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  • 151.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    von Bergmann-Winberg, Marie-Louise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Comparison of Econometric Modelling of Demand for Domestic and International Tourism: Swedish Data2007In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 323-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify functions for the domestic and international demand for tourism in the objective 6 region in Sweden (SW:6), in order to understand how tourism demand relates to the key macroeconomic variables and other variables such as real income, nominal and real exchange rate, price level and the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. An econometrics model is used to estimate the domestic tourism demand in SW:6. Monthly data for the period 1980–1998 are used. The results do not indicate any statistically significant effect of income, exchange rate or the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on the domestic tourism demand. Meanwhile, the consumer price index (CPI) and weather condition variables are found to have a rather significant effect on the domestic tourism demand. In this paper we also use a cointegration analysis to estimate the long-term relationship between monthly flows to SW:6 from the USA, the UK, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark, and factors such as income, CPI and exchange rate that influence arrivals. Monthly time series data for the period 1980–1998 are also used for this purpose. The estimated model does not indicate any statistically significant effect of the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the Gulf war on international tourism demand; on the other hand, significant effects of income, exchange rate and CPI on international tourism demand are found. The estimation and diagnostic testing strategy supports the specification of both models. When comparing these two parts of the study, regarding the domestic demand for tourism, we found the CPI, lags of the dependent variable and several of the monthly dummy variables that stand for the seasonal effects, to have significant effects on the number of visitors. On the other hand, we find income, exchange and CPI have a great influence on international tourism demand.

  • 152.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Bergmann-Winberg, Marie-Louise
    Modelling the Tourism Domestic Demand to the Area No. 6 in Sweden.: the 11th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research conference2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Sandström, Rickard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eurokrisen - en faktor mot ökad centralstyrning inom EU2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När finanskrisen drabbade världen 2008 – 2009 intervenerade många länder på kapitalmarknaderna. Syftet var att rädda inhemska banker och finansiella institutioner från att försättas i konkurs. Länderna ville minska riskerna för att det skulle leda till spridningseffekter inom det övriga finansiella systemet. Många länder förde dessutom en väldigt expansiv finanspolitik i syfte att rädda inhemska arbetstillfällen. Resultatet blev att många länders budgetunderskott och statsskulder började växa lavinartat och eurokrisen var ett faktum. Eurokrisen var ett resultat av att alla EMU:s medlemsländer hade brutit mot reglerna i stabilitets- och tillväxtpakten. EU:s lösning på problemet är att införa finanspakten och ESM vars uppgift är att säkerställa att den ekonomiska stabiliteten upprätthålls i unionen och då främst inom euroområdet.

     

    Uppsatsens syfte är att diskutera om eurokrisen är en faktor som leder till att centralstyrningen inom EU ökar. Frågan som ställs är om den överenskomna finanspakten kommer att innebära att ländernas möjligheter att bestämma över sin egen finanspolitik minskar.

     

    Analysen och diskussionen i uppsatsen kommer fram till att ländernas möjligheter att självständigt bestämma över sin finanspolitik kommer att minska. EU kommer definitivt att få mer makt på det finansiella området. Hur mycket makt som flyttas över från de nationella länderna till EU:s institutioner är däremot i nuläget svårare att bedöma. Slutsatsen är också att eurokrisen tydligt har visat bristerna inom eurosystemet. Det kommer i framtiden att bli nödvändigt att implementera någon form av transfereringssystem eller stabiliseringsmekanism. Syftet är att omfördela ekonomiska resurser om länder drabbas av asymmetriska chocker. Hur ett sådant system ska se ut är däremot svårare att bedöma. ESM kan tolkas som ett första steg i riktningen mot en sådan lösning. Euroobligationer kan också vara en möjlighet när det gäller att stabilisera ekonomin inom euroområdet. Euroobligationer kan även innebära att euron blir en internationellt gångbar reservvaluta jämförbar med den amerikanska dollarn.

  • 154.
    Sotoudeh, Bahman
    et al.
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Rostami Shahraji, Taymour
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Assessment of logging moratorium using analytical network process in Iranian Hyrcanian forests2019In: Journal of Sustainable Forestry, ISSN 1054-9811, E-ISSN 1540-756X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 130-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to evaluate three forthcoming scenarios (continuing of forest management plans, logging ban, and forest management plans halt) in terms of policy change and select the best method based on sustainable forest management strategies in Iranian Hyrcanian forests. For this propose a two-layer evaluation process was considered for choosing the best alternative. Analytic network process as a decision approach is applied with Benefit- Opportunity-Cost-Risk (BOCR) merit. The data were obtained either from the previous research or through questionnaires. The results indicated that the benefits and risks were more important in terms of decision-making, compared to the opportunities and costs. Finally, the scenario of 'continuity of forest management plans' was selected as the most suitable alternative. The decision framework proposed in this study offers a rational means for decision-making of forest policy.

