre statsförvaltningars hanteringar av publika skjutningar i skolmiljö2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet handlar om publika skjutningar i skolmiljö, d.v.s. dåd där förövare har skjutit mot individer i skolmiljö, utan att ha uppvisat förklaringar till varför gärningen genomförts.

     

    Syftet med rapporten var att finna hur förvaltningsmodeller hanterar effekterna av en skolskjutning, för att se om någon är bättre rustad. Samt, om en koppling mellan modell och effektiv hantering kunde göras och även se vad som skiljde modellerna åt i behandlingen av situationerna.

    En jämförande, mest-olika-modell har nyttjats, och rapporten begränsades till synen av tre olika förvaltningsmodeller. Undersökningen är även begränsad i tid av hänsyn till förekomsten av de undersökta dåden.

     

    Bruket av Internetkällor har varit omfattande, då mycket av det som skrivits kring dåden förekommit i dagspress. För utvecklandet av förvaltningsteorier har även vetenskaplig litteratur nyttjats.

     

    Resultatet har varit att få säkra slutsatser kan dras av de dåd som inträffat. Samtliga teorier brottas med olika sorters problem gällande sina hanteringar av dåden, och ingen enhetlig bild har kunnat sammanställas.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 198.
    Lundåsen, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Can We Trust the Measurement of Trust?2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Lundåsen, Susanne
    Åbo Akademi.
    En föreningsbaserad demokrati?: Ideella föreningar och valdeltagande i Sveriges kommuner under 1990-talet2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 200.
    Lundåsen, Susanne
    Åbo Akademi.
    Ideella föreningar i Sveriges kommuner2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
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