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  • 101.
    Delin, Paula
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Onlinespel och dess påverkan på unga vuxnas sociala välbefinnande: En kvalitativ studie om unga vuxnas uppfattning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 102. Dorfman, M.V
    et al.
    Ganul, V.L.
    Girko, V.L
    Pavlenko, Tatjana
    Questionnaire-based determination of groups at high risk for lung cancer (in Russian)1990Inngår i: Problems of Oncology (rus), ISSN 0507-3758, Vol. 36, nr 12, s. 1469-1473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The factor analysis of qualitative parameters carried out in 968 patients with lung cancer helped identify certain features which may play the key role in the development and, consequently, diagnosis of various types of the disease. In workers of major industries, smoking proved a significant factor of higher incidence of lung cancer. Formation of the habit at an earlier age, its intensity and concomitant occupational hazards were found to increase the risk of cancer, particularly, in males. Mass screenings and questionnaire--based interviewing of smokers are suggested. Young age and heavy smokers should be included in groups at risk irrespective of

  • 103.
    du Prel, J. B.
    et al.
    Univ Ulm, Inst Hist Philosophy & Eth Med, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Runeson-Broberg, R.
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Westerholm, P.
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordin, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fahlen, G.
    Natl Agcy Special Needs Educ & Sch, Harnosand, Sweden..
    Alfredsson, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Mid Sweden Univ, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Peter, R.
    Univ Ulm, Inst Hist Philosophy & Eth Med, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Work-Related Overcommitment: Is it a State or a Trait? - Results from the Swedish WOLF-Study.2015Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 44, nr S1, s. 263-263, artikkel-id 3649Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 104.
    Eardley, S.
    et al.
    Complementary and Integrative Medicine Research, Primary Medical Care, Aldermoor Health Centre, Aldermoor Close, Southampton SO16 5ST, United Kingdom.
    Bishop, F. L.
    Complementary and Integrative Medicine Research, Primary Medical Care, Aldermoor Health Centre, Aldermoor Close, Southampton SO16 5ST, United Kingdom.
    Cardini, F.
    Healthcare and Social Agency of the Emilia Romagna Region, Bologna, Italy.
    Santos-Rey, K.
    Andalusian Health Service, Pain Treatment Unit, Doña Mercedes Primary Care Center, Dos Hermanas, Spain.
    Jong, Miek C.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ursoniu, S.
    Department of Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes, Timisoara, Romania.
    Dragan, S.
    Department of Preventive Cardiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes, Timisoara, Romania.
    Hegyi, G.
    PTE ETK Komplementer Medicina Tanszék, Budapest, Hungary.
    Uehleke, B.
    University of Health and Sports, Berlin, Germany.
    Vas, J.
    Andalusian Health Service, Pain Treatment Unit, Doña Mercedes Primary Care Center, Dos Hermanas, Spain.
    Jupaneant, O.
    Department of Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes, Timisoara, Romania.
    Citro, M. C.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Fønnebø, V.
    National Research Center in CAM (NAFKAM), Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Quandt, S. A.
    Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States.
    Lewith, G.
    Complementary and Integrative Medicine Research, Primary Medical Care, Aldermoor Health Centre, Aldermoor Close, Southampton SO16 5ST, United Kingdom.
    A pilot feasibility study of a questionnaire to determine European union-wide CAM use2012Inngår i: Forschende Komplementarmedizin, ISSN 1661-4119, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 302-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: No questionnaire specifically measuring the core components of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has been validated for use across European Union (EU) countries. We aimed to determine the face validity, acceptability and the participants' comprehension of a pre-existing questionnaire designed to measure 'CAM use', to provide a comparative, standardised questionnaire for use by health care providers, policy makers and purchasers throughout Europe. Methods: Established procedures were employed to translate the questionnaire into 4 EU languages. The translated questionnaires were piloted on 50 healthy adults from each country who may never have used CAM. 10 participants per country also took part in audio-recorded think aloud interviews about the questionnaire. The interviews were transcribed and analysed in the language in which they were conducted; findings were summarised in English. Questionnaire data were pooled across countries, and patterns of completion and missing data were analysed. Results: The questionnaire was translated into Italian, Spanish, Dutch and Romanian. The mean age of the participants was 43.6 years. 34% were male, 87.4% were either light or heavy CAM users, and 12.6% were non-users. Qualitative analysis identified common problems across countries including a 'hard-to-read' layout, misunderstood terminology and uncertainty in choosing response options. Quantitative analysis confirmed that a substantial minority of respondents failed to follow questionnaire instructions and that some questions had substantial rates of missing data. Conclusions: The I-CAM-Q has low face validity and low acceptability, and is likely to produce biased estimates of CAM use if applied in England, Romania, Italy, The Netherlands or Spain. Further work is required to develop the layout, terms, some response options and instructions for completion before it can be used across the EU. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 105.
    Edler, Adam
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hälsovariabler och copingstrategier vid stress: En jämförelse mellan campus- och distansstudenter.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 106. Edlund, C E
    et al.
    Arrelöv, B E
    Goine, Hans G
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Interrelations between gatekeepers on the sickness absence arena: Meeting abstract2007Inngår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Oxford University Press, 2007, s. 231-232Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 107.
    Ekholm, Jan
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Selander, John
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Marnetoft, Sven-Uno
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Schüldt Ekholm, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Jakobsson, Björn
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ludvigsen Ehnhage, Pia
    Åhrberg, Yvonne
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kärrholm, Jenny
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hinder och framgångsfaktorer i rehabiliteringsprocessen: En sammanfattning baserad på kvantitativa och kvalitativa studier av faktorerer eller företeelser associerade med långtidsjukskrivnas återkomst i arbete2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 108. Ekholm, Jan
    et al.
    Ekholm Schudt, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Vocational rehabilitation: Editorial2009Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 113-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 109. Ekholm, Jan
    et al.
    Schuldt Ekholm, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Vocational rehabilitation in musculo-skeletal disorders: with examples from neck and shoulder region2006Inngår i: Vocational Rehabilitation, Paris: Springer, 2006, s. 137-142Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 110. Ekholm, Jan
    et al.
    Schüldt Ekholm, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Vocational rehabilitation: the Swedish model2006Inngår i: Vocational Rehabilitation, 2006, s. 389-394Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 111. Ekholm, Jan
    et al.
    Schüldt Ekholm, Krsitina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Arbets(o)förmåga ur rehabiliteringsmedicinskt perspektiv2008Inngår i: Arbets(o)förmåga :: ur ett mångdisciplinärt perspektiv, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2008, s. 402-Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 112.
    Elfgren, Cecilia
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Fysioterapeuters upplevelse av att skriva fysisk aktivitet på receptEn kvalitativ studie.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 113.
    Elwér, S.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Harryson, L.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bolin, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Hammarström, A.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. Art. no. e53246-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health outcomes for women and men. © 2013 Elwér et al.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Patterns of gender equality
  • 114.
    Engman, Frida
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Nordin, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Obalans mellan arbetet och privatlivet bland offentliganställda: betydelsen av kontroll och socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen2017Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, nr 5, s. 610-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Obalans mellan arbetet och privatlivet kan leda till ohälsa och sjukfrånvaro. Det finns visst stöd i forskning för att kontroll och socialt stöd i arbetet var för sig relaterar till individers upplevelse av balans. I denna studie undersöks relationen mellan socialt stöd, kontroll och  obalans mellan arbete och privatliv. Vidare studeras additiva och multiplikativa effekter.