  • 155.
    Sotoudeh Foumani, S.
    et al.
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Rostami Shahraji, T.
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Investigation of wood production and trading in Iran2016In: Journal of Forest Science, ISSN 1212-4834, E-ISSN 1805-935X, Vol. 62, no 9, p. 407-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between wood export and import of Iran and a number of major macroeconomic variables,such as oil price, gross domestic production, population, exchange rate, unemployment rate, inflation and domesticwood production during 1980–2014 were described. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysiswere used for data analysis. The results showed that there is a significant relation at a significance level of 5% betweenwood export as a dependent variable and oil price, GDP, population, exchange rate and domestic wood production asindependent variables. Meanwhile, there is also a significant relation between wood import and oil price, exchangerate and domestic wood production. The findings also indicate that oil price as an independent variable has the highest effect on wood import in Iran during the studied period.

  • 156.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Aktuella forskningsfrågor: Perspektiv från en samhällsvetare2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 157.
    Stage, Jesper
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries2010In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1185, p. 150-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis.

  • 158.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Leakage effects from REDD2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Living in a bubble: Benefits from more flexible water policies2013In: Economic Theory, Policy and Applications: Abstracts / [ed] Gregory T. Papanikos, 2013, p. 69-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Living in a bubble: potential gains from flexible water management policies2018In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 19, p. 1368-1372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study Swedish implementation of the European Union’s Water Framework Directive, and compare the current implementation strategy with more flexible ‘bubble’ schemes, where measures can be traded among various locations within the same river system to reach the overall environmental target. Two different Swedish river systems, the Mörrum system with small-scale hydropower plants, and the Ångerman system with larger plants, are studied. We find that the environmental benefits that current policies are likely to accomplish could be achieved at well under half the cost in the Mörrum system, and at less than a tenth of the cost in the Ångerman system.

  • 161. Stage, Jesper
    Mixing oil and water: Studies of the Namibian economy2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers studying economic aspects of natural resource and environmental management in Namibia.

    Paper [I] analyses changes in Namibian energy use patterns between 1980 and 1998. The study finds that, unlike their counterparts in many other developing countries where energy use has been studied, Namibian energy users appear to have been quite flexible in changing to energy-saving technologies and to technologies using different energy sources altogether. One explanation for this difference may be that Namibia has had relatively high energy prices and has had high taxes on oil-based fuels, which may have made Namibian energy users more interested in potential energy savings.

    Paper [II] studies variables affecting property pricing in the township areas of Windhoek, Namibia’s capital city. Plots close to a garbage dump sell at substantial discounts, while plots close to a recreation area sell at premium prices. These results suggest that environmental quality may be more important for households in township areas than has previously been believed. Neglecting issues of environmental quality in town planning for township areas may thus be a serious omission.

    Paper [III] uses Namibian farm price data to study the impact of groundwater access on farm profitability. Potentially, groundwater can function both as an extra source of water in areas with low rainfall and as a buffer source of water in areas where rainfall is higher but variable. If groundwater mainly functions as a buffer source of water in high-rainfall areas, it could be replaced by various means of water storage fairly easily. Providing extra water by other means in low-rainfall areas, on the other hand, is likely to be prohibitively expensive. The study does not provide clear-cut results, suggesting that on precautionary principles one should assume that groundwater will be difficult to replace with other water sources.

    Paper [IV] studies optimal allocation between commercial and recreational fishing for one of Namibia’s fish species, the kob. The biological dynamics of the kob are modelled using an age-class model with age-specific mortalities, in order to capture the fact that the two fisheries target different age classes. The length of the planning horizon is crucial for the results: If a short planning horizon is used, the results indicate that a large share of the catches should be allocated to commercial fishing. With a longer planning horizon, however, the higher profitability of recreational angling leads to the conclusion that it would be preferable to limit commercial fishing in order to permit kob stocks to recover and improve angling success.

