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  • 151.
    Biedenbach, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    The Challenge of Organizing Change in Hypercompetitive Industries: A Literature Review2008In: Journal of Change Management, ISSN 1469-7017, E-ISSN 1479-1811, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 123-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypercompetitive, that is, dynamic and unpredictable environments require flexible, innovative and creative organizations, which can easily adapt quickly to the changing rules of the competitive arena. Organizations, therefore, continuously need to change. The management of organizational change in such a merciless environment is together key and restraint. This paper reviews literature covering organizational change in hypercompetitive environments with a focus on projects as the vehicle to create the necessary flexibility. The challenge is thus to combine the need for long-term sustainability with continuous flexibility in terms of how organizational and technological change efforts are designed and carried out. Organizations are well advised to develop a high degree of dynamic capabilities, which are the core of meeting the tensions of the capability and structural challenge. The authors suggest that organizational aspects and capabilities have to go hand in hand as enabler and at the same time facilitator for a successful emergent change process in hypercompetitive industries.

  • 152.
    Bircan, Dennis
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Financial fair play och konkurrensbalansen i Europas fem största ligor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In September 2009, UEFA approved a new regulatory framework called Financial Fair Play. Some of the goals of the regulations were to reduce the pressure on football clubs' payroll costs and to make football clubs make rational financial decisions. A few of the reasons for the introduction of Financial Fair Play was that many football clubs had financial problems aswell as to improve competitive balance in football.The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the competitive balance in connection with the introduction of Financial Fair Play in Europe's five largest football leagues. The study also aims to analyze the relationship between financial performance and sports success for the top five European leagues.The framework consists of previous research in competitive balance and the relationship between financial performance and sporting success. The theories being are new institutional theory and resource-based theory. Different statistical methods are used to analyze collected data.The study reveals that the competitive balance shows decreased index value after the introduction of the Financial Fair Play but the competitive balance between the top five teams and the rest shows an increase of index value. It also concludes that there is a positive correlation between points gained per match and earnings before interest and taxes, and points gained per match and staff costs.

  • 153.
    Björch, Tobias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Köhler, Philip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    En studie av marknadseffektiviteten på Stockholmsbörsens OMXS302016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is conducted through an event study on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm based on the annual report announcements for the stocks listed on the OMXS30-index for the years between 2011 and 2015. In this study, we present the theoretical framework that gives an overview of the possible research areas. We provide empirical evidence of the repercussion of the earnings announcements on stock returns. This is a quantitative study with the deductive approach and positivistic standpoint.The event study methodology is a standard approach first used by Fama (1969). It has been used by a numerous researchers when they wanted to study the effect of new information and how the new information reflects in the stock price. When using the event study methodology, the event window needs to be defined. It can consist of days before and after the actual event takes place. In this thesis we have chosen to use an event window of 7 days, where of 3 days before and 3 days after the event.Our findings in this report is that the stock behavior often shows positive or negative abnormal earning when the announcement is made. However we cannot show any statistical significant relationship to prove that abnormal earnings always takes place when an announcement of the annual report is made. Our event windows plots for each year shows that abnormal earnings often takes place though.As a conclusion, we conclude that the stock market for OMXS30 are considered to be efficient. We can’t show that abnormal returns can be made when the report is published, hence we can’t show that the market is inefficient. We also give suggestions for further research in this field.

  • 154.
    Björk, Peder
    Sundsvalls Kommun.
    En blandad ibland-ekonomi2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 137-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Björklund, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Rydén, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Komponentavskrivning: Hur påverkas fastighetsbolagens resultat och ställning över tid?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har till syfte att genom en simulering jämföra komponentmetoden med linjär avskrivning och dess påverkan på fastighetsbolagens resultat och ställning över tid. Syftet är även att bidra med djupare förståelse för komponentmetoden, i fråga om att återge en rättvisande bild av verksamheten, för de fastighetsbolag som berörs av komponentmetoden. Studien utgick från en deduktiv ansats där den teoretiska referensramen utgjorde grunden i studien. Utifrån den teoretiska referensramen utfördes en simulering med två identiska fastighetsbolag för att illustrera hur komponentmetoden påverkar företagens resultat och ställning, med hänsyn tagen till inflation. Komponentavskrivning speglar resursförbrukningen på ett mer trovärdigt sätt än rådande praxis. Detta innebär att resultatet fördelas jämnare över åren, samt bidrar till att bättre återspegla fastighetsbolagens ställning eftersom både inflation och underhåll tillräknas i fastighetens redovisade värde. Komponentmetoden bidrar i högre grad till vad som uppfattas som en rättvisande bild i fastighetsbolagens finansiella rapportering.

  • 156.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Westerberg, Philip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar skuldsättningsgraden: En kvantitativ studie om svenska små- och medelstora företag i konsultbranschen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 157.
    Björn, Jenny-Ann
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Relationsskapande marknadsföringsverktyg inom e-handeln.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 158.
    Björnberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lindström, Fredrik
    Intellectual capital and innovation in startups2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to outline how startups shape their intellectual capital to create incremental innovation. This has manifested itself as a black-box for practitioners and it has previously been unknown if startups and established firms differentiate themselves during such a process. A comparison was also made between startups in liberal market economies and the European coordinated market economies. A pilot study was conducted initially using an in-depth interview followed by a literature review, an examination of the intellectual capital construct as used in modern research and an online survey, which was sent to 2000 startups. We contributed through our findings with implications that startups construct their intellectual capital differently than established firms to generate innovation. The startups show a significant relationship between the human capital and incremental innovation as opposed to established firms that often put an emphasis on all the three dimensions of intellectual capital. We also found that there is no significant difference between liberal market economies and European coordinated market economies output of incremental innovation. However, they do differ in terms of the importance of relational capital in the creation of incremental innovation. The relational capital is more important in liberal market economies but does not affect the output of incremental innovation. We expect it has subsequent effects on the outcome of the incremental innovation since higher levels of relational capital could be manifested as a competitive advantage.