    Data är hämtad från en undersökning som gjorts inom offentlig sektor (vård, omsorg och skola) i mellersta Sverige. Enkäten skickades ut till 743 anställda och svarsfrekvensen var 51 procent. En linjär regression genomfördes med obalans som utfall.

    Resultatet visar att kontroll och socialt stöd i arbetet är skyddande faktorer mot obalans. Det finns en additiv effekt, och kontroll och socialt stöd har tillsammans en högre förklaringsgrad än var för sig.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 115.
    Eriksson, Katherine
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hälsocoachers erfarenheter och upplevelser av tillämpbara metoder för bestående livsstilsförändringar: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 116.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Coachning som intervention för ökad fysisk aktivitet: En kvalitativ studie av deltagarnas upplevelser2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 117.
    Eriksson, Therese
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    ”Du vet ju att du ska bli blind…när då?”: Retinitis Pigmentosa patienters upplevelser av mötet med sjukvården2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 118.
    Eriksson, Therese
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Socialsekreterares upplevelse och erfarenhet av arbetsbelastning, stress och välmående - Samskapande, delaktighet och delat ansvar med hjälp av metoden Signs of Safety.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 119.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sellström, Eva
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Growing up in rural community - children's experiences of social capital from perspectives of wellbeing2010Inngår i: Rural and remote health, ISSN 1445-6354, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1322-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: People are influenced by the neighborhood in which they live. The neighborhood may be particularly important for children’s wellbeing because of the constraints it imposes on their patterns of daily activities. Furthermore, the neighborhood is a central context for social development, being a place where children form networks and learn social skills and values. The aim of this study was to describe how social capital in the neighborhood is perceived by children living in rural areas, and to reveal what this adds to their sense of wellbeing. Methods: The study had a descriptive research design with a qualitative approach. Seven single-sex focus group interviews were conducted with children the in 6th grade (aged 11–12 years). Data were analyzed using deductive content analysis. Results: The children perceived a lack of social capital due to environmental and social constraints in their everyday lives. However, their wellbeing was enhanced by strong cohesion in the neighborhood. In addition, settings such as the school, the natural environment, and sporting associations were highly valued and emerged as crucial factors for enhancing the children’s wellbeing. The spatial isolation that characterizes rural areas created a special context of social network structures, cohesion and trust, but was also a breeding ground for exclusion and social control. The stories revealed paradoxical feelings of living in a good and safe area that simultaneously felt isolated and restricted. Conclusions: From a rural perspective, this study reveals the complexity of the children’s perceptions of their social environment, and the ways in which these perceptions have both positive and negative effects on wellbeing. The results highlight how important it is for health professionals in rural areas to consider the complex influence of bonding social capital on children’s wellbeing, and to be aware that it can promote exclusion as well as cohesion.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 120.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Department of Psychology, Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Sellström, Eva
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Perceptions of community trust and safety: Consequences for children’s well-being in rural and urban contexts2011Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, nr 10, s. 1373-1378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To explore the associations between subjective well-being and perceptions of community trust and safety amongst children in rural and urban areas.