  • 162.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Naturresurs- och skogsekonomi2013In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 78-80Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Oceans governance in the twenty-first century: Managing the blue planet2012In: Marine Resource Economics, ISSN 0738-1360, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 195-196Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Samhällsvetenskaplig forskning om miljö: Några nationalekonomiska exempel2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 165.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    The value of the Swedish eel fishery2015In: Marine Resource Economics, ISSN 0738-1360, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 21-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional sectors such as agriculture and fishing often receive special treatment from policymakers because such sectors are perceived to be associated with traditional cultural public good values. However, these values are often difficult to measure and few attempts have been made to do so. The recent European Union eel management directive creates an unusually clear-cut trade-off between eel fishing and other agents affecting the European eel population. It is possible, therefore, to measure directly the perceived public good value of the eel fishery in terms of other economic costs that policymakers are willing to incur in order to maintain eel fishing. Using Swedish data, we find that Swedish policymakers value the public good aspect of the remaining Swedish eel fishery at at least SEK 34 million (approximately EUR 3.4 million) annually, which is more than the commercial eel fishery’s actual production value.

  • 166.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vattenkraftens miljöfrågor2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 167.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vattnets ekonomiska och miljömässiga värden2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 168.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Christiernsson, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Box 260, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Söderholm, P.
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden .
    The economics of the Swedish individual transferable quota system: Experiences and policy implications2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 66, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and other European Union countries are currently carrying out extensive work aimed at improving the marine and freshwater environment. The adaptive management approaches typically used for this require the development of new policy instruments and measures when needed, but also evaluations of instruments and measures already in use or under way. This paper reports on a study of the Swedish individual transferable quota system introduced in 2009 for the pelagic fishery. The new system was motivated mainly by economic arguments and, thus, the need to get incentives right. Despite this, the design of the Swedish system weakened the intended incentive effects in several ways, compared with the foreign systems that served as models. Moreover, the information needed for future evaluations was not collected, even though the need for future evaluations had been expressed explicitly and the data needs for this could be identified at the time that the system was introduced.

  • 169.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jørn
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    McGranahan, Gordon
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Is urbanization contributing to higher food prices?2010In: Environment and Urbanization, ISSN 0956-2478, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 199-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization has been mentioned as one possible cause of higher food prices, and in this paper we examine some of the suggested links between urbanization and food prices. We conclude that urbanization, conventionally defined as the increasing share of the population living in urban settlements, is being conflated with related but separate processes, such as economic growth, population growth and environmental degradation. We discuss factors that affect food prices and conclude that the one important way in which urbanization in poor countries may affect food prices is that it increases the number of households that depend on commercial food supplies, rather than on own production, as their main source, and hence are likely to hoard food if they fear future price increases. One policy option for managing this is larger food reserves. Attempts to curb urbanization, on the other hand, would be ill-advised.

  • 170.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Uwera, Claudine
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi, Göteborgs universitet.
    Water management and pricing in the urban areas of Rwanda: the case of Kigali city2012In: Water Utility Management International, ISSN 1747-7751, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 13-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the current water pricing system practised in Kigali, Rwanda, and evaluate the potential for efficiency gains by moving to other alternatives. Notably, our numerical examples indicate that a change in the system for connection fees could make it easier for households to gain access to the piped water network, which should be beneficial both for household welfare and for health. Moreover, all households currently pay less than the cost recovery price for their water, suggesting that a change in the tariff block structure could lead to more efficient water use and improved funding for maintenance of the water network.

  • 171.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zimmerman, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Crayfish management in the Ljungan river: Managing with shocks2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zimmerman, Jenny K M
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Crayfish management in the Ljungan river: Managing with shocks2012In: Visible Possibilities: The Economics of Sustainable Fisheries, Aquaculture and Seafood Trade: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, July 16-20, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania / [ed] Ann L. Shriver, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]
    • The noble crayfish fishery in the Ljungan river system in Sweden has been subjected to two major shocks; hydropower development in the 1970s, which reduced water flow throughout the system with attendant effects on the crayfish stocks, and an outbreak of crayfish plague in the 1990s which wiped out the noble crayfish in most of the river system. Differing ownership structures for the fishing rights in different parts of the river system have led to different management systems, ranging from sole private ownership through management by fishermen's associations through to effective open access fishing. We study how these different systems of management have affected the crayfish, and compare the outcomes to those from the hydropower development in the 1970s.

  • 173.
    Sten, Lilly-Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Vilken påverkan har makroekonomiska faktorer på antal registrerade företag?: En kvantitativ studie av makroekonomiska faktorers påverkan på antal registrerade aktiebolag och enskilda näringsidkare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of macroeconomic factors on the number of newly registered limited companies and sole traders in Sweden. The aim has been to contribute with variables that can be used in forecasting the number of new company registrations. I have chosen the macroeconomic factors which, according to previous research in this area, have proved to be the most common. The study has been done with multiple regression analysis and checked for multicollinearity, autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity. The result suggests that macroeconomic factors such as GDP, unemployment, unemployment including delayed effects and inflation can have a significant effect on the number of new registrations for limited companies. The analysis also suggests that GDP has a negative effect on the number of new sole traders. The conclusion of the study is that the factors affecting the number of new limited companies differ from those affecting the number of new sole traders. Further studies are needed in order to establish other variables that can influence the number of new registrations and in particular new registrations for sole traders.

