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  • 151.
    Hägglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Metsa Board Sverige AB, Husum Mill, SE-89680 Husum, *Sweden.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Umea Univ, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Prediction of optical variations in paper from high resolution measurements of paper properties2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 596-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to predict optical variations from high resolution measurementsof paper properties is evaluated in this work. The method combines thepoint-wise values of high resolution maps of filler content and grammagewith an empirical model derived in an earlier study to predict thespatial optical variations in paper.The method has been applied on two paper samples, a laboratory paper anda commercial 80 g/m(2) copy paper. The optical variations have beenpredicted at a scale of 1 mm(2). Validation has been made by using ahigh resolution spectrophotometric setup to measure the spatialreflectance variations in the paper. The results show that for thesamples used, the influence of filler content variations and densityvariations on the optical variations is small compared to influence ofthe grammage variations.

  • 152.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Ma, Guangning
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Afewerki, Samson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Córdova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Palladium/Chiral Amine Co-catalyzed Enantioselective beta-Arylation of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes2013In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 878-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Palladium and a simple chiral amine are used as co-catalysts for the enantioselective conjugate addition of aryl boronic acids to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (see scheme). The synthetic utility of this co-catalyzed reaction was demonstrated in the short total syntheses of (R)-(-)-curcumene and 4-aryl-2-ones. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 153.
    Isaksson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gradin, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hellström, Lisbeth M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    A numerical and experimental study regarding the influence of some process parameters on the damage state in wood chips2013In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 691-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The specific energy consumption during mechanical refining operation can be reduced by choosing the optimal process parameters in the wood chipping process such that a beneficial pretreatment is obtained. In the case of the utilization of a larger knife-edge angle, which is one such process parameter, the energy reduction is presumably due to the increased compressive loading parallel to the wood fibers. In the present article, a chip damage parameter D of spruce is in focus, which is relevant for cracking parallel to the fibers. D is defined and its dependence on the chip length and edge angle of the chipping knife is analyzed numerically by means of finite element analyses (FEA). The cutting force was measured in a pilot wood chipper for a number of knife-edge angles. There is a good correlation between the experimental results and those of FEA.

  • 154.
    Jiang, Liying
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Analyt Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dziedzic, Pawel
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spacil, Zdenek
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Analyt Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhao, Gui-Ling
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Karolinska Inst, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ilag, Leopold L.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Analyt Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abiotic synthesis of amino acids and self-crystallization under prebiotic conditions2014In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, p. Art. no. 6769-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on previous research on the origin and homochirality of life, this study focuses on analyses profiling important building blocks of life: the natural amino acids. The spark discharge variation of the iconic Miller experiment was performed with a reducing gas mixture of ammonia, methane, water and hydrogen. Amino acid analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after pre-column derivatizaiton revealed the generation of several amino acids including those essential for life. Re-crystallization of the synthetic products and enantiomeric ratio analysis were subsequently performed. Results from liquid chromatography coupled with either fluorescent detector or tandem mass spectrometry after pre-column derivatization with chiral reagent revealed spontaneous and effective asymmetric resolution of serine and alanine. This work describes a useful analytical platform for investigation of hypotheses regarding the origin and homochirality of amino acids under prebiotic conditions. The formation of numerous amino acids in the electric discharge experiment and the occurrence of high enantiomeric ratios of amino acids in re-crystallization experiment give valuable implications for future studies in unraveling fundamental questions regarding origins and evolution of life.

  • 155.
    Jiang, Yan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Deiana, Luca
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Liu, Leifeng
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Córdova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Cascade Synthesis of Bicyclic Lactams in One-Pot2018In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, Vol. 2018, no 9, p. 1158-1164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A versatile and highly stereoselective synthetic route to functionalized bi- and tricyclic lactams (up to > 20:1 dr and 99 % ee) in one pot from simple starting materials (allylic alcohols, enals, diamines and amino alcohols) using cascade transformations promoted by chiral amine/Brønsted or metal/chiral amine/Brønsted relay catalysis is disclosed. Here molecular oxygen is employed as the terminal oxidant for the latter relay catalysis approach. 

  • 156.
    Jogiste, Kalev
    et al.
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kuuluvainen, Timo
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Ste Foy, PQ, Canada.
    Moser, W. Keith
    USDA, Ft Valley Expt Forest, Forest Serv, Flagstaff, AZ USA.
    Forest landscape mosaics: disturbance, restoration, and management at times of global change2015In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 45, no 9, p. V-VIArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Measuring and modelling light scattering in paper2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about measuring and modelling light reflected from paper by using goniophotometric measurements. Measuring bidirectional reflectance requires highly accurate instruments, and a large part of the work in this thesis is about establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure valid data. A spectral goniophotometer is used for measuring the light reflected from paper and methods are developed for analyzing the different components, i.e. the fluorescence, surface reflectance and bulk reflectance, separately. A separation of the surface and bulk reflectance is obtained by inkjet printing and analyzing the total reflectance in the absorption band of the ink. The main principle of the method is to add dye to the paper until the bulk scattered light is completely absorbed. The remaining reflectance is solely surface reflectance, which is subtracted from the total reflectance of the undyed sample to give the bulk reflectance. The results show that although the surface reflectance of a matte paper is small in comparison with the bulk reflectance, it grows rapidly with increasing viewing angle, and can have a large influence on the overall reflectance.

    A method for quantitative fluorescence measurements is developed, and used for analyzing the angular distribution of the fluoresced light. The long-standing issue whether fluorescence from turbid (or amorphous) media is Lambertian or not, is resolved by using both angle-resolved luminescence measurements and radiative transfer based Monte Carlo simulations. It is concluded that the degree of anisotropy of the fluoresced light is related to the average depth of emission, which in turn depends on factors such as concentration of fluorophores, angle of incident light and the absorption coefficient at the excitation wavelength.

    All measurements are conducted with a commercially available benchtop sized double-beam spectral goniophotometer designed for laboratory use. To obtain reliable results, its absolute measurement capability is evaluated in terms of measurement accuracy. The results show that the compact size of the instrument, combined with the anisotropic nature of reflectance from paper, can introduce significant systematic errors of the same order as the overall measurement uncertainty. The errors are related to the relatively large detection solid angle that is required when measuring diffusely reflecting materials. Situations where the errors are most severe, oblique viewing angles and samples with high degree of anisotropic scattering, are identified, and a geometrical correction is developed.

    Estimating optical properties of a material from bidirectional measurements has proved to be a challenging problem and the outcome is highly dependent on both the quality and quantity of the measurements. This problem is analyzed in detail for optically thick turbid media, and the study targets the case when a restricted set of detection angles are available. This is the case when e.g. an unobstructed view of the sample is not possible. Simulations show that the measurements can be restricted to the plane of incidence (in-plane), and even the forward direction only, without any significant reduction in the precision or stability of the estimation, as long as sufficiently oblique angles are included.