  • 159.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desiree
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Kao Tsung, Pao
    Uppsala universitet.
    Internationalisation into emerging markets as a strategy process2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kao, Pao T
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    From outsider to insider: Opportunity development in foreign market networks2015In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 337-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By applying the network position concept, we untangle the firm's recognition and exploitation of opportunities during the internationalisation process. We view the transition of network position from outsidership to insidership, in terms of the strength and number of relationships in the foreign market network. Departing from the revised Uppsala model, we argue that opportunity development in the business network consists of recognition and exploitation. Path dependence impacts how a firm exploits opportunity in the network as well as the next opportunity to be recognised, as they are contingent on the network position. Four opportunities are identified from a historical case study of Elekta, a Swedish medical device manufacturer that entered China between 1980 and 2010. We analyse the initial network position of the firm, its opportunity recognition and exploitation, and the network position of the firm in return. Based on the cases we demonstrate that outsidership tends to lead to discovery, while insidership results in creation. The insidership enables direct and indirect relationships, which are involved in the exploitation of the opportunity.

  • 161.
    Blindert, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Customer Perception towards Cause-related Marketing Campaigns in the German Fashion Industry2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis deals with a fairly new marketing tool, which is referred to as Cause-related Marketing (CrM). The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether CrM in the fashion industry has equally potential to change consumers’ attitudes and purchasing behavior in a favorable way, which in turn, would make it a profitable marketing strategy.The conceptual background of CrM is exposed, including motives, design variables, threats and previous study results. Furthermore, the fashion consumer is characterized, with an emphasis on underlying motives and needs, attitudes and personal traits.In order to gain empirical data, a quantitative research method was used in the form of an online survey. People were asked to show their attitudes towards CrM mainly in the form of a four-stage Likert scale. After the data collection, the questionnaires were evaluated via the statistic program SPSS and the results were analyzed.Findings are that the overall awareness of CrM programs is still retained. Additionally, consumers are quite skeptical about CrM programs, which asks for a better education on the part of the implementing company and more transparency about outcomes and results of CrM campaigns. Nevertheless, CrM has high potential to attract new consumers and also influences attitudes in a positive way. A better opinion about the company and an increase in its trustworthiness are the results of this attitude change.However, concerning increased customer loyalty, CrM in the fashion industry is of subordinated importance.The most influencing design variables are credibility and transparency of the CrM campaign, whereas duration and geographical scope seem to be of subordinated importance for a positive evaluation. Medium influencing factors are the donation amount and mechanism and also the company-cause fit.

  • 162.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Project-as-Practice: In Search of Project Management Research That Matters2010In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on projects is not only an immaturefield of research, but it is also insubstantial whenit comes to understanding what occurs in projects.This article contributes to making projectmanagement research matter to the academic aswell as to the practitioner by developing a projectas-practice approach, in alignment with theongoing debate in social science research.The article outlines a framework and argues thatthere are two major challenges to the researcherand also suggests how these challenges can bemet. Underlying notions of the practice approachare outlined to ensure a development of theproject-as-practice approach that makes projectmanagement research matter!

  • 163.
    Blomster, Jasmin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Dynamic capabilities in improving customer experience in e-commerce2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 164.
    Blyth, Domenico
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Information Technology Outsourcing and its Risks: supplier lock-in, hidden costs and the loss of control over outsourced IT2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, information technology outsourcing (ITO) represents an established business practice in which a considerable number of companies are involved. Since the success of ITO is highly dependent on the exposure to ITO risks, studying the very risks is of great importance. The aim of this thesis consists in revealing the occurrence of specific ITO risks: supplier lock-in, hidden costs and the loss of control over outsourced IT. Further aims of this work are the revelation of measures which can be taken in order to face these risks and of the influences these risks have on backsourcing considerations. The first part of this thesis constitutes the theoretical framework which is based on the review of relevant literature. Within this part of the work, transaction cost theory and resource-based theory are presented and applied for the discussion of the specific ITO risks under consideration. Furthermore, a multidimensional approach is utilized in order to illustrate the various dimensions of ITO. By this means, the identification of situations in which the ITO risks under consideration appear is enabled. The empirical part of this exploratory research is based on a multiple case study. The data necessary for this qualitative research was gathered from telephone interviews conducted with both ITO clients and IT suppliers. The results of this study indicate that the ITO risks under consideration all pose considerable threats to ITO operations and that there are both internal and external measures ITO companies can take in order to face these risks. Furthermore, the risks under discussion influence backsourcing considerations.