  • 174.
    Ström, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Svensk arbetsmarknadsflexibilitet: Ett hinder för ett gynnsamt eurosamarbete?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 175.
    Ståby, Anette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Effekter av kortsiktiga bromsåtgärder i kommunal verksamhet - En studie av Hudiksvalls kommun2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 176.
    Svedin, Dick
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Impacts of foreign direct investment on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing2016In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, no 614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have found that foreign direct investment (FDI) can have positive impacts on productivity. However, while FDI has clearly positive impacts on technology transfers, its effects on resource use within firms is less clear and, in principle, efficiency losses might offset some of the productivity gains associated with improved technologies. In this paper, we study the impacts of FDI on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing. We find that foreign ownership has positive impacts on efficiency, supporting the earlier findings on productivity.

  • 177.
    Uwera, Claudine
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Econ, Gothenburg; Univ Rwanda, Dept Econ, Butare, Rwanda.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Luleå.
    Individual status quo modelling for a rural water service in Rwanda: application of a choice experiment2016In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 490-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Rwanda, rural water supply is not uniformly distributed. Rural areas are characterized by differences in the distance to the nearest water point and in water quality for domestic water, by watering frequency and water availability for irrigation water, and by the price for both. A household's perception of further improvements in water supply will, therefore, depend heavily on the situation it currently faces. The authors used a choice experiment to model how the individual status quo (SQ) affects preferences. Accounting for individual SQ information improves model significance relative to simply using the generic SQ parameter in the model, and the willingness to pay increases. Not using this information leads to a downward bias - and, in some cases, statistical insignificance - in estimates of households' valuation of health improvements linked to improved domestic water availability, as well as of increased watering frequency linked to the improved availability of irrigation water.

  • 178.
    Uwera, Claudine
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi, Göteborgs universitet; Department of Economics, University of Rwanda.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Water demand by unconnected households in urban districts of Rwanda2015In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 1450002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse water demand by urban households in Rwanda who currently lack a piped connection into their home. The analysis uses data from a cross-sectional survey. The results show that public taps are the most widely used water source and that the demand for water from this source is more inelastic than that for water from other water sources. Although some households combine different sources of water, the majority in the sample uses only one source. We use the full household income, including the value of the household’s time, and obtain results which indicate income elasticities higher than those obtained using monetary income only. The full cost associated with alternative water sources (including the opportunity cost of the time used) is shown to be important for determining the choice of source – something which has been overlooked in most previous studies.

  • 179.
    Vengelin, Angelica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Samband mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och demokrati: En studie av Moderniseringsteorin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 180.
    Vondolia, Godwin Kofi
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet; universitetet i Tromsø.
    Eggert, Håkan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Navrud, Ståle
    Norges miljö- och biovetenskapliga universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    What do respondents bring to contingent valuation?: A comparison of monetary and labor payment vehicles2014In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 253-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contingent valuation method, both the goods being valued and the payment vehicles used to value them are mostly hypothetical. However, although numerous studies have examined the impact of experience with the good on the willingness to pay, less attention has been given to experience with the payment vehicles. This paper examines how experience with payment vehicles influence responses to a contingent valuation scenario on maintaining irrigation canals in a developing country. Specifically, the paper uses a split-sample survey to investigate the effects of experience with monetary and labor payment vehicles on the acceptance of a contingent valuation scenario, protest bids and mean willingness to pay. Using convergent validity tests, we found that experience acquired from using both monetary and labor payment vehicles reduces the asymmetries in acceptance rates. These findings suggest that experience with payment vehicles reduces time/money response asymmetries in the contingent valuation method.

  • 181.
    Vondolia, Godwin Kofi
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, SE405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eggert, Håkan
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, SE405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Navrud, Ståle
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Box 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    What do respondents bring to contingent valuation?: A comparison of monetary and labour payment vehicles2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With contingent valuation, both the goods being valued and the payment vehicles used to value them are mostly hypothetical. However, although numerous studies have examined the impact of experience with the good on willingness to pay, less attention has been given to experience with payment vehicles. This paper examines how this influences responses to a contingent valuation scenario of maintenance for irrigation canals. Specifically, the paper uses a split-sample survey to investigate the effects of experience with monetary and labor payment vehicles on the acceptance of a contingent valuation scenario and protest bids. Using convergent validity tests, we found that experience acquired from using both monetary and labor payment vehicles reduces the asymmetries in acceptance rates. These findings suggest that experience with payment vehicles reduces time/money response asymmetries in the contingent valuation method.