  • 158.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spectral goniophotometry: applications to light scattering in paper2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of finite-sized detection solid angle on bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurements2014In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 1212-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with limitations and often overlooked sources of error introduced in compact double-beam goniophotometers. It is shown that relative errors in measured radiance factor, comparable to the total measurement uncertainty, can be introduced if recommended corrections are not carried out. Two different error sources are investigated, both related to the size of the detection solid angle. The first is a geometrical error that occurs when the size of the illuminated area and detector aperture are comparable to the distance between them. The second is a convolution error due to variations in radiant flux over the detector aperture, which is quantified by simulating the full 3D bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a set of samples with different degrees of anisotropic reflectance. The evaluation is performed for a compact double-beam goniophotometer using different detection solid angles, and it is shown that both error sources introduce relative errors of 1%–3%, depending on viewing angle and optical properties of the sample. Commercially available compact goniophotometers, capable of absolute measurements, are becoming more and more common, and the findings in this paper are therefore important for anyone using or planning to use this type of instrument.

  • 160.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Separation of surface and bulk reflectance by absorption of bulk scattered light2013In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 52, no 19, p. 4749-4754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed for separating light reflected from turbid media with a rough surface into a bulkand a surface component. Dye is added to the sample, thereby increasing absorption and canceling bulkscattering. The remaining reflected light is surface reflectance, which can be subtracted from the totalreflectance of an undyed sample to obtain the bulk component. The method is applied to paper wherethe addition of dye is accomplished by inkjet printing. The results show that the bulk scattered light isefficiently canceled, and that both the spectrally neutral surface reflectance and the surface topographyof the undyed paper is maintained. The proposed method is particularly suitable for characterization ofdielectric, highly randomized materials with significant bulk reflectance and rough surfaces, which aredifficult to analyze with existing methods. A reliable separation method opens up for new ways of analyzing,e.g., biological tissues and optical coatings, and is also a valuable tool in the development of morecomprehensive reflectance models.

  • 161.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The inverse radiative transfer problem - considerations for optically thick mediaArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Johansson, Sofia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bjørnstad Pedersen, Mette
    Thermophysical properties: Development of high temperature viscometer for molten slag and melting point calculation toward the ISS experiments2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work describes development of a public thermophysical database for molten oxides. The European Space Agency (ESA) brought up the question “is there adequate enough information about molten steel and molten oxides today?” A survey was brought out which showed a joint opinion that an expansion of the database would be appreciated. The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) brought matter into business and started collaborations with various universities and institutes around the world, each collaborator became responsible of measurement of one thermophysical property. Properties investigated were/are viscosity, density, thermal diffusivity and surface/ interfacial tension. As part of the project Jönköping University is kept in charge of viscosity experiments where design of experiment has been carried out and viscosities of seven oxide melts are to be measured. Viscosity measurements in molten metal and molten oxides are to be held in a high temperature furnace capable of temperatures up to 1650 degrees Celsius. A viscometer was purchased for the experiments including standard devices made of steel. The included standard devices have a lower melting point than the temperature during exper-iments and are therefore inappropriate for the purpose. A custom made bob was produced which had to be calibrated into the viscometer to enable correct interpretation of experimental results. To know at which temperatures experiments need to be held melting points for the inves-tigated oxide compositions have been analyzed with different software. Because of software dependent results a final conclusion that a Differen-tial Scanning Calorimeter should be used to determine the melting points of each molten oxide is made.

  • 163.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pe'er, Guy
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Svoboda, Miroslav
    Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Forests: not just timber plantations2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 521, no 7550, p. 32-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Siitonen, Juha
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Managing for target species2013In: Integrative approaches as an opportunity for the conservation of forest biodiversity / [ed] Daniel Kraus and Frank Krumm, Freiburg, Germany: European Forest Institute , 2013, p. 134-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Inget nytt under solen: 200 ord med Malthus2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 139-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Dept. of Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Grafström, Anton
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Göran
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Bertil
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dead wood availability in managed Swedish forests - Policy outcomes and implications for biodiversity2016In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 376, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dead wood is a critical resource for forest biodiversity and widely used as an indicator for sustainable forest management. Based on data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory we provide baseline information and analyze trends in volume and distribution of dead wood in Swedish managed forests during 15 years. The data are based on ≈30,000 sample plots inventoried during three periods (1994-1998; 2003-2007 and 2008-2012). The forest policy has since 1994 emphasized the need to increase the amount of dead wood in Swedish forests. The average volume of dead wood in Sweden has increased by 25% (from 6.1 to 7.6 m3 ha-1) since the mid-1990s, but patterns differed among regions and tree species. The volume of conifer dead wood (mainly from Picea abies) has increased in the southern part of the country, but remained stable or decreased in the northern part. Heterogeneity of dead wood types was low in terms of species, diameter and decay classes, potentially negatively impacting on biodiversity. Overall, we found only minor effects of the current forest policy since most of the increase can be attributed to storm events creating a pulse of hard dead wood. Therefore, the implementation of established policy instruments (e.g. legislation and voluntary certification schemes) need to be revisited. In addition to the retention of dead trees during forestry operations, policy makers should consider calling for more large-scale targeted creation of dead trees and management methods with longer rotation cycles. © 2016 The Authors.

  • 167.
    Jönsson, Alexander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rensningsanordning för vattenkraftverk: Utvecklingsprocessen fram till ett helhetskoncept2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid inloppet hos vattenkraftverk sitter galler som förhindrar att stockar och diverse andra större föremål inte följer med ner till turbinen och eventuellt skadar denna. Till följd samlas flytande bråte upp framför gallret. För att vattenkraftverk ska kunna hålla en jämn elproduktion och undvika effektförluster måste inloppet hållas fritt från flytande bråte. Detta arbete behandlar utveck­lingen av ett koncept till en rensningsanordning för vattenkraft­verk som har till uppgift att avlägsna bråte framför och mellan gallret. Projektet följer designprocessens olika idégenererings- och konceptutvärderingsstadier. Genom att identifiera styrkorna och svagheterna hos befintliga rensningsanordningar ställs kriterier för en förbättrad rensningsanordning upp och utifrån denna genereras olika lösningsförslag. Det slutgiltiga konceptet består av en roterbar teleskoparm som löper upp och ner längs gallret. I änden sitter en skopa som samlar upp bråte framför gallret och frigör bråte som har fastnat mellan gallret. I infästningen mellan skopan och teleskoparmen sitter en torsionsfjäder som ger skopan begränsad rörlighet och bidrar till att uppsamlat bråte töms ur skopan ovanför gallret. Konstruktionskrav rörande hållfasthet, korrosionsbeständighet och miljöbelastning uppfylls för teleskoparmen. Hållfasthetsberäkningarna påvisar att en maximal spänning på 170 MPa erhålls i armen, som motstår spänningar upp till 290 MPa innan plasticering. Beräkningarna styrker att konceptets funktionsprincip är genomförbart.