    Methods:  The study used self-reported data from the 2001/2002 Swedish cross-national WHO study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children. The sample consisted of 3852 children aged 11–15 years, living in different residential areas. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

    Results:  The results indicated that a greater proportion of children in urban areas perceived low community trust and safety, compared with children in rural areas. Further, the multivariate analysis revealed that perceived community trust and safety significantly impacts upon children’s subjective well-being in both rural and urban contexts.

    Conclusion:  Children’s perceptions of trust and safety have different magnitudes in urban and rural areas. The associations of perceptions of community trust and safety for children’s subjective well-being are relevant in both urban and rural areas. As perceptions of low trust and safety in the community seem to be related to low subjective well-being, efforts to encourage community trust and safety should be included amongst the key priorities in community health promotion.

  • 121.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sellström, Eva
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    School demands and subjective health complaints among Swedish schoolchildren: A multilevel study2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 344-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: As children spend a great deal of their time in school, the climate in the classroom can constitute a resource, but also a risk factor in the development of the pupils' health. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which demands in the classroom are associated with subjective health complaints in Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Data from the 2001/2002 and 2005/2006 Swedish cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey were analysed using a multilevel logistic regression technique. Results: The study demonstrated a substantial variation between school classes in pupils' subjective health complaints. In school classes with high demands, the odds of having subjective health complaints was about 50% higher than in school classes with low demands. Further, the results indicated that these effects were mediated by sex so as to girls being more affected by high levels of demands in the school class. Conclusions: The findings are important since they point at the crucial role that teachers play in creating a favourable school climate. Therefore interventions aiming at supporting teachers to set realistic demands and expectations are one way to improve the school climate. Such interventions should also make clear the need to take into consideration the fact that the school class effect was mediated by sex, i.e. girls being more vulnerable to high level of school class demands.

  • 122.
    Escorpizo, Reuben
    et al.
    Swiss Parapleg Res SPF, CH-6207 Nottwil, Switzerland .
    Reneman, Michiel F.
    Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Ctr Rehabil, NL-9713 AV Groningen, Netherlands .
    Ekholm, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci DS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fritz, Julie
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys Therapy, Coll Hlth, Salt Lake City, UT, USA .
    Krupa, Terry
    Queens Univ, Sch Rehabil Therapy, Kingston, ON, Canada .
    Marnetoft, Sven-Uno
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Maroun, Claude E.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Med Ctr, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez
    Univ El Bosque, Occupat Hlth Grad Program, Fac Med, Bogota, Colombia.
    Suzuki, Yoshiko
    Mejiro Univ, Tokyo Metropolitan Rehabil Ctr Phys & Intellectua, Tokyo, Japan .
    Stucki, Gerold
    Swiss Parapleg Res SPF, CH-6207 Nottwil, Switzerland .
    Chan, Chetwyn C. H.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Rehabil Sci, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China .
    A Conceptual Definition of Vocational Rehabilitation Based on the ICF: Building a Shared Global Model2011Inngår i: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 126-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification system by the World Health Organization (WHO) to understand functioning. The objective of this discussion paper is to offer a conceptual definition for vocational rehabilitation (VR) based on the ICF. Method We presented the ICF as a model for application in VR and the rationale for the integration of the ICF. We also briefly reviewed other work disability models. Results Five essential elements of foci were found towards a conceptual definition of VR: an engagement or re-engagement to work, along a work continuum, involved health conditions or events leading to work disability, patient-centered and evidence-based, and is multi-professional or multidisciplinary. Conclusions VR refers to a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. We propose that the ICF and VR interface be explored further using empirical and qualitative works and encouraging stakeholders' participation.

  • 123.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Italy.
    Barros, Henrique
    Univ Porto, Oporto, Portugal.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania; Griffith Univ, Australia.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    Univ Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Univ Emden, Germany; Brandeis Univ, USA.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Italy.
    Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries2017Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 686-692Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. Methods: A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Conclusions: Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships.

  • 124.
    Fahlén, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Aspects of the Effort-reward imbalance model of psychosocial stress in the working life2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fahlén, G. (2008). Aspects on the Effort-reward Imbalance model of psychosocial stress in the work environments. Sundsvall, Sweden: Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences. ISBN 978-91-85317-94-3.

    Since the late 1970s, work related stress has increasingly been recognized as an important determinant for ill-health and disease. One of the most influential stress models is the Effort-Reward Imbalance model (ERI), which stipulates that an imbalance between the perceived effort spent at work and rewards received results in noxious stress. Those with a coping behaviour called Work-related Overcommitment (WOC), including an inability to withdraw from work obligations are especially vulnerable. The model has shown strong explanatory value for a large numbers of harmful health outcomes.