  • 165.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    1990-talets ekonomiska kris i ett långsiktigt regionalt perspektiv: Jämtlands län 1880-1995.1996Report (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Avreglering och de kommunala energiföretagen: en studie av tre kommunala elföretag på 1990-talets elmarknad.2000In: Dragkampen om vattenkraften: studier kring en omstridd naturresurs, Östersund: Mitthögskolan , 2000, p. 255-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Avreglering på elmarknaden.: En studie om förändringar på 1990-talets elmarknad och tre kommunala elföretag.2000In: Tankar kring lokal och regional utveckling inför det nya årtusendet: antologi från Forskarforum 1999, Östersund: Statens institut för regionalforskning (SIR) , 2000, p. 314-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Bygdemedlens användning i Jämtlands län 1970-1996.1997Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    En jämtländsk företagarverksamhet och dess omvärld: Sven O Perssons företagande 1920-1990.1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Näringslivets och företagandets villkor i Jämtlands län 1880-19451994In: -vår lott och arvedel!: en antologi om Jämtland, Östersund: Mitthögskolan , 1994, p. 55-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Studying the Development of Tourism Destinations: the 10th Nordic Tourism Research Conference, 18-20 okt 2001, Vasa Finland2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Boden, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Turismen och älvarna: En studie om det strömmande vattnets betydelse för turistnäringens utveckling i två norrländska älvdalar.2000In: Dragkampen om vattenkraften: studier kring en omstridd naturresurs, Östersund: Mitthögskolan , 2000, p. 255-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Boden, Bo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Rosenberg, Lennart
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hur studera turistdestinationers utveckling?: Analytiska överväganden utifrån en förstudie av sex svenska vintersportområden i den svenska fjällkedjan.2001In: Nordisk turisme i et regionalt perspektiv, Stockholm: Nordregio , 2001, p. 172-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Bodin, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lund, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Svenska kommuners internkontroll och praktiska användning av COSO-modellen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internal control can be described as the management processes, regulations and structures that ensure executed actions legality, regularity, efficiency, effectiveness and economy. Internal control in municipalities is particularly important as municipalities work on citizens' behalf and is responsible for important social functions. Cases of fraud and bribery have highlighted the necessity of a well-functioning internal control. COSO-model is an internationally recognized model for internal control and a model which is largely applied in Sweden and the public sector. COSO-model consists of five components; control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication and monitoring. When the model is fully implemented and applied, it contributes to a more effective internal control. The model, however, has been criticized for being difficult to use because of its magnitude and complexity. This qualitative study explores how the COSO model is used practically in Swedish municipalities in comparison with the model's theoretical description. The collection of dataconsisted of semi-structured interviews, an online survey and document collection. The study shows that the two selected municipalities to certain parts have applied the model and that the gap between the theory and the practical use varies depending on the component. The gap is smaller for e.g. risk assessment than for the control environment. This is probably not a result of a conscious choice but because risk assessment is a structured part of the internal controls that are easy to use in practice, while control environment is less structured and subjective. Municipalities need a model description that is adjusted to the municipal organizational structureand to give guidance to a more practical use of the whole COSO model. If the entire model isused, it can lead to a more efficient internal control.

  • 175.
    Bodin, Simon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Godin, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    You are only as good as the company you keep: Relationship value and relationship commitment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 176.
    Bodin, Simon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Karlsson, William
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Network Structure and Economic Performance2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine and map out the network innovative companies and to calculate values of the network structure in order to compare them to different performance measures. Furthermore, we aim to investigate the trade-off efficiency of innovations in a particular network structure, more specifically to investigate if the same elements generating more innovations have a relationship with economic performance that originates from innovations.

     

    Methodology - This study give emphasis to map and illustrate the Swedish companies on NASDAQ OMX First North network through direct and indirect connection and to compare the centrality, density and size of the companies ego network in our population with the performance measures which are logically connected with the launch of an innovation; average EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) and average annual turnover.

    Findings - First we noticed that there was a significant connection between a negative average EBITDA and positive average annual turnover for our population, as we foretold would occur during the launch of an innovation. Secondly, the paper suggests that there is a weak or near non-existent connection between the elements that generates more innovations and the result of innovations, e.g. the economic performance of innovative firms. This might indicate that the focus of recent studies in the subject might have been mistaken focusing on the quantity of innovation, when the basic assumption of an innovation is that it is qualitative and thereby generates money for the company. This study suggests that more innovations do not necessarily lead to better economic performance for the companies within our population.

  • 177.
    Bodén, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Åre - en turistdestination med anor.2007In: Utveckla turistdestinationer: ett svensk perspektiv, Uppsala: Uppsala Publishing House/Konsultförlaget , 2007, p. 347-Chapter in book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    En historisk betraktelse över Åres framväxt till en modern turistdestination. Period 1880-2007.