  • 168.
    Karlsson, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Boktöljen: Bokhyllan och fåtöljen för trångbodda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 169. Kawakatsu, Taiji
    et al.
    Huang, Shao-shan Carol
    Jupe, Florian
    Sasaki, Eriko
    Schmitz, Robert J.
    Urich, Mark A.
    Castanon, Rosa
    Nery, Joseph R.
    Barragan, Cesar
    He, Yupeng
    Chen, Huaming
    Dubin, Manu
    Lee, Cheng-Ruei
    Wang, Congmao
    Bemm, Felix
    Becker, Claude
    O’Neil, Ryan
    O’Malley, Ronan C.
    Quarless, Danjuma X.
    Alonso-Blanco, Carlos
    Andrade, Jorge
    Bergelson, Joy
    Borgwardt, Karsten
    Chae, Eunyoung
    Dezwaan, Todd
    Ding, Wei
    Ecker, Joseph R.
    Expósito-Alonso, Moisés
    Farlow, Ashley
    Fitz, Joffrey
    Gan, Xiangchao
    Grimm, Dominik G.
    Hancock, Angela
    Henz, Stefan R.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Horton, Matthew
    Jarsulic, Mike
    Kerstetter, Randall A.
    Korte, Arthur
    Korte, Pamela
    Lanz, Christa
    Lee, Chen-Ruei
    Meng, Dazhe
    Michael, Todd P.
    Mott, Richard
    Muliyati, Ni Wayan
    Nägele, Thomas
    Nagler, Matthias
    Nizhynska, Viktoria
    Nordborg, Magnus
    Novikova, Polina
    Picó, F. Xavier
    Platzer, Alexander
    Rabanal, Fernando A.
    Rodriguez, Alex
    Rowan, Beth A.
    Salomé, Patrice A.
    Schmid, Karl
    Seren, Ümit
    Sperone, Felice Gianluca
    Sudkamp, Mitchell
    Svardal, Hannes
    Tanzer, Matt M.
    Todd, Donald
    Volchenboum, Samuel L.
    Wang, George
    Wang, Xi
    Weckwerth, Wolfram
    Weigel, Detlef
    Zhou, Xuefeng
    Schork, Nicholas J.
    Epigenomic Diversity in a Global Collection of Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions2016In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 166, no 2, p. 492-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epigenome orchestrates genome accessibility, functionality, and three-dimensional structure. Because epigenetic variation can impact transcription and thus phenotypes, it may contribute to adaptation. Here, we report 1,107 high-quality single-base resolution methylomes and 1,203 transcriptomes from the 1001 Genomes collection of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the genetic basis of methylation variation is highly complex, geographic origin is a major predictor of genome-wide DNA methylation levels and of altered gene expression caused by epialleles. Comparison to cistrome and epicistrome datasets identifies associations between transcription factor binding sites, methylation, nucleotide variation, and co-expression modules. Physical maps for nine of the most diverse genomes reveal how transposons and other structural variants shape the epigenome, with dramatic effects on immunity genes. The 1001 Epigenomes Project provides a comprehensive resource for understanding how variation in DNA methylation contributes to molecular and non-molecular phenotypes in natural populations of the most studied model plant.

  • 170.
    Kohls, Hannes
    et al.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Biochem, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.
    Anderson, Mattias
    AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Ind Biotechnol, KTH Royal Inst Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dickerhoff, Jonathan
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Biochem, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.
    Weisz, Klaus
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Biochem, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Berglund, Per
    AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Ind Biotechnol, KTH Royal Inst Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brundiek, Henrike
    Enzymicals AG, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany.
    Bornscheuer, Uwe T.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Biochem, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.
    Hoehne, Matthias
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Biochem, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.
    Selective Access to All Four Diastereomers of a 1,3-Amino Alcohol by Combination of a Keto Reductase- and an Amine Transaminase-Catalysed Reaction2015In: Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, ISSN 1615-4150, E-ISSN 1615-4169, Vol. 357, no 8, p. 1808-1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biocatalytic synthesis of chiral amines has become a valuable addition to the chemists' tool-box. However, the efficient asymmetric synthesis of functionalised amines bearing more than one stereocentre, such as 1,3-amino alcohols, remains challenging. By employing a keto reductase (KRED) and two enantiocomplementary amine transaminases (ATA), we developed a biocatalytic route towards all four diastereomers of 4-amino-1-phenylpentane-2-ol as a representative molecule bearing the 1,3-amino alcohol functionality. Starting from a racemic hydroxy ketone, a kinetic resolution using an (S)-selective KRED provided optically active hydroxy ketone (86% ee) and the corresponding diketone. Further transamination of the hydroxy ketone was performed by either an (R)- or an (S)-selective ATA, yielding the (2R,4R)- and (2R,4S)-1,3-amino alcohol diastereomers. The remaining two diastereomers were accessible in two subsequent asymmetric steps: the diketone was reduced regio- and enantioselectively by the same KRED, which yielded the (S)-configured hydroxy ketone. Eventually, the subsequent transamination of the crude product with (R)- and (S)-selective ATAs yielded the remaining (2S,4R)and (2S,4S)-diastereomers, respectively.

  • 171.
    Kullman, Leif
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    New Aspects of High-Mountain Palaeobiogeography: A Synthesis of Data from Forefields of Receding Glaciers and Ice Patches in the Tarna and Kebnekaise Mountains, Swedish Lapland2015In: Arctic, ISSN 0004-0843, E-ISSN 1923-1245, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 141-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent recession of high-mountain glacier ice and perennial snow and ice patches has exposed megafossil and macrofossil tree remnants and peat, offering a new source of Holocene high alpine vegetation history in the Scandes. Radiocarbon dates of 90 tree megafossils from Swedish Lapland, 29 of which had not previously been published, range from 11 980 to 1950 cal yr BP. During the interval 9500-8500 cal yr BP, mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grew 600-700 m higher upslope than they do today, which is a new and remarkable discovery. Subsequently, tree density gradually declined at higher elevations, and as the tree line moved downslope, the ratio of Betula to Pinus increased. Tree growth ceased around 4500 cal yr BP, presumably in response to the return of perennial ice and snow. A short episode of resumed tree growth of Betula indicates conditions warmer than present around 2000 years ago. Between c. 8500 and 7300 cal yr BP, Picea abies, Larix sibirica, Populus tremula, Sorbus aucuparia and Alnus incana were subordinate species on a forest floor dominated by plant species characteristic of prealpine or subalpine woodlands. Growth of trees as much as 700 m higher upslope than today around 9500 cal yr BP implies that summer temperatures at that time may have been 3.0 degrees C warmer than today's temperatures (corrected for land uplift). This inferred temperature difference between the early Holocene and the present concurs with changes in the Earth's orbital parameters.