    The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the development of the ERI model by exploring the properties of this model in relation to its theoretical assumptions, construct, and application and to improve the knowledge of validity of the ERI-model.

    The study sample that was used in three papers emanated from the WOLF study (Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen). The analyses were confined to the subset of individuals who answered the ERI questions (n=1174) with complete answers. In one paper, data from the SKA study (Sick leave, Culture and Attitudes) were used and they comprised all employees at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency responsible for management and compensation of illness in the working population (n=5700). All data are based on questionnaires.

    The results indicate that ERI and WOC are risk factors for sleep disturbances and fatigue. A palpable threshold effect was seen between quartile three and four. Since these symptoms are strongly stress related, our results support the utility of the ERI and WOC scales in assessing stress in working life.

    Agreement between single questions in the original and an approximate instrument for measuring ERI were low, whereas the agreement between the two ERI scales was reasonable. When approximate instruments are used, questions and scales must be presented thoroughly to facilitate comparisons and the results should be interpreted with caution. Today there are no reasons to use such instruments in the ERI model.

    One statement in the ERI model is that individuals with the coping behaviour characterised as WOC are particularly vulnerable to an imbalance between perceived effort and reward; i.e., that ERI and WOC interact. No such effect was shown in relation to disturbed sleep and fatigue. There is no convincing evidence that ERI and WOC interact in synergy. Analysis demonstrated that WOC was relatively stable in perceived unchanged conditions as measured by the original, more comprehensive instrument as well as by the present, shortened instrument. Positively or negatively perceived changes in ERI correspond to changes in WOC. This result suggests that WOC, at least in part, may act as not only a coping strategy but also as an outcome from ERI. Taken together, these results concerning WOC, suggest that studies to clarify the role of the WOC dimension are needed.

    The ERI model states that, when individuals stay in unfavourable conditions characterised as ERI, because there are few alternatives on the labour market or when the individual is at risk of being laid off or of facing downward mobility, they are in a “locked in position” (LIP). A strong association between LIP and ERI was shown, supporting this statement.

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  • 125.
    Fahlén, Göran
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Goine, Hans
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Edlund, Curt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Arrelöv, Britt
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Peter, Richard
    Effort-reward imbalance, "locked in" at work and long term sick leave2009Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 191-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to study the relationship between a situation characterized as being in a "locked-in" position (LIP) in occupation and/or place of work, Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), and long-term sick leave. METHODS: The study population derived from one section of a cross-sectional study SKA (sick-leave, culture and attitudes), and comprised all employees at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency responsible for management and compensation of illness in the working population. The analyses were performed for 2,951 women and 534 men who had complete data. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) for ERI and sick-leave, the latter only for women. RESULTS: The results showed a strong association between LIP within the place of work and ERI (for women OR = 3.28 95% CI 2.65-4.07, and for men 2.74 1.75-4.30). Also LIP within occupation resulted in high ERI (for women OR = 1.96 1.57-2.41, and for men 1.92 1.22-3.03). In women, ERI (OR = 1.40 1.15-1.70) as well as LIP within place of work (1.88 1.50-2.36) and within occupation (1.48 1.12-1.86) were associated with sick leave. ERI showed a significant mediating effect between LIP and sick leave, within place of work and within occupation (Z value 2.20 and 2.88, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: High ERI is associated with a situation characterized by being locked-in within an occupation or/and within a place of work. The results thereby support the theoretical model of Effort-reward imbalance. The results show that high ERI and being locked in are associated with long-term sick leave. ERI is a potential mediator of the association between being locked in and sick leave.

  • 126.
    Fahlén, Göran
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Effort-Reward Imbalance-modellen för psykosocial stress i arbetslivet: En jämförelse mellan två modeller för skattning av exponering2002Inngår i: Psykosocial belastning och riskfaktorer för hjärt-kärlsjukdom - Minisymposium i WOLF-projektet 8 februari 2001 / [ed] Pter Westerholm, Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet , 2002, s. 7-10Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 127.
    Fahlén, Göran
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Peter, Richard
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Westerholm, Peter
    Evaluating stability and reactivity in work-related overcommitment under the ERI model: does the shortened questionnaire lead to changes in model properties?Manuskript (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 128.
    Fahlén, Göran
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Peter, Richard
    University of Ulm, Germany.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Nordin, Maria
    University of Umeå, Umeå.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Stockholm County Council, Stockholm.
    Westerholm, Peter
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm.
    Effort-reward imbalance, sleep disturbances and fatigue2006Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 79, nr 5, s. 371-378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model in relation to disturbed sleep and fatigue. Methods: The study population derived from a subset of the WOLF (WOrk, Lipids, Fibrinogen) cohort study of cardiovascular risk in a working population who replied to the ERI-questionnaire comprising 789 men and 214 women. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR) for sleep disorders and fatigue in relation to the components of ERI. Results: As sleep disturbances and fatigue, based on literature, were defined to be represented by the uppermost quintile, 14% of the men and 23% of the women were affected by sleep disturbances while 14 and 26%, respectively, were affected by fatigue. Higher levels of exposure for the ERI components were associated with increased prevalence of sleep disturbances and fatigue. For men, the strongest association was seen between high overcommitment and fatigue (PR 5.77, 95% confidence interval 2.89-11.5). For women, high effort and sleep disturbances (PR 4.04, CI 1.53-10.7), high effort/reward ratio and sleep disturbances (PR 4.13, CI 1.62-10.5), and between low reward and fatigue (PR 4.36, CI 1.79-10.6) yielded the most obvious associations. Conclusions: The present study adds sleep disturbances and fatigue to the list of adverse consequences of effort-reward imbalance.