  • 182.
    Vondolia, Kofi
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi, Göteborgs universitet.
    Eggert, Håkan
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nudging Boserup?: The impact of fertilizer subsidies on investment in soil and water conservation2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new fertilizer subsidies in sub-Saharan Africa are intended to increase agricultural production and ensure development of a fertilizer market. Fertilizer adoption requires complementary inputs, such as investment in soil and water conservation (SWC), for efficient and optimal nutrient uptake, and many fertilizer subsidy programs implicitly assume that fertilizer subsidies crowd in such investments. The results of our study of the impact of fertilizer subsidies on SWC efforts in Ghana indicate that beneficiaries of the program do not invest significantly more in SWC. This suggests that policies should not expect farmers to respond to fertilizer subsidies with substantial investment in SWC. Thus, in order to achieve increased investment in SWC for sustainable agricultural development, more comprehensive measures that include fertilizer investments explicitly (such as integrated soil fertility management programs) may be needed.

  • 183.
    Widerstedt, Barbro
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Rosdahl, Jonatan
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    A warm welcome?: Access to advisory services for men and women2018In: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 58, p. 100-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In politics, broadly stated ambitions such that a service should be available to all are fairly commonplace. However, evaluation access to service in a broader sense is often difficult and expensive. In this study we use a field experiment to investigate if the reception from the business development community differs contingent on the gender of the client. In the experiment, identical email requests were sent to actors in the enterprise promotion system. The result is that response frequency and time were independent of the gender of the sender. However, the male sender was more often given an explicit invitation to book a time slot. To delve further into the responses, we use sentiment analysis, a ‘big data’ method, to analyse the replies. The analysis reveal that replies to the female sender is more positive. Our conclusion is that even if there are some gender differences we would not consider it to be a systematic discrimination. However, the unconsciousness from public servants should be included in training to increase awareness of this issue. 

  • 184.
    Zadmirzaei, M.
    et al.
    Univ Guilan, Gilan, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Univ Guilan, Gilan, Iran.
    Amirteimoori, A.
    Islamic Azad Univ, Rasht Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Efficiency Analysis of Paper Mill Using Data Envelopment Analysis Models: (Case Study: Mazandaran Wood and Paper Company in Iran)2015In: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (JAST), ISSN 1680-7073, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1381-1391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the relative performance of Mazandaran Wood and Paper Company as a major supplier of paper products in Iran was measured. Network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models with parallel structure were used to evaluate and measure its performance. GAMS software version 23.4 was used for data analysis. Results indicated that this company in all studied years had good performances based on the parallel DEA models. Also, according to the same models with parallel structure, 2007 and 2008 had better efficiency score than the other years. Finally, results indicated that, using the cross efficiency models, the company had the best performance in 2007. This result could be due to the input-oriented nature of the models. Consequently, by proper management and optimum consumption of the resources, the company had the best performance in 2007.

  • 185.
    Zadmirzaei Soleimandarabi, Majid
    et al.
    University of Guilan, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Iran.
    Amirteimoori, Alireza
    Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.
    Deterministic Scenario vs. Stochastic Scenario in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): A Case on Iranian Forest Management Units2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Zandi, Solmaz
    et al.
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Amiri, Neda
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    An economic evaluation of a forest park using the individual travel cost method (a case study of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in northern Iran)2018In: Environmental & Socio-Economic Studies, ISSN 2354-0079, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The true economic value of ecosystem services may not be reflected in market transactions, because there is no real transaction for ecosystem services in the market. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the cost of time and travel to define the value people place on something in the absence of a market price. This study estimates the recreational value of Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park in the north of Iran using the individual travel cost method. This method is considered to be a substitute approach for the market. The data required were collected using questionnaires. Therefore, 271 questionnaires were randomly distributed between the visitors of the recreational site in 2016. In this study, a linear function is used to estimate the effects of explanatory variables including economic and social variables on the number of visits to estimate the recreational value of the forest park. Results showed that a consumer surplus of each person for their visit was 21500 Rials and the annual recreational value of the park was 78390595 Rials per ha. Furthermore, the variables such as travel expenses, income, distance, family size and visitor's age are effective factors in the recreational use of the park. The results of this study can improve the quality of environmental services of the Ghaleh Rudkhan forest park and could expand the variety of services that they could supply based on the demand of the people.

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