  • 172.
    Kumar, V.
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nurmi, M.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Toivakka, M.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Conductive carbon-nanocellulose coatings on paper2017In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, TAPPI Press , 2017, p. 26-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Kumar, Vinay
    et al.
    Åbo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nurmi, Maristiina
    Åbo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
    Conductive nanographite-nanocellulose coatings on paper2017In: Flexible And Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 2, no 3, article id aa728eArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper products with active and functional coatings have attracted interest in recent years to counter the stagnating demand for traditional graphic paper grades. Conductive coatings have potential uses in various energy generation and storage applications, e.g. in batteries, supercapacitors, and photovoltaics. The current work aims to demonstrate large-scale production of flexible low-cost nanographite coatings on paper-based substrate. The large aspect ratio of graphene present in the suspension limits solids content to very low values, which makes it challenging to create thick coating layers required for high conductivity. The use of nanocellulose binder together with a custom-built slot-coating device enables roll-to-roll coating of thick conductive coatings on paper. The rheological and water-retention properties of nanographite-nanocellulose suspensions are reported. The influence of coat weight, carbon black addition, and calendering on coating structure and the resulting conductivity of the coatings is investigated. Impact of humidity and bending/creasing of coated samples on their electrical performance is explored as well. The lowest surface resistances obtained were in the range 1-2 Ohm/square, for 15 g m(-2) coat weight. Increasing the coat weight and calendering nip load resulted in higher conductivity of coatings. Carbon black addition deteriorated the conductivity somewhat, probably due to increased porosity of coatings. Moisture and creasing did not affect significantly the conductivity of high coat weight and calendered samples. The results reported are very encouraging for future research on further improving the electrical performance of such carbon coatings.

  • 174.
    Kuuluvainen, Timo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Aakala, Tuomas
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    North Fennoscandian mountain forests: History, composition, disturbance dynamics and the unpredictable future2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 385, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    North Fennoscandian mountain forests are distributed along the Scandes Mountains between Sweden and Norway, and the low-mountain regions of northern Norway, Sweden and Finland, and the adjacent northwestern Russia. Regionally, these forests are differentiated into spruce, pine or birch dominance due to climatic differences. Variation in tree species dominance within these regions is generally caused by a combination of historical and prevailing disturbance regimes, including both chronic and episodic disturbances, their magnitude and frequency, as well as differences in edaphic conditions and topography. Because of their remoteness, slow growth and restrictions of use, these mountain forests are generally less affected by human utilization than more productive and easily utilizable forests at lower elevations and/or latitudes. As a consequence, these northern forests of Europe are often referred to as “Europe's last wilderness”, even if human influence of varying intensity has been ubiquitous through historical time. Because of their naturalness, the North Fennoscandian mountain forests are of paramount importance for biodiversity conservation, monitoring of ecosystem change and for their sociocultural values. As such, they also provide unique reference areas for basic and applied research, and for developing methods of forest conservation, restoration and ecosystem-based management for the entire Fennoscandia. However, the current rapid change in climate is predicted to profoundly affect the ecology and dynamics of these forests in the future.

  • 175.
    Landin, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kompakta layouter för balningslinjer: En konceptstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Valmet is a leading global provider of products and services for the pulp, paper and energy industries. The department of Flash drying and Baling, located in Sundsbruk, Sundsvall, manufactures and sells baling lines con-taining machinery that presses, wraps and binds sheets of dried pulp into pulp bales. The goal of this project was to investigate the possibility of installing the machines in a smaller factory building which reduces cus-tomer costs for construction and maintenance of the building and strengthens Valmet's position among the competitors. The goal was to re-duce the floor space by 30 % without affecting the capacity and accessi-bility negatively. The new proposal for a solution should also allow cost savings of at least 20%. The entire process from wet pulp through drying and cutting up to baling was studied. A visit at SCA-Östrand resulted in increased understanding of the various stages of the baling process. A pulp mill with four baling lines, divided into five sections represented a typical case for a new factory construction and provided a basis for dis-cussion. Six different suggestions for a solution were generated during three different brain storming sessions. The concepts were then evaluated together with personnel at Valmet and by using different decision ma-trixes. The final selected solution involves changes of varying size in all sections which together reduces the building's floor space by 24 %. A lay-out of the new plant was created in AutoCAD. Another proposed solu-tion that allowed a larger reduction in floor space were considered but affected the accessibility of the baling line negative. A deeper analysis is therefore needed. The economic analysis showed that none of the pro-posals met the economic desired goal of a 20 % cost saving. The analysis is based on large estimates conducted at an early stage, with the detail construction still to be done. The objective itself can for that reason be questioned. Further work consists of verifying that the proposed solution works without malfunctions by testing the flow of bales through the bal-ing lines and the machines cycle times in the company's simulator.

  • 176.
    Leanders, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Konstruktion av fogsvanshandtag: En designprocess2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the education program degree of Master of Science in Engineer-ing: Industrial Design Engineering at Mid Sweden University has one of the students during their thesis developed a new design of a handle for a hand-held saw through a design process on behalf of the G-Man Tools AB. This report presents the design process undertaken to further develop the existing handle. The goal with a new design is that it will eliminate certain production time and steps, which in turn will reduce the cost of production. The mode of operation has been to develop a number of new concepts which then underwent user testing by random-ly selected people. The result is presented as a final concept for the feedback from the tests, and an accomplished design process with all its parts. The final concept was digitized as a 3D model in Solid Works to enable the delivery of a printed physical model with constructional drawings for the company.

  • 177.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Ola. J.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Notley, Shannon M.
    Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The adhesive behavior of extracted Latex polymers towards Silicon oxide and Cellulose2013In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 44, p. 250-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective with this work is to compare the adhesive behavior for latex polymers of different Glass transition Temperatures (Tg) at different length scales and with different contact times. This is accomplished by two techniques: AFM colloidal probe force measurements and JKR-measurements. The aim is to compare the results from these two techniques and relate them to the interaction of the latex polymers towards oxidized silicon wafers and silica/cellulose probes. Theory suggests that altering the short timeframes used in the colloidal probe technique does not affect the ranking of the adhesion for the different polymers, but for the macroscopic JKR-technique it influences the measured work of adhesion. It is therefore important to let the system reach a steady state before assuming complete spreading and adhesion. AFM and JKR measurements showed the same trends where the polymer with lowest content of styrene has the lowest Tg and the highest adhesion, due to the larger polymer chain mobility.

  • 178.
    Linder, Tomas
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering Luleå University of Technology.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering Luleå University of Technology.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lateral light scattering in fibrous media2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 7835-7840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral light scattering in fibrous media is investigated by computing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of 22 paper samples using a Monte Carlo model. The simulation tool uses phase functions from infinitely long homogenous cylinders and the directional inhomogeneity of paper is achieved by aligning the cylinders in the plane. The inverse frequency at half maximum of the MTF is compared to both measurements and previous simulations with isotropic and strongly forward single scattering phase functions. It is found that the conical scattering by cylinders enhances the lateral scattering and therefore predicts a larger extent of lateral light scattering than models using rotationally invariant single scattering phase functions. However, it does not fully reach the levels of lateral scattering observed in measurements. It is argued that the hollow lumen of a wood fiber or dependent scattering effects must be considered for a complete description of lateral light scattering in paper.