  • 129.
    Fahlén, Göran
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Peter, Richard
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    The Effort-reward imbalance model of psychosocial stress at the workplace - a comparison of ERI exposure assessment using two estimation methods2004Inngår i: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 81-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual for old data to be used in epidemiological studies. Recently developed instruments for measuring work-related stress did not exist when the data collection was carried out. Therefore, approximate questions are sometimes used. An apparent problem is the lack of validation of proxy questions. The aim of this study was to compare the original questions for measuring Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) with approximate questions. The study population corresponded with a subgroup in the WOLF-n (WOrk, Lipids, Fibrinogen-north) cohort study of cardiovascular risk in a working population in the north of Sweden: 655 men and 178 women. The agreement in exposure between the original and the approximate ERI single questions was relatively low throughout, whereas the correlation between the ERI subscales and the ERI ratios was reasonable. The latter agreement between the original and the approximate ERI ratio indicates that the approximate measures might have been useful in the past. Yet, whenever possible the implementation of the original questionnaire in study protocols is recommended since a complete measurement of ERI might help to further improve the internal consistency and the predictive validity of this exposure to effort-reward imbalance.

  • 130.
    Fernandes, C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Grayton, H.
    MRC Social Genetic Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Poston, L.
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Samuelsson, A. -M
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Taylor, P. D.
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Collier, D. A.
    MRC Social Genetic Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity leads to hyperactivity in offspring2012Inngår i: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 17, nr 12, s. 1159-1160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 131.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    et al.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Jokela, Markus
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Stockholm County Council.
    Batty, G. David
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin), Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Elovainio, Marko
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Institutet; Jönköping University, Jönköping; Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kumari, Meena
    University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Umeå.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Pahkin, Krista
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; University of Skövde, Skövde.
    Tabák, Adam
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm County Council, Stockholm.
    Väänänen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland .
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm County Council, Stockholm.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job insecurity and risk of diabetes: A meta-analysis of individual participant data2016Inngår i: CMJA. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Onlineutg. Med tittel: ECMAJ. ISSN 1488-2329, ISSN 0820-3946, E-ISSN 1488-2329, Vol. 188, nr 17-18, s. E447-E455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job insecurity has been associated with certain health outcomes. We examined the role of job insecurity as a risk factor for incident diabetes. Methods: We used individual participant data from 8 cohort studies identified in 2 open-access data archives and 11 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. We calculated study-specific estimates of the association between job insecurity reported at baseline and incident diabetes over the follow-up period. We pooled the estimates in a meta-analysis to produce a summary risk estimate. Results: The 19 studies involved 140 825 participants from Australia, Europe and the United States, with a mean follow-up of 9.4 years and 3954 incident cases of diabetes. In the preliminary analysis adjusted for age and sex, high job insecurity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes compared with low job insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.30). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to 15 studies with baseline data for all covariates (age, sex, socioeconomic status, obesity, physical activity, alcohol and smoking), the association was slightly attenuated (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24). Heterogeneity between the studies was low to moderate (age- and sex-adjusted model: I2 = 24%, p = 0.2; multivari-able-adjusted model: I2 = 27%, p = 0.2). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to high-quality studies, in which the diabetes diagnosis was ascertained from electronic medical records or clinical examination, the association was similar to that in the main analysis (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.35). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that self-reported job insecurity is associated with a modest increased risk of incident diabetes. Health care personnel should be aware of this association among workers reporting job insecurity.