  • 178.
    Bodén, Bo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Grängsjö, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Robert
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Svensson, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kunskapsdriven turismutveckling i Västernorrland: Rapport från en förstudie2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten redovisar en förstudie som Turismforskningsinstitutet ETOUR utfört på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Västernorrland. Förstudien syftar till att utreda den regionala turismorganisationen i Västernorrlands län, samt analysera tre på förhand utpekade destinationer; Sundsvall med Timrå, Höga Kusten samt en inlandsdestination. I rapporten pekas även på möjliga vägar för fortsatt kunskapsdriven turismutveckling i Västernorrland. Ser vi till de utpekade destinationerna är det idag Sundsvall som förefaller mest kommersiellt driven med flera relativt tunga kommersiella aktörer inblandade i strategiarbetet. Viss otydlighet finns kring destinationens avgränsning, med Timrå och kustområdena som något perifera i den mobilisering som skett kring konferens- och shoppingturism. Vad gäller destinationsorganisation förefaller ett av privat logik dominerat destinationsbolag ligga närmast till hands. På Höga Kusten är bilden något mer sammansatt men grunden för en organisation driven med privat logik finns genom Entré Höga Kusten. Avgränsningen är något otydligt i fråga om hur mycket inland destinationen omfattar och hur det förhåller sig med Härnösands kommun, vid sidan av de dominerande kommunerna Örnsköldsvik och Kramfors. Höga Kusten världsarvsområde ligger helt inom dessa kommuner. Här finns också statligt engagemang genom Naturvårdsverket och Länsstyrelsen i Västernorrlands län. Om det är privat mobilisering kring turism som åsyftas förefaller dock Entré Höga Kusten med sina 110 medlemmar vara den naturliga organisatoriska basen. I Inlandet, som i denna studie främst behandlar Sollefteå kommun, är organiseringen svag. Ett fåtal privata aktörer mobiliserar krafterna och efterlyser samtidigt ett tydliggörande av kommunens hållning i turismfrågorna. Destinationens avgränsningar är otydliga då kopplingarna till andra delar än Sollefteå kommun är oklara och länkarna till aktörer utanför Ångermanälvens dalgång är svaga. Det är önskvärt med ett tydliggörande av destinationens geografi samt vilka aktörer som räknas och inte. I rapportens sista kapitel finns en diskussion om fortsatt kunskapsuppbyggnad knutet till turismutvecklingsarbetet i Västernorrlands län och dess destinationer. Det är uppenbart att de olika destinationerna skiljer sig åt och då mycket väl kan göra det avseende kunskapsbehov, medan de i andra avseenden kan förmodas ha liknande behov. Detta avsnitt kan ses som en första reflektion utifrån det nu genomförda pilotprojektet. Fortsatt dialog i dessa frågor följer för att kunna konkretiseras i ett eventuellt fortsatt samarbete under hösten 2006.

  • 179.
    Bodén, Bo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Rosenberg, Lennart
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kommersiell turism och lokal samhällsutveckling: En studie av sex svenska fjälldestinationer2004Report (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Bodén, Bosse
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Naturbaserad turism och klimatförändring2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är resultatet av ett uppdrag mellan Klimat- och Sårbarhetsutredningen (Miljödepartementet) och ETOUR. I rapporten riktas fokus mot ett urval av internationella studier som belyser förhållandet mellan naturbaserad turism relaterat till de klimatförändringar som tecknas i det klimatscenario som utredningen baserar huvuddelen av sitt arbete på (A 2 ECHAM). Förrutom att dessa studier relateras till svenska förhållanden diskuterar Bosse Bodén även hur förutsättningarna för snöberoende turistaktiviteter och det rörliga friluftslivet kan komma att förändras utmed den svenska fjällkedjan fram till 2100.

    När det gäller detta område tros temperaturen stiga med omkring fyra grader under denna period, och beräkningar utförda av SMHI visar att snötäcket i fjällkedjan kan komma att minska med upp till 5 månader under de kommande hundra åren.

    --På kort sikt innebär klimatförändringarna inga drastiska åtgärder för turismnäringen, men ett varmare och blötare klimat kommer givetvis att få konsekvenser, säger Bosse Bodén och betonar att alperna och medelhavsländerna är områden som då kommer att drabbas hårt.

    Sommarsäsongen förlängs

    Det finns naturliga variationer i klimatet, där gröna vintrar och regniga somrar är återkommande inslag. Extrema väderlekssituationer blir dock allt vanligare, och de är svåra att förutspå. Stormar, skyfall och värmeböljor med över 40 grader drabbar hårt.

    --Även om vi gör allt vad vi kan för att bromsa upp processen kommer temperaturen fortsätta att öka fram till år 2030. Och om hotbilden besannas får vi en temperaturökning med 4 grader innan århundradet är slut, vilket kommer att få förödande konsekvenser på sina håll, säger Bosse Bodén och förklarar att när det gäller svensk turism innebär klimatförändringen att säsongen successivt kommer att förlängas för sommaraktiviteter men förkortas för vinteraktiviteter. En varmare sommarsäsong bidrar till ökad risk för algblomning, höjning av havsnivån och försämrad vattentillgång på vissa turistorter, medan andra destinationer drabbas av överbeläggning, köbildning, vattenbrist och trängsel. Ett scenario som även innebär att tillgängligheten till kalfjället försämras när områdena successivt krymper i takt med att trädgränsen kryper allt högre upp.

    -- Villkoren för sommaraktiviteter som bad, camping, vandring kommer att förbättras i takt med att säsongen blir längre. Däremot kommer natursnöberoende aktiviteter, som längdskidåkning och skoteråkning, att möta de största svårigheterna om klimathotet blir verklighet, säger Bosse Bodén och fortsätter:

    -- När det gäller alpin skidåkning kan turismnäringen på kort sikt möta de negativa effekterna, bland annat genom tillverkning av konstsnö. Men på lång sikt står svensk vinterturism inför allvarliga utmaningar, bland annat hotas flera skidområden i södra och mellersta norrland av nedläggning efter 2050.

  • 181.
    Bodén, Bosse
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Resande och fjällturism: En utredning om tillgänglighet och expansion i sex turistorter i Dalarna och Jämtland2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att med fokus riktat mot sex turistdestinationer beskriva dels

    fjällturismens utveckling efter 1970 i Dalarna och Jämtland och de förutsättningar som krävs

    för en fortsatt tillväxt, dels de implikationer som frågan om tillgänglighet medför för turistnäringen

    i dessa områden, berörda myndigheter och verk. Frågan om tillgänglighet avser transportsystemet

    och dess transportslag, främst vägnätet och bilismen. Studien baseras på litteraturstudier

    och underlagsmaterial från turistnäringens företrädare i Dalarna och Jämtland, som

    presenterats i samband med Trafikverkets åtgärdsplanering och fastställandet av länens transportplaner

    2010-2021.