  • 179.
    Lindqvist, Eric
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Teknisk lösning för tätning runt elkabel: Förbättring av IP-klassificering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this report is to examine the possibility of improving the IP classification of KranEls product combi gland FL21. The product is classified today as IP 44 and the hope was that IP 54 could be achieved. IP rating is a classification that indicates the degree of protection of an enclosure and testing is performed by SP in accordance with IEC 60529.Combi gland FL21 is a cable gland that sits on for example electrical cabinets to protect the sensitive electronics contained inside against dirt and water. It consists of a two-piece shell made of aluminum, seven rubber elements, a gasket and sealant in the form of vulcanized tape. The product is universal and can be used for both flat and round cables, for that to be possible, cut the rubber elements on the basis of which cables should be implemented. To find out if it was possible to increase the classification, a situation analysis was conducted on the cable gland and it was leak tested in a self-made test station. Based on the results concepts was generated, concepts which were thinned to two final solutions and then presented to KranEl. Along with the solutions a new assembly instruction was developed explaining the mounting of the Combi gland. The first of the two final solutions presented was a change in the structure where the top was extended to be able to apply pressure on all rubber elements. The other was to change the shape of the rubber elements to achieve a pressure point between the elements themselves.

  • 180.
    Lindström, Joakim
    et al.
    Sundsvall County Hospital, Sundsvall.
    Henriksson, Anders E.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Sundsvall County Hospital, Sundsvall.
    The agreement between capillary and venous sampling for plasma PT/INR results2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 524-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular measurement of prothrombin time (PT) as an international normalized ratio (INR) is of great importance in ensuring a safe Warfarin treatment due to the narrow therapeutic range. Hence, accurate results of the PT/INR analysis are crucial. Due to the high sampling load that patients on Warfarin experience, some prefer capillary sampling (from the tip of the finger) as an alternative to standard venous sampling (from the cubital fossa). The present study evaluated the method of capillary sampling compared to the standard venous method for plasma PT/INR measurement. Both venous and capillary samples were collected simultaneously for plasma PT/INR testing from 100 patients of which the majority undergoing active Warfarin treatment. The samples were analyzed on a Sysmex 2100i instrument (Siemens) using the Owrens method with PT reagents from MediRox. The capillary sampling method showed statistically significant lower values (p <.001) for plasma PT/INR than the standard venous sampling method with a mean difference (bias) of –0.14. It is improbable that the difference (bias) between capillary and venous sampling for plasma PT/INR analysis has clinical relevance. However, since the capillary blood collection and handling for plasma PT/INR is more technically demanding than the standard venous method we recommended that only specially trained personnel be entrusted to draw capillary blood for plasma PT/INR analysis.

  • 181.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Biochemical Interactions of Some Saproxylic Fungi2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions are all around us, and as humans we may use words and gestures to communicate our intentions. At the micro level of fungi, communications are replaced by chemical signals and structure. These interactions fall into three distinctive categories: synergistic, where organisms help each other, as is the case with ectomycorrhizal fungi and tree roots, deadlock, or combat, where organisms fight for or defend a resource. When it comes to fungi-tree interactions, the fungi group of basidiomycetes fall into the latter category. At the onset of fungal infection, a living tree defends itself by producing resinous substances such as terpenes. These compounds are frequently found in hydrodistilled turpentine, which makes turpentine a prime source of antifungal compounds. A D-optimal design of fractionated turpentine together with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer was employed to find the most biologically active constituent of turpentine. Growth rate of Coniophora puteana was used to assess the efficacy of the mixed fractions. The partial least squares projection model had an excellent predictive power (R2 = 0.988, Q2 = 0.825) and validity. A putative sesquiterpene was identified as the most active compound for inhibiting fungal growth. The model was corroborated by an external validation assay employing preparative GC. After the death of a tree, fungi are no longer hindered by secondary metabolites from the tree. Instead, other interspecies interactions and intraspecies interactions, such as fungi-fungi interactions, occur. We found that when the white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum and brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum sepiarium interact with each other, amino acids are used to a higher extent. Amino acids may be used to produce antifungal compounds to hinder the other species from growing. Lysine in particular was utilized to a greater extent during interaction. Glutamine was the only amino acid that increased in concentration. Glutamine might be exuded or converted by enzymes from already existing glutamic acid. Dry weights suggest that the fungi were in a deadlock and that nutrient limitation might be a determining factor. It seemed that H. parviporum was favoured by a decrease in pH while the opposite pattern may be true for G. sepiarium.

  • 182.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Combinatorial Retention-Activity Relationship of Fractionated Turpentine on Fungal GrowthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential oils from plants are often used in growth inhibition assays against bacteria, fungi, insects and viral infections. Turpentine from Norway spruce (Picea abies) is an essential oil produced in large quantities as a waste product in paper production. It is a complex mixture of secondary metabolites that is rich in terpenes and terpenoids. These compounds protect the tree from fungal and bacterial infection; turpentine should therefore be a good source for biologically active substances for inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, a combination of a reductive and a holistic approach was employed to find the most inhibiting compound; an approach that we have called an intermistic approach. The most inhibiting compounds was determined in three steps against growth of the saproxylic fungus Coniophora puteana: rejecting half of the turpentine search space in a reductive manner, finding the optimal concentration and finally combining fractions of the most active half of turpentine in a quadratic D-optimal design to investigate it holistically. Multivariate data analysis of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatograms was used to zoom in on the most active compounds responsible for antifungal activity. The growth rate of C. puteana in mm/day was used as y-variable and the relative area percentage of 36 GC-MS peaks from the mixtures was used as x-variables to construct a partial least squares (PLS) regression model. The final model was reduced to 12 peaks and used to find the most promising antifungal compound within the mixture. In addition, an external validation was performed with preparatory GC on the most active fraction. From the model, one putative sesquiterpene was identified along with at least two other sesquiterpenes and one diterpene warrant further investigation. Herein, a general method for finding biologically active compounds against wood-rotting fungi, and potentially other organisms from a complex mixture, is proposed.

  • 183.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vilches, Ana Paola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Changes in Extracellular Amino Acids, pH and Growth when Fungi Interact at the Near-contact Level: Heterobasidion parviporum vs. Gloeophyllum sepiariumManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterobasidion parviporum and Gloeophyllum sepiarium are fungal species representing two different ecological niches. H. parviporum is a parasitic white-rot fungus and early colonizer of felled wood, while the brown-rot fungus G. sepiarium is an early-middle colonizer in the natural fungi succession order. In this study, we quantitatively examined the utilization of amino acids in the μM range, pH and final dry weight from common liquid glucose-malt extract medium when the two fungi were interacting at the near-contact level. An increase in glutamine concentration was observed, and lysine was utilized in a greater extent when fungi were interacting compared to when they grew on their own. Our results also show fungal interaction is a process with high variability both in pH, growth and amino acid utilization, depending on the type of interaction. A connection between the growth, according to dry weight, and pH is suggested in the interaction between H. parviporum and G. sepiarium.