  • 132.
    Fisher, Tatjana A.
    et al.
    Tyumen Research Centre, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, Russia.
    Petrov, Sergey A.
    Tyumen Research Centre, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, Russia.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Sukhovey, Yurij G.
    Institute of Immunology, Tyumen, Russia.
    Dotsenko, Evgenij L.
    Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia.
    A way to health through psycho-immunological wellbeing: Example of Indigenous People of Russian North2016Inngår i: Proc. IIId Intl Conference "Psychological Health of the Person: Life Resource and Life Potential", 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The research was carried out into the changes within psychic and immune domains ofthe Russian Nenets people migrating from the traditional northern habitat (tundra) to urbanenvironment. It is noted that in the process of significantly changing lifestyle supposedlysingle ethnic group can be clearly sub-divided according to the differences in adaptationdynamics. This division reflects sociological differences and is connected to the psychoimmunologicalaspects. Thus, with the adaptation of forest Nenets to the new conditions ofexistence (from the tundra to the urban centers), we found a division of a whole ethnic groupinto two groups according to a social attribute, which is fixed at the psychophysiologicallevel. First, psychic and immune domains are not only sharing a number of commonfeatures but also can have deep evolutionary connections and can be governed by similarlaws. Second, the psyche and the immune system show the most important functions andproperties that ensure an effective existence, generalizing the values of adaptation, protectionand vitality into a single structure. Such a concept is closed to “wholeness” and “integrity” showing that the distribution of vital forces or body resources can adjust the condition orcope with the pre-illness or even disease.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 133.
    Fjell, Ylva
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Health promoting factors in public work places2008Inngår i: Italian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1723-7807, E-ISSN 1723-7815, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 34-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to explore potential health-promoting work factors and theirspecific associations with self-rated general and mental health, life satisfaction, and low levels ofmusculoskeletal pain among women and men employed in the public sector.Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted among 2523 public employees (87% women) in 124work places. The workplaces were distributed between five occupational sectors: the provincial hospital,schools, home care services, domestic/catering, and administrative services. The response rate was 92%.Analyses of variance were used to compare the mean scores of the groups. Spearman’s rank correlation testwas used to assess the associations between the work factors and the health measures.Results:Many of the potential health promoting work factors were associated with the measures of self-ratedhealth. However the correlations differed according to both gender and occupational sector. The maindifferences between the sectors were the characteristics of decision latitude-influence and learningdevelopmentwith the best conditions in the administrative services and schools, and the worst in home careservices. Men rated higher in decision latitude-influence than women and had significantly better“opportunities to learn new and to develop in the profession”. Having enough time to complete the worktasks had the highest overall correlation with good health. In addition good relations with and support ofsupervisors were crucial for well-being among the employees.Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of high levels of decision latitude-influence, learningdevelopment,and a fair and impartial attitude among supervisors for the promotion of good health in publicwork places.

  • 134.
    Fjell, Ylva
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    KI.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Bildt, Carina
    Högskolan Gotland.
    Perceived physical strain in paid and unpaid work and the work-home interface: the associations with musculoskeletal pain and fatigue among public employees.2008Inngår i: Women & health, ISSN 0363-0242, E-ISSN 1541-0331, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 21-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between number of working hours, the level of perceived physical strain, work-home interface and musculoskeletal pain and fatigue among women and men employed in the public sector. Cross-sectional data from 1,180 employees (86% women) in 49 public workplaces in 2002-2003 were analyzed. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measures of the associations. The analyses showed differences as well as similarities between women and men. Overall the women reported higher levels of perceived physical strain relative to total workload. A high level of physical strain was strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. Nevertheless, no detrimental effects were observed on health of high total working hours which indicates that a large number of total working hours might be balanced by accompanying multiple roles or many responsibilities and therefore not be generally regarded as risk factors for ill health.

  • 135.
    Flink, I. K.
    et al.
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP), Institution of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Thomtén, Johanna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi. Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP), Institution of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Engman, L.
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP), Institution of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Hedström, S.
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP), Institution of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Linton, S. J.
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP), Institution of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Coping with painful sex: Development and initial validation of the CHAMP Sexual Pain Coping Scale2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 9, s. 74-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Recurrent vulvar pain is a common and debilitating condition which has received remarkably little attention in pain research. For instance, little is known about how these women cope with sexual activities, and there are no structured assessment tools. The purpose of this study was to explore coping strategies in this group, with a view to develop a measure to assess how women with vulvar pain cope with sexual activities. Methods: The current study is based on a subsample from a longitudinal study about vulvar pain in a student sample consisting of women between 18 and 35 years old (N= 964). Only data from the ones reporting recurrent vulvar pain during the last six months (N= 289) were used in the analyses. First, the CHAMP Sexual Pain Coping Scale (CSPCS) was created, with the aim of assessing how women with vulvar pain cope with sexual activities. The scale was inspired by previous research on women with vulvar pain as well as well-known coping strategies in other pain populations. Second, the psychometric properties of the scale were explored by analyzing the factor structure and internal reliability. Third, validity features were examined in terms of criterion validity and construct validity. Results: The analyses supported a three-factor solution, embracing the strategies endurance, avoidance and alternative coping. The internal reliability of the subscales turned out to be good, and the criterion validity was supported for all three subscales. The construct validity was clearly supported for the endurance and the avoidance subscales, but not for the alternative coping subscale. Conclusions: The findings support the CSPCS as an instrument for assessing how women with vulvar pain cope with sexual activities. The strategies endurance, avoidance and alternative coping correspond with findings from earlier research. Endurance reflects a tendency to engage in and continue with sexual activities despite pain, while attempting to minimize or suppress thoughts of pain. Avoidance, on the other hand, involves efforts to stay away from sexual activities, in particular vaginal penetration, because of fear of pain. Alternative coping refers to endeavours to find alternative sexual activities that do not necessarily involve vaginal penetration. Even though this first study indicates that the CSPCS may be psychometrically sound, more studies are needed to confirm the psychometric properties and clinical application of this instrument. In particular, the construct validity of the alternative coping subscale needs to be further evaluated. Implications: A valid instrument for assessing strategies for coping with sexual activities in this population has important clinical implications, since it provides a method that may enhance assessment procedures, be used in research, and stimulate the development of treatment. © 2015 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain.