    De destinationer som ingår i studien är Sälen, Idre/Grövelsjön, Funäsdalen, Vemdalen/-

    Klövsjö, Lofsdalen och Åre. Utvecklingsförloppet för samtliga destinationer indikerar att

    massturism är en nödvändig förutsättning för att turismen som näring ska kunna upprätthålla

    sin samhällsbärande roll. Turismens expansion medförde att näringen under 1980-talet blev

    en basnäring i dessa områden. Förloppet visar även att infrastrukturella investeringar och

    andra ”Big Projects” har spelat en viktig roll för utvecklingen, liksom omvärldsförändringar,

    entreprenöriella insatser och samverkan mellan privata och offentliga intressen på lokal,

    regional och nationell nivå. Utvecklingen visar också att expansionen till stor del förklaras av

    förändrade preferenser bland allmänheten, så till vida att alpin skidåkning blev en turistisk

    volymprodukt och primär besöksanledning. Det innebar dramatiska förändringar och förutom

    att näringen expanderade mycket snabbt kom vintern att ersätta sommaren som högsäsong.

    Även fjällturismens geografiska tyngdpunkt förflyttas med volymprodukten alpin skidåkning,

    från de traditionella högalpina områdena i norr till de mer låglänta, lättillgängliga och närmare

    marknaden belägna Dalafjällen i söder.

    Destinationerna har mer eller mindre framgångsrikt anpassat sin verksamhet till flera av de

    trender som gjort sig gällande under 2000-talet, t.ex. till det ökade intresse för produkter och

    rekreationsmiljöer som erbjuder spänning, äventyr och service. Turistnäringens företrädare

    bedömer att fjällturismens tillväxt kommer att fortsätta i snabb takt också under kommande

    decennium. Deras optimism framstår i vissa avseenden som berättigad och stöda av samhällsekonomins

    omvandling mot en allt större service- och tjänstesektor, näringens expansion och

    tillgänglig turistrelaterad statistik. Ekonomiska utvecklingsförlopp omfattar dock, som fjällturismens

    tidigare utvecklingsförlopp visar, även stagnations- och nedgångsperioder. Att

    allmänheten i goda tider är beredda att lägga en stor del av sin

    ökade välfärd på rekreation och

    turism framgår av historien, liksom att de är beredda att dra ned på denna konsumtion om

    tillväxten uteblir och det institutionella regelverket ändras.

    3

    I frånvaro av externa chocker framstår en fortsatt turistisk expansion som det mest sannolika

    scenariot fram till 2020. Styrkeförhållandet mellan destinationerna under vintersäsongen

    kommer sannolikt också att bestå, d v s att Sälen och Åres dominans fortsätter, Idre, Funäsdalen

    och Vemdalen försvarar sina ställningar som medelstora destinationer och att Lofsdalen

    behåller sin ställning som en av fjällkedjans mindre volymdestinationer. Drabbas fjällområdet

    av gröna vintrar kan Idrefjällen och Funäsdalsfjällen komma att gynnas, eftersom de är

    belägna inom en kallare klimatzon. Utvecklingsförloppet avseende sommarturismen framstår

    dock mer osäkert. Intresset för att utveckla barmarksturismen har vuxit sig allt starkare på

    samtliga destinationer, inklusive tidigare utpräglade och resursstarka vintersportdestinationer

    som Sälen och Åre.

    En god extern tillgänglighet kan hävdas vara en nödvändig men inte tillräcklig förutsättning

    för en fortsatt turistisk expansion i fjällområdet, liksom för att turismens ställning som samhällsbärande

    näring ska kunna upprätthållas. Det gäller tillgång till såväl den virtuella världens

    IT-nätverk, som de mer traditionella transportsystemen och transportslagen (bil, buss,

    tåg och flyg). Mot bakgrund av de regionala turistorganisationernas synpunkter avseende den

    externa tillgängligheten och dess betydelse framträder följande strategiska frågor och/eller

    områden som viktiga att beakta:

    Flygets betydelse som transportmedel för resenärer till fjällområdet i Dalarna och Jämtland

    är idag 2010 marginell, med undantag för Åre. Dess roll bedöms dock öka i framtiden i

    takt med att en fortsatt snabb expansion kräver tillgång till nya marknader.

    Att nå framgång på den svenska hemmamarknaden är idag 2010 helt avgörande för

    samtliga destinationer, vilkas marknader till stor del är relaterade till kortaste avstånd

    och/eller existerande väg- och järnvägsnät. För att stärka eller bevara sin ställning på dessa

    marknader kommer sannolikt mer klimatsmarta transportlösningar att krävas i framtiden.

    Att besökare till fjällområdet reser med minimal packning är idag 2010 ett undantag som

    bekräftar regel att välja bilen av praktiska skäl och bekvämlighet.

    Bilismen och vägnätet

    står därmed i fokus och utgör det mest strategiskt viktiga transportslaget för fjällvärldens

    volymturism.

    Om turismen under planperioden expanderar i enlighet med turistorganisationernas bedömning

    framstår det troligt att tillgängligheten till fjälldestinationerna kommer att försämras

    under högsäsongsveckorna och att status quo, i bästa fall, kan upprätthållas under övriga

    4

    perioder. Utifrån de budgetramar och principer som styr arbetet med länstransportplanerna

    kan frågan ställas om det är försvarbart att anpassa vägnätet till en tio gånger högre trafikintensitet

    än normalt under högsäsongens trafiktoppar, d v s är det samhällsekonomiskt

    effektivt och förenligt med klimatsmarta transportlösningar? Svaret på frågan är sannolikt nej

    så länge bilparken domineras av fordon som drivs med fossila drivmedel och trafikintensitetens

    variationer över året är så stora som idag 2010.