  • 184.
    Lundman, Lukas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Simulering av konvektiv kylning i tågdator: Undersökning av monteringsvinkelns inverkan på temperaturen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company maximatecc AB develops and produces computers and control systems for machines that operate in harsh environments. One of the computers for the train market, HMI - 411 is designed for cooling through natural convection. It’s therefore likely that the mounting angle could have an effect on the cooling properties. The purpose of this project is to investigate in what angles the unit can be mounted without the risk for overheating, without modifying the model. Seven different mounting angles were examined through numerical methods for fluid dynamics in SolidWorks Flow Simulation. The design of the environ-ment in the simulations was based on European standards and on specifications from the customer. An experimental study was performed to verify the results from the simulation. The results of the simulation show that the temperature in the unit is too high regardless of the mounting angle. It also shows that the angle has little influence on the cooling. The largest temperature difference documented is below 1 ℃. The result from the experiment confirms the results from the simulation. The largest temperature difference measured also stays within 1 ℃. The reason for the unit overheating in the simulation may be due to some error in the numerical calculations and the results must be checked against real tests. The small influence on the temperature of the mount-ing angles may be due to the low power that the unit generates. This means that the device becomes no more than approximately 13 ℃ warmer than the ambient temperature, which leads to low convective heat transfer capacity, which reduces the effect of the angel. The conclu-sion from this project is that the mounting angle has no significant impact on the temperature of the device.

  • 185.
    Lundman, Philip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kuggremsdrift på silar för pappersmassa: Undersökning och konstruktion av kuggremsdrift2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Valmet is a company that provides solutions and equipment for paper production. In the production of pulp, impurities are separated from the pulp with the use mechanical screens. On three of Valmtes screens the maximum capacity of the transmission are maximized, according to the belt drive producers recommendations. This projects aims to investigate the toothed belt as an alternative to the V-belts used in the current machine and to develop a concept of a screen with a toothed belt. The intention is that this report will contribute as a basis for decision making whether toothed belts should replace the V belts. The methodology is based on a traditional straight product-development process with one iteration. To collect information about belt drives and the machines in question a feasibility study consisting of literature review and interviews was carried out. During the system design phase the overall structure and elements of the design was developed. Transmission elements were selected using the belt drive producer Gates and Goodyears software. An idea generation was carried out to find solutions to the problems that come with toothed belt drives. Selection of ideas was carried out together with a focus group and a final concept was drawn up in 3D-CAD. The final concept is based on the basic structure of the current screens. The changes consist of an adjustable motor shelf that can handle the tolerance requirements that come with toothed belts and a sound insulation that handles the sound level that toothed belts causes. Strength and stiffness was calculated with own developed formulas and FEM-simulations. The usability of the motor shelf was evaluated with theoretical calculations. Finally the concept was evaluated with Pughs relative decision matrix along with a focus group. The project's goals have been achieved and demonstrates that a change to toothed belts can provide a properly dimensioned transmission. The evaluation suggests that the concept of the toothed belt is better than the current setup and it is recommended to continue work on implementation of toothed belts.

  • 186.
    Lundquist, Carolyn J.
    et al.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Hamilton 3251, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Inst Marine Sci, Auckland 1142, New Zealand..
    Baldi, Andras
    MTA Ctr Ecol Res, H-2163 Vacratot, Hungary..
    Dieterich, Martin
    Univ Hohenheim, Inst Landscape & Vegetat Plant Ecol Landscape Eco, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany..
    Gracey, Kyle
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, Dept Engn & Publ Policy, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA..
    Kovacs, Eszter Krasznai
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England..
    Schleicher, Judith
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England..
    Skorin, Teuta
    Assoc Lijepa Nasa, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Sterling, Eleanor
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Ctr Biodivers & Conservat, New York, NY 10024 USA..
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nat Sci, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Engaging the conservation community in the IPBES process2015In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1493-1495Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Lundström, Adam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Näslund, Robin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junkertestrigg för större skruvförband2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver ett projekt initierat av Nord-Lock International AB genom-fört av två civilingenjörsstudenter. Målet med projektet var att utveckla en testrigg som klarar av att utföra junkertest enligt DIN standard 25201-4, på skruv-storlekar mellan M24 till M45. Junkertest utförs på skruvförband, med någon form av låsfunktion, för att få en jämförbarhet på hur pass effektiv förbandet är mot vibrationer. Testriggen som togs fram designades för att klara av en steglöst variabel slaglängd på 2 mm och klarar även av att variera detta under drift. I projektet undersöktes även material, sensorer samt drivkraft till maskinen. Sen-sorerna som valdes kan mäta tvärkraft, axial last på skruvförbandet, antal last-cykler samt slaglängd på maskinen.Maskinen uppfyller även ytterligare krav från DIN 25201-4, DIN 65151, ISO 16130 och krav för CE-märkning. Mekanismen var från börjad tänkt att fungera efter Scotch yoke principen, men övergavs se-nare för Crank and Slider principen, som är en liknande lösning, för att minska slitage. Då DIN standarderna saknar viss teori till beräkning av tvärkraft har denna teori härletts och kommer i framtiden kunna underlätta för liknande projekt. Utöver detta har en funktion för klämkraften för större skruvförband tagits fram enligt DIN 25201-4, som följer VDI-2230. Detta används för att göra alla vibrat-ionstest likgiltiga, men hjälper även vid beräkning av friktionskraft och på så vis även för beräkning av total tvärkraft och för nödvändig motoreffekt. Genom kraf-terna som härleddes har dynamisk simulering utförts på en 3D-modell av maski-nen i cad programmet Inventor, där delarna tagits vidare till en finit element-analyssimulering för dimensionering och verifiering av maskinen. Simuleringen visade att alla komponenter skulle tåla lasterna med en säkerhetsfaktor på fyra eller högre, vilket var eftersträvat för att undvika utmattningsbrott. Maskinen är designad med en svagare detalj för att skydda resten av maskinen vid haveri. I slutändan kunde det konstateras att målen uppfyllts. Beräkningarna av nödvändig tvärkraft kan behöva testas ytterligare för att verifiera resultaten innan maskinen sätts i bruk. För att uppfylla gällande CE-krav måste det undersökas mer om den framtagna ljudhuven, som utöver ljuddämpning även ska agera allmänt skydd, samt vibrationsdämpande fötter, vilket kommer motverka vibrationer och skador på rummet där maskinen ska stå.