  • 136.
    Flodin, Karin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Implementing International mHealth projects to facilitate public health in low-and middle income countries-using the Framework analysis method2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 137. Forouzanfar, Mohammad H
    et al.
    Alexander, Lily
    Anderson, H Ross
    Bachman, Victoria F
    Biryukov, Stan
    Brauer, Michael
    Burnett, Richard
    Casey, Daniel
    Coates, Matthew M
    Cohen, Aaron
    Delwiche, Kristen
    Estep, Kara
    Frostad, Joseph J
    Astha, K C
    Kyu, Hmwe H
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Ng, Marie
    Slepak, Erica Leigh
    Thomas, Bernadette A
    Wagner, Joseph
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abera, Semaw F
    Aboyans, Victor
    Abraham, Biju
    Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal
    Abubakar, Ibrahim
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E
    Aburto, Tania C
    Achoki, Tom
    Adelekan, Ademola
    Adofo, Koranteng
    Adou, Arsène K
    Adsuar, José C
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Agardh, Emilie E
    Al Khabouri, Mazin J
    Al Lami, Faris H
    Alam, Sayed Saidul
    Alasfoor, Deena
    Albittar, Mohammed I
    Alegretti, Miguel A
    Aleman, Alicia V
    Alemu, Zewdie A
    Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael
    Alhabib, Samia
    Ali, Raghib
    Ali, Mohammed K
    Alla, François
    Allebeck, Peter
    Allen, Peter J
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Alvarez, Elena
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Amankwaa, Adansi A
    Amare, Azmeraw T
    Ameh, Emmanuel A
    Ameli, Omid
    Amini, Heresh
    Ammar, Walid
    Anderson, Benjamin O
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
    Anwari, Palwasha
    Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig
    Arnlöv, Johan
    Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic
    Artaman, Al
    Asghar, Rana J
    Assadi, Reza
    Atkins, Lydia S
    Atkinson, Charles
    Avila, Marco A
    Awuah, Baffour
    Badawi, Alaa
    Bahit, Maria C
    Bakfalouni, Talal
    Balakrishnan, Kalpana
    Balalla, Shivanthi
    Balu, Ravi Kumar
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Barber, Ryan M
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L
    Barquera, Simon
    Barregard, Lars
    Barrero, Lope H
    Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh
    Basto-Abreu, Ana C
    Basu, Arindam
    Basu, Sanjay
    Basulaiman, Mohammed O
    Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina
    Beardsley, Justin
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Bekele, Tolesa
    Bell, Michelle L
    Benjet, Corina
    Bennett, Derrick A
    Benzian, Habib
    Bernabé, Eduardo
    Beyene, Tariku J
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Bhalla, Ashish
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
    Bikbov, Boris
    Bin Abdulhak, Aref A
    Blore, Jed D
    Blyth, Fiona M
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    Castro, Ruben E
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    Chadha, Vineet K
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    Chen, Wanqing
    Chen, Zhengming
    Chiang, Peggy P
    Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Christophi, Costas A
    Chuang, Ting-Wu
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    Cirillo, Massimo
    Claßen, Thomas K D
    Colistro, Valentina
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    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cooperrider, Kimberly
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    Davitoiu, Dragos V
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    de Castro, E Filipa
    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa
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    Dellavalle, Robert P
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    Richardson, Lee
    Riederer, Anne
    Robinson, Margaret
    Roca, Anna
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Ronfani, Luca
    Room, Robin
    Roy, Nobhojit
    Ruhago, George M
    Rushton, Lesley
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    She, Jun
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shibuya, Kenji
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    Shiri, Rahman
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Shiue, Ivy
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    Trujillo, Ulises
    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
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    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi
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    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wagner, Gregory R
    Waller, Stephen G
    Wallin, Mitchell T
    Wan, Xia
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    Wang, JianLi
    Wang, Linhong
    Wang, Wenzhi
    Wang, Yanping
    Warouw, Tati S
    Watts, Charlotte H
    Weichenthal, Scott
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weintraub, Robert G
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wessells, K Ryan
    Westerman, Ronny
    Whiteford, Harvey A
    Wilkinson, James D
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    Williams, Thomas N
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    Wolfe, Charles D A
    Wong, John Q
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    Wurtz, Brittany
    Xu, Gelin
    Yan, Lijing L
    Yang, Gonghuan
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Yenesew, Muluken
    Yentür, Gökalp K
    Yip, Paul
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Younis, Mustafa Z
    Younoussi, Zourkaleini
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaki, Maysaa E
    Zhao, Yong
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Zhu, Jun
    Zhu, Shankuan
    Zou, Xiaonong
    Zunt, Joseph R
    Lopez, Alan D
    Vos, Theo
    Murray, Christopher J
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.2015Inngår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, nr 10010, s. 2287-2323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

    METHODS: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.