    Arbetet med länstrafikplanerna har kännetecknats av hårda prioriteringar och avvägningar

    mellan olika intressen. Trafikintensiteten framstår som en viktig prioriteringsgrund, vilket

    reser frågan hur det kan komma att påverka olika destinationers konkurrenssituation. Tillspetsat

    uttryckt, ska tillgängligheten till stora volymdestinationer prioriteras framför små? Ska

    resurserna satsas på att komma tillrätta med trafikinfarkter och trafikproppar utmed de mest

    trafikintensiva tillfartsvägarna? I förlängningen kan frågan också ställas om situationen i

    södra Dalarna bör prioriteras framför övriga projekt i länet och Jämtland.

    Tillgänglighet kan vara både en katalysator för förändring eller verka som en förstärkande

    faktor. Oavsett vilket påverkar tillgängligheten 1) besökarnas preferenser och företagens

    kostnader, 2) destinationers förmåga att anpassa sig till och aktivt agera på förändringar i

    omvärlden och 3) deras konkurrenskraft. Ur ett turistiskt perspektiv bör frågan om konkurrensneutralitet

    betraktas utifrån att valet av resmål påverkas och begränsas av olika materiella

    restriktioner (kapacitets-, kopplings- och styrningsrestriktioner), liksom att dessa samspelar

    med turisternas subjektiva upplevelse av dessa restriktioner. Insikten om att det både kan

    främja och motverka valet av ett visst resmål gör att frågan om tillgången till väl fungerande

    och konkurrenskraftiga transportlösningar är mycket viktiga för fjälldestinationerna. Även

    insikten om att vissa typer av resor sker mer frekvent än andra och att frekvensen är beroende

    av både avstånd och tid understryker tillgänglighetens betydelse, eftersom destinationerna till

    stor del konkurrerar med varandra inom samma geografiska avståndskontext och på en marknad

    där ”kundernas” grundläggande primära behov av en viss typ av upplevelse också den till

    stor del är desamma.

  • 182.
    Bodén, Bosse
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Rättvisa och transparanta avgiftssystem: En studie om lokala destinationsbolag och deras medlemsavgifter2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allt fler turismorganisationer / bolag har utvidgat sin verksamhet från att tidigare uteslutande fokusera på marknadsföring och bokning till att även omfatta managementuppgifter. I rapportens första del, som i huvudsak baseras på artiklar och litteratur från nationell och internationell forskning, beskrivs denna utveckling och de utmaningar som följer med managementrollen. Huvuddelen av rapporten ägnas åt frågan om hur ett rättvist och funktionellt avgiftssystem ska kunna utformas för nivån på medlemmarnas serviceavgifter.

     

    Föreliggande rapport är resultatet av ett uppdrag mellan ETOUR och Jämtland/-Härjedalens Turistförening inom ramen för ett av EU delfinansierat projekt.

     

  • 183.
    Bodén, Bosse
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vindkraft i Jämtland: En studie relaterad till turism2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Turism är en viktig näring för den regionala jämtländska ekonomin, och för vissa kommuner och lokalsamhällen är den även samhällsbärande. Denna rapport syftar till att identifiera strategiska frågeställningar för turism och turismnäringen i samband med planerad utbyggnad av vindkraft i Jämtland. Rapporten utgör ett underlag inför den diskussion och de beslut som föregår arbetet med de kommunala översiktsplanerna, samrådsförfarandet inför planernas fastställande och vindkraftens utbyggnad.

  • 184.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    EN UTOPISK IDÉ?: Medverkan på (o)lika villkor i utvecklingspartnerskap2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A utopian idea?

    Participation Under (Dis)Similar Conditions inDevelopment Partnerships

    Maria Bogren

     

    Department of Social Sciences

    Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Östersund, Sweden

    ISSN 1652-8948, Mid Sweden University Licentiate Thesis 53;

    ISBN 978-91-86694-12-8

     

     

    Abstract

    Important societal issues nowadays do not get resolved through the care of the state; it is rather the case that solutions involve multiple actors.  Such cooperation can be organized in partnership where actors from the public sector, private companies and non-profit organizations, for example, attempt to find solutions to a current societal issue. The target group affected by the problems can also be involved in the partnership. The aim of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding regarding cooperation in partnerships and especially the target group’s participation in partnerships. An idea regarding the target group’s participation stems from the European level to the national level and finally to the local level in a development partnership. I follow the local development partner-ship for two years with a view to examining the translation process of the idea regarding the target group’s participation. Data was collected through interviews, relevant documents and observation. What is more, the significance of the institutional surroundings regarding what happens in the partnership is discussed. The idea regarding the target group’s participation manifests itself on: a) how the target group should be represented; b) how it gains influence and c) how the role of the target group’s representatives should be shaped. The study shows that ideas change and adjust over time and also that the target group participates under different conditions compared to the rest of the representatives in the partnership. A way to strengthen the target group’s participation in the partnership can be through further organizing, thus increasing the legitimization level of the target group.