  • 188.
    Lusth, Helen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Some aspects on the energy dissipation during canter chipping2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Lusth, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gradin, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hellström, Lisbeth M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    A theoretical model for the prediction of energy consumption during the chipper canter process2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 211-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern sawmills, chipper canters are used to transform the approximately circular cross section of logs into a rectangular shape before the log is sawn into planks and boards. The chipper canter is in essence a conical disc equipped with knives on its periphery and a circular saw blade at its base. Thorough the action of the chipper canter, the outer parts of a log is removed and transformed into sawdust and chips. In some situations it might be important to be able to predict the energy consumption during canting, for example when one wants to know whether a particular canting strategy can be used considering that there is a limit to the electrical power supply. The aim of this paper was therefore to develop a theoretical model that can perform such a prediction. The canting process can be divided into two parts; the chipping performed by knifes and the sawing performed by the saw blade on the chipper head. The sawing part is performed in order to get a smooth enough surface of the reduced portion of the log. In this paper, emphasis is put on the chipping part of the process and the contribution from sawing is treated only in principal. The results from the theoretical model were compared to results from a field trial and it was concluded that the model gave a fair prediction of the power needed.

  • 190.
    Lönnell, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Production of diaspores at the landscape level regulates local colonization: an experiment with a spore-dispersed moss2014In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective dispersal is crucial to species inhabiting transient substrates in order for them to be able to persist in a landscape. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, lichens and fungi all have wind-dispersed small diaspores and can be efficiently dispersed if their diaspores reach air masses above canopy height. However, empirical data on dispersal over landscape scales are scarce. We investigated how the colonization of an acrocarpous clay-inhabiting pioneer moss, Discelium nudum, varied between sites that differed in connectivity to potential dispersal sources at spatial scales from 1 to 20 km in a region in northern Sweden. We recorded the colonization on similar to 25 introduced clay heaps at each of 14 experimental sites some months after the dispersal period. The colonization rate ranged from 0-82% and had a statistically significant relationship with a proxy for potential habitats (amount of clay-dominated soil) in a buff er of 20 km radius surrounding the experimental sites (and also weakly with the amount of substrate in a 10 km buff er). There were no significant relationships between colonization rate and connectivity at smaller scales (1 and 5 km). We made a rough estimate of the number of spores available for dispersal in a landscape, given the amount of clay-dominated soil, by recording the number of Discelium nudum colonies in two 25 x 25 km landscapes. The estimated available spore numbers in the different 20 km buffers were of the same order of magnitude as the deposition densities at the experimental sites calculated from the colonization rates. The results suggest that the spores of species with scattered occurrences and small diaspores (25 mu m) in open landscapes can be deposited over extensive areas, at rates high enough to drive colonization patterns. This also implies that regional connectivity may be more important than local connectivity for these kinds of species.

  • 191.
    Ma, Guangning
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Afewerki, Samson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Deiana, L.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Palo-Nieto, C.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Liu, L.
    Berzelii Center EXSELENT, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Sun, J.
    Berzelii Center EXSELENT, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Córdova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    A palladium/chiral amine co-catalyzed enantioselective dynamic cascade reaction: Synthesis of polysubstituted carbocycles with a quaternary carbon stereocenter2013In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, no 23, p. 6050-6054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polysubstituted 5- and 6-membered carbocycles were synthesized by the title reaction. The one-pot dynamic relay process generates four new stereocenters, including a quaternary carbon center, in a highly enantioselective fashion (99.5:0.5→99:0.5 e.r.) by using a simple combination of palladium and chiral amine co-catalysts. 

  • 192.
    Mahmood, S.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orban, I.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ali, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glans, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bleda, E. A.
    Marmara Univ, Dept Phys, TR-81040 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Altun, Z.
    Marmara Univ, Dept Phys, TR-81040 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Schuch, R.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF BORON-LIKE Ne2013In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 771, no 2, p. Art. no. 78-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recombination of Ne5+ was measured in a merged-beam type experiment at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING. In the collision energy range 0-110 eV resonances due to 2s(2)2p -> 2s2p(2) (Delta n=0) and 2s(2)2p -> 2s(2)3l (Delta n=1), core excitations were observed. The experimentally derived rate coefficients agree well with the calculations obtained using AUTOSTRUCTURE. At low energies, recombination is dominated by resonances belonging to the spin-forbidden 2s2p(2)(P-4(J))nl series. The energy-dependent rate coefficients were convoluted with a Maxwell-Boltzmann electron energy distribution to obtain plasma recombination rate coefficients. The data from the literature deviate from the measured results at low temperature.

  • 193.
    Maslik, Jan
    et al.
    Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    PEDOT:PSS temperature sensor ink-jet printed on paper substrate2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, article id C12010Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present an ink-jet printed temperature sensor consisting of PEDOT:PSSprinted on paper suitable for packaging, flexible electronics and other printed applications. Thesubstrate showed to have a large influence on both the resistance aswell as the temperature sensitivityof the PEDOT:PSS ink. This effect is most likely due to NaCl content in the photo paper coating,which reacts with the PEDOT:PSS. The temperature coefficient of a prepared device of  α= -0.030 relative to room temperature (22°C) was measured, which is higher than compared to for exampleSilicon α = -0.075.

  • 194.
    Matheis, Miriam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Does restoration fire enhance the regeneration of deciduous trees in boreal forests?: A systematic review2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalent non-intervention policy of protected areas leads, particular in combination with the suppression of forest fires, to increasingly denser forests. This favours shade-tolerant species and outcompete deciduous pioneer species. The latter can be seen as key species in boreal forests and contribute greatly to the forests’ biodiversity. Prescribed fire is considered to serve as a management tool to mimic natural disturbance and enhance the regeneration of deciduous trees. However, the effectiveness of prescribed fires has hardly been evaluated in this regard. A systematic review (SR) was conducted in order to find evidence for the effects of fire on deciduous tree regeneration. A protocol defining all steps, from the search string and the inclusion criteria to the data synthesis in a meta-analysis, was developed. A total of 2135 articles have been consecutively screened on title, abstract and based on the full-text. Data of 37 articles that have passed the screening on full-text have been entered in a systematic map. Seventeen articles were analysed in a meta-analysis. Effect sizes (Hedges g) were calculated for each study and their heterogeneity (Cochran’s Q) was evaluated in several moderator- analyses. Most of the included studies were conducted in North America, investigating post-fire regeneration of either oak (Quercus spp.) or aspen (Populus spp.) forests. Eurasian studies are clearly underrepresented. The study revealed higher response effects of aspen and birch (Betula spp.) and a smaller but still significant effect for oak and hickory (Carya spp.). The combination of fire with a thinning-treatment showed the highest effects and was significant for aspen and birches in comparison to non-fire comparators. However, there was no evidence found that the fire effect is enduring over longer time periods or that fire actually could ensure the long term persistence of aspen in the forest. Further research, which report