     

    Keywords: translation, target group, participation, public-private partnerships

    SAMMANFATTNING

     

    Angelägna samhällsproblem får numera inte alltid sin lösning genom statens försorg utan istället involveras flera aktörer. Ett sådant samarbete kan organiseras i partner­skap där aktörer från exempelvis offentlig sektor, företag och ideella organisationer tillsammans försöker hitta lösningar på något aktuellt samhällsproblem. I partner­ska­pet kan även den målgrupp som berörs av problematiken involveras. Syftet med denna studie är att bidra till ökad förståelse när det gäller samverkan i partnerskap och speciellt när det gäller målgruppens medverkan i partnerskap. En idé om målgruppens medverkan följs från europeisk nivå, till nationell nivå och slutligen till lokal nivå i ett utvecklingspartnerskap. Jag följer det lokala utvecklings­partnerskapet under två års tid och använder dokumentstudier, intervjuer och obser­vationer för att studera översättningsprocessen av idén om målgruppens medverkan. Dessutom diskuteras den institutionella omgivningens betydelse för det som händer i partnerskapet. Idén om målgruppens medverkan tar sig uttryck i idéer om hur målgruppen ska finnas repre­sen­terad och hur den ska få inflytande samt hur rollen som målgrupps­rep­resen­tant ska utformas. Studien visar att idéerna förändras och anpassas över tid samt att målgruppen medverkar på olika villkor jämfört med övriga representanter i partnerskapet. Ett sätt att stärka målgruppens medverkan i partnerskapet kan vara genom ytterligare organisering för att på så sätt ge ökad legitimitet för målgruppen.

     

    Nyckelord: översättning, målgrupp, medverkan, privatoffentliga partnerskap

  • 185.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital for business development – developing relationships and trust in development programs for women entrepreneurs.2015In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas. Vol. 10: The Role of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Capital in Rural Renewal / [ed] von Friedrichs, Y., Westlund, H., & Kobayashi, K., Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital for business development: Deve­lo­­ping relations and trust in development programs for women entrepreneurs2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital for the development of women´s enterprises2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital with relationships and trust – for the development of women´s businesses2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Socialt kapital - relationer och tillit - för utveckling av kvinnors företagande2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s enterprises are seen as a resource in the development of both regions and countries. Despite this, however, research has shown that women’s businesses do not grow at the same extent as men's businesses. It is therefore of interest to identify the problems and obstacles women entrepreneurs face that negatively affect their companies’ growth, and how supportive efforts should best be structured. Studies have shown that a lack of access to financial capital has been a major obstacle in the development of women's businesses and also that entre­preneurship has been dominantly male-coded, where men as entrepreneurs are seen as the norm in society. In addition, studies have shown that women business owners have limited networks and do not use network contacts as efficiently as men, plus that they lack role models. Developing social capital, leading to in­creased opportunities to gain access to resources, can lead to development in women's businesses. Previous studies on social capital as a contribution to enter­prise development often focus either on relationships or trust and further studies on the development processes from which social capital evolves are therefore nee­ded. The aim of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how the development of social capital can be understood by illustrating and analyzing the characteristics of relationships and trust, and to give examples of how this can be stimulated in deve­lopment programs for women entrepreneurs.

    This thesis consists of three studies – a case study was conducted over two years in a development program with women entrepreneurs from Norway and Sweden, a survey was conducted of women business owners in Norway and Sweden, and another survey was conducted of project managers of development projects aimed to stimulate women's entrepreneurship in Sweden.

    The results from the four papers of this thesis show that personal networks, family, relatives and friends are perceived as supportive relationships for women entrepreneurs. Those who have a heterogeneous network exhibit a greater willing­ness to enter into new relationships than those who do not, and trust affects willing­ness to develop relationships in development programs. Homogeneity of the group of participating women in programs proves to be important initially, while heterogeneity becomes more important over time. When business identity develops, an increased professionalization of the women´s network is shown. Social activity with time spent and engagement in a development program contri­bute to the development of both relationships and trust, and the time aspect is important when it comes to trust in the program's organizers.

    Based on these results, several aspects of relationships and trust that can be sti­mu­lated in development programs have been identified. A demonstrated willing­ness to evolve can reflect how motivated and interested participants are in partici­pa­ting in a development program. When working with the composition of the group of participants, homogeneity and heterogeneity should be taken into account. Social activity by time spent and commitment shown, is something that strengthens the development of relationships and trust. A confidentiality agree­ment, which was an important symbolic document, contributes to increased trust between all involved in the program. Program organizers´ social credentials, skills and organizational affiliation are aspects that can be recognized for institutional trust as well as their social activity in the program. Stimulating the development of both relationships and trust is an important reason for revising a program´s structure and content.

    The conclusions from this thesis are that women entrepreneurs with a heterogeneous network demonstrate willingness to enter into new relationships, that both relational and trust-building processes are important for the develop­ment of social capital, and that context needs to be taken into account when designing development programs.

  • 190.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Socialt kapital för utveckling av företag och regioner2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Unexpected relations in the expected network2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore what kind of network relations women build within a supportive constructed network aimed at developing the women’s enterprises and also to discuss how such constructed networks should be organized. The research questions are concentrated around development programs and the networking development within such a program. The first two questions center on development programs with the aim to stimulate networking among women entrepreneurs: Does a development program benefit women´s networking? How should a development program be designed to support networking? The third and fourth research questions explore what happens in a development program that could be seen as a form of constructed network: What network relationships are present in a constructed network? Who are the women networking with and about what, within the constructed network? This study contribute to earlier studies by Hill et al. (1999) and Greve and Salaff (2003) in the area of network development and to Granovetter´s (1973, 1982) ideas about strong and weak ties between actors in networks. Overall this is a contribution to women’s entrepreneurship theory, especially on issues regarding the way networks develop over time with an emphasis on women entrepreneurs’ networking in constructed networks.   A qualitative approach was used to study a development program comprised of 24 women entrepreneurs. Surveying was threefold: First, a short questionnaire was handed out twice querying the entrepreneurs regarding network contacts important for business development. Second, the entrepreneurs wrote reflective answers to questions regarding their participation in mixed network groups (with participants from both countries and from different branches): did they develop new ideas about networking that they would like to test themselves or see tested by others? Finally, participant observations were made at meetings in the development program. The results show that new relations emerge over country borders and business borders as well as within and outside the program. Initially the networking was about advice and support. There were also some business relationships forged crossing the national border and within the same branches. The entrepreneurs have gradually realized the value of networking and have seen the benefits of developing their network with more professional contacts. It is not possible to organize everything around networking but we can facilitate with theoretical and practical examples in development programs.

  • 192.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    With the target groups as partners2008In: Partnership: As a Strategy for Social Innovation and Sustainable Change, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2008, p. 121-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Entrepreneurship - the creation of temporary organizations?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hernik, Joanna
    West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland.
    Martínez Jiménez, Rocío
    University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Entrepreneurial support systems and potential entrepreneurs´ knowledge of them2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All over the world, governments are supporting entrepreneurial activity in order to develop their countries through successful businesses. There are different support systems supporting active and potential entrepreneurs in the European countries, but do all potential entrepreneurs know where to turn for information and help about starting and running a business? The aim of this study is to explore support systems in Poland, Spain and Sweden and, in addition to this, to investigate what knowledge students have of different support systems that would be of use if they want to start their own business.

     

    Previous research shows that students who have participated in entrepreneurship education programs are more likely to become entrepreneurs (Charney & Libecap, 2000; Galloway & Brown, 2002; Davidsson & Honig, 2003; Athayde, 2009). Several studies show how having parents, friends, or neighbors who run a business can inspire a person to start their own business (e g Davidsson & Honig, 2003; Krueger, 1993; Scherer et al., 1989).

     

    This explorative study was conducted in three European countries: Poland, Spain, and Sweden. Firstly, a review of existing support systems was performed in each country. Secondly, a questionnaire was distributed in May 2017 to university students in different study programs and at different levels of education. In total, 124 questionnaires were handed out and answered by 64 Spanish students, 34 Swedish students, and 26 Polish students. The questionnaire included background questions such as age and sex, but also asked if the students wanted to start a business or not. We asked if they currently run a business or have run a business in the past, and if their parents, other relatives, or friends run their own businesses. We also asked where they would go to get information and help, and what sources they would use to find information on starting a business. Finally, we asked them what kind of help they thought they would need.

     

    The results show that there are valuable support systems for entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs in all three countries. We found more similarities than differences among the support options offered. However, the answers from the potential entrepreneurs show that there is a lack of knowledge about existing support systems. It seems that potential entrepreneurs would rather use their private network, such as family, friends and active entrepreneurs, before turning to consultants in various support system organizations.

     

    This study highlights the connection between available support systems and potential entrepreneurs, and is a valuable implication for governments and supporting organizations, focusing on how to reach out with their offered support. 

     

  • 195.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Mørkved, Britt Paula
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Den kvinnelige entreprenøren - utvikling av foretakeridentitet2013In: Kvinnors företag och företagande kvinnor: Tillväxtentreprenörer i Skandinavien / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs & Øystein Rennemo, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 109-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Rennemo, Øystein
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Widding, Øystein
    NTNU.
    Nettverkets betydning for utvikling og vekst i kvinners entreprenørskap2013In: Kvinnors företag och företagande kvinnor: Tillväxtentreprenörer i Skandinavien / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs & Øystein Rennemo, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, 1, p. 155-179Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Creating tourism experiences from food products2018In: Destination Dynamics 2018: Abstract book, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastronomy is nowadays seen as an important part of tourism. Different kind of food producers are creating places where tourists want to travel to experience the food (e g product) at a certain place (often the production site). Food producers are therefore becoming important tourism producers and they try to find new ways to attract tourists and/or the tourists demand to experience the place where the products are produced. Due to that, the food producers themselves can become a travel reason. The aim with this paper is to discuss how food producers creates tourism experiences. This is further examined by the following research questions: How do food producers create tourism experiences based on high quality products? What are the key values in creating tourism food experiences? The study was conducted as a qualitative multiple case study with eight cases selected by recommendation from local researchers: four cases from northern Europe (two cheese producers in Jämtland, Sweden, and two distilleries in Tröndelag, Norway) and four cases from southern Europe (two olive oil producers and two wine producers from Andalusia, Spain). Data was collected by observations, semi-structured interviews and documentary studies. The results show that food producers creates different products as well as different types of experiences. This can be explained by a theoretical model in three steps namely products (1), tourism visits (2) and tourism experiences (3). When the first step, the basic needs, is fulfilled, the producer can climb higher to the next step. Thereafter, they continue to climb up in the model by providing different types of visits and tourism experiences. The model is also highly dependent on three surrounding influences; from the place, product quality and value in use. When it comes to quality, this is valued in all three steps of the model. This theoretical model can be useful for food producers that would like to expand their products into tourism.

  • 198.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Diversified nature based businesses: how and why do entrepreneurs create tourism businesses?2018In: NCSB, Luleå, Sweden, May 23-25, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Arranging for social capital within development projects for women entrepreneurs2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Managing business network processes in women´s entrepreneurship – a challenging task2011Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 151 - 200 of 1800
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