  • 195.
    Mazlik, Jan
    et al.
    Tomas Bata University.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Temperature sensor based on PEDOT: PSS ink-jet printed on paper substrate2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics is rapidly developing, where more and more components are printable. High speed roll-to-roll processesare preferred for low cost production of flexible electronics. Often, the substrates used for printed electronics are some typeof plastic such as PET or Kapton. An alternative to plastic is to use paper substrate that has the benefits of beingenvironmentally friendly, recyclable and renewable. Paper is also the material of choice for packages of various goods.In this work we have developed an ink-jet printable temperature sensor, a thermistor, consisting ofpoly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)( PEDOT:PSS) on paper substrate. The starting material is acommercial PEDOT:PSS ink-jet ink (Orgacon IJ-1005, Agfa). This ink was then modified to increase the thermal sensitivityby addition of the co-solvents Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Polyethylene glycol (PEG) in different quantities. DMSO hasbeen shown to increase the conductance by arranging the PEDOT into more conductive pathways and by removing PSS[1] and PEG to increase the carrier density and mobility [2].The sensors consisted of modified PEDOT:PSS lines printed on photo-paper substrate between contacts printed usingsilver nano-particle ink. The line widths were varied from one pixel, corresponding to one pass of one nozzle up-to 20pixels. The linewidths were then measured to be from 45 μm up-to 450 μm. The thickness of the sensor was also varied asone, two or three printed layers. The characterization as a temperature sensor was performed by using a setup consistingof a Peltier cooler and a heating element to step the temperature. As a reference a PT-100 element fixed to the surface ofthe cooler/heater was used.An increase in resistance from 30.5 MΩ to 85 MΩ, corresponding to a change of 2.8 times, were measured when thetemperature were changed from 22 °C to -12 °C as can be seen in the figure. This gives a ΔR/ΔT of 0.093.Such a printed sensor can be used for applications where a low cost, printable solution is needed, such as printed directlyon packages, for environmental monitoring and similar.[1] C.S. Pathak, J.P. Singh, R. Singh, Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS/ n-Siheterojunction diodes, Current Applied Physics, 15, (2015), 528-534[2] Yow-Jon Lin, Wei-Shih Ni and Jhe-You Lee, Effect of incorporation of ethylene glycol into PEDOT:PSS on electronphonon coupling and conductivity, Journal of Applied Physics 117, (2015), 215501

  • 196.
    Mridha, Moniruzzaman
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Ma, Guangning
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Palo-Nieto, Carlos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Afewerki, Samson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Development of an Amino Acid/Hydroxy Oxime Dual Catalyst System for Highly Stereoselective Direct Asymmetric Aldol Reactions in the Presence of Water2017In: Synthesis (Stuttgart), ISSN 0039-7881, E-ISSN 1437-210X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 383-390, article id ss-2015-z0592-opArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An eco-friendly dual catalyst system for stereoselective aldol reactions in the presence of water is described. It is based on the cooperative action of acyclic amino acids and H-bond donating hydroxy oxime catalysts. The synthetic utility of this dual catalyst system was further demonstrated by applying it as the key step in the expeditious and highly stereoselective total synthesis of D-lyxo-phytosphingosine (29% overall yield). Here the amino acid/hydroxy oxime system significantly accelerated the direct aldol reactions in the presence of water as compared to organic solvents. The stereo-and chemoselectivity were also significantly increased.

  • 197. Nafari, Alexandra
    et al.
    Svensson, Krister
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Enoksson, Peter
    Rusu, Cristina
    Karlén, David
    MEMS sensor for in situ TEM atomic force microscopy2008Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 198.
    Namedanian, Mahziar
    et al.
    Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kolseth, Petter
    Nsieme Consulting, Sweden .
    Koh, Wei
    Analysis of Optical and Physical Dot Gain by Microscale Image Histogram and Modulation Transfer Functions2013In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 020504-1-020504-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The color of a print is affected by ink spreading and lateral light scattering in the substrate, making printed dots appear larger. Characterization of physical and optical dot gain is crucial for the graphic arts and paper industries. We propose a novel approach to separate physical from optical dot gain by use of a high-resolution camera. This approach is based on the histogram of microscale images captured by the camera. Having determined the actual physical dot shape, we estimate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the paper substrate. The proposed method is validated by comparing the estimated MTF of 11 offset printed coated papers to the MTF obtained from the unprinted papers using measured and Monte Carlo simulated edge responses.

  • 199.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Applied problems and computational methods in radiative transfer2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Light scattering in turbid media is essential for such diverse applications as paperand print, computer rendering, optical tomography, astrophysics and remote sensing.This thesis investigates angular variations of light reflected from plane-parallelturbid media using both mathematical models and reflectance measurements, dealswith several applications and proposes novel computational methods for solving thegoverning equations.Angular variations of light reflected from plane-parallel turbid media is studiedusing both mathematical models and reflectance measurements. It is found that thelight is reflected anisotropically from all media encountered in practice, and that theangular variations depend on the medium absorption and transmittance and on theangular distribution of the incident light. If near-surface bulk scattering dominates,as in strongly absorbing or highly transmitting media or obliquely illuminated media,relatively more light is reflected in large polar (grazing) angles. These results areconfirmed by measurements using a set of paper samples. The only situation withisotropic reflectance is when a non-transmitting, non-absorbing medium is illuminateddiffusely, and it is shown that this is the only situation where the widely usedKubelka-Munk model is exactly valid.A number of applied problems is studied, including reflectance measurements,angle resolved color and point spreading. It is seen that differences in instrumentdetection and illumination geometry can result in measurement differences. The differencesare small and if other sources of error — such as fluorescence and gloss— are not eliminated, the differences related to instrument geometry become difficultto discern. Furthermore, the dependence of point spreading in turbid mediaon the medium parameters is studied. The asymmetry factor is varied while maintainingconstant the optical response in a standardized measurement geometry. It isseen that the point spreading increases as forward scattering becomes more dominant,and that the effect is larger if the medium is low-absorbing with large meanfree path. It is argued that the directional inhomogeneity of the scattering mediummust be captured by the model to reproduce experimental results. Finally, the angleresolved color of a set of paper samples is assessed both theoretically and experimentally.The chroma decreases and the lightness increases as the observation polarangle increases. The observed differences are clearly large, and a modification ofthe L∗a∗b∗ formalism including angle dependent chromatic adaptation is suggestedhere to handle this situation.

    The long standing issue of parameter dependence in the Kubelka-Munk modelis partially explained by recognizing that light reflected from paper samples in standardizedmeasurements has angular variations, and by using the appropriatemodelin the calculation of the scattering and absorption coefficients.The radiative transfer (RT) equation is solved with a recently proposed particlemethod (DFPM), both in standard cases and in cases previously considered intractable.Fluorescence is added to the RT equation, thus including wavelength asan additional dimension, and this equation is solved using DFPM. The discrete RTequation can be written as a system of linear equations, and a comprehensive analysisof the convergence properties of DFPM when solving this type of problems ispresented.

  • 200.
    Neuman, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    A particle approach to the radiative transfer equation with fluorescence2013Article in journal (Refereed)
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