    FINDINGS: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.

    INTERPRETATION: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 138.
    Fors, John
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Association between Obesity and and Occupational Injury & Absenteeism among U.S Workers.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 139.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Aging Res Ctr, Karolinska Inst, SE-11330 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Res Ctr, Karolinska Inst, SE-11330 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lundberg, Olle
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Live long and prosper? Childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid-life: A cohort study2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 179-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? Methods: A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25-69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. Results: The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father's were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.

  • 140.
    Forsberg, Birgitta
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Self-help Groups for Women with Chronic Muscular Pain: Limitations or Possibilities 2005Inngår i: International developments in rehabilitation to work 23-26 February 2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in Sweden, USA and Australia shows that at least a fourth of the population suffers from chronic muscular pain. Studies also shows that there are to a great extent women that suffer from this complaint. Women with chronic muscular pain are experiencing difficulties getting acknowledgement and legitimacy for their sickness and are having problems getting adequate care. Therefore it is interesting to see what importance participation in SHGs can have for this particular group. Self-Help Groups (SHGs) for mutual support have become an appreciated alternative in different fields for treatment and caring in many countries. The problems, that SHGs deal with are often related to the individual�s social situation, and the participation in SHGs seems to be more advantageous to people with chronic rather than acute diseases. The decision to participate in a SHG is generally made at an individual level, and the reason for participation seems to be various. This paper is a review in the area of research on SHGs. SHGs for women with chronic muscular pain are especially relevant to study, since they combine dealing with chronic diseases with a possibility to apply a gender perspective. For that reason it is interesting to start with the limitations and possibilities with SHGs in relation to women with chronic muscular pain. Glaser has e.g., presented a special reason for women to join female groups, namely that they felt more convenient to work exclusively with other women. It has also been said that female groups are important for women�s individual and identity development within a patriarchal context.

  • 141.
    Forsberg, Hanna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hur flickor och pojkars positiva självrapporterade hälsa är associerad till upplevelser i skolanEn enkätstudie baserad på hälsosamtalet i årskurs 1 på gymnasiet i Norrbotten2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 142. Forslin, B
    et al.
    Jacobsson, I
    Sandberg, K
    Sellström, Eva
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Olycksfallsskador, våld och otrygghet2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 143.
    Forslund, Katrin Emelie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Influencing factors and sources on the opinions of MMR vaccination in Australia-A cross-sectional study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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  • 144.
    Forssbaeck, Caroline
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Redo för social hållbarhet?- En kvalitativ intervjustudie på kommunnivå med utgångspunkt i Community   Readiness Model2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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  • 145.
    Fransson, E.I.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, S
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Heikkilä, K
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, L
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bacquer, D
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Batty, G
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Bonenfant, S
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Casini, A
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, E
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Goldberg, M
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Kittel, F
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Koskenvuo, M
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Leineweber, C
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, L
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, M
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Singh-Manoux, A
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, S
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, J
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Westerholm, P
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Westerlund, H
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Zins, M
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Theorell, T
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kivimäki, M
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: The IPD-Work consortium2012Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. Art. no. 62-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the ’IPD-Work’ (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods. Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results. We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions. Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments. 

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  • 146. Fransson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    de Faire, Ulf
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Leisure time, occupational and household physical activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in working men and women: the WOLF study2003Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 324-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 147.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Box 1026, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Tampere, Finland.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Tampere, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany .
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Hoofddorp, Netherlands .
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France .
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Hoofddorp, Netherlands .
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Hoofddorp, Netherlands .
    Joensuu, Matti
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kumari, Meena
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Department of Public Health, Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland .
    Theorell, Toeres
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Vaananen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zins, Marie
    Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Box 1026, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Britton, Annie
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Job Strain and the Risk of Stroke An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis2015Inngår i: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 557-559Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose-Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain. Methods-We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. Results-In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age-and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05; 1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75; 1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94; 1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusion-Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.

  • 148.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stadin, Magdalena
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malm, Dan
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Cty Hosp Ryhov, Dept Internal Med, S-55185 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala Univ, Occupat & Environm Med, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Association between Job Strain and Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the Swedish WOLF Study2015Inngår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikkel-id 371905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythmdisorder. Several life-style factors have been identified as risk factors for AF, but less is known about the impact of work-related stress. This study aims to evaluate the association between work-related stress, defined as job strain, and risk of AF. Methods. Data from the Swedish WOLF study was used, comprising 10,121 working men and women. Job strain was measured by the demand-control model. Information on incident AF was derived from national registers. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and AF risk. Results. In total, 253 incident AF cases were identified during a total follow-up time of 132,387 person-years. Job strain was associated with AF risk in a time-dependent manner, with stronger association after 10.7 years of follow-up (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.10-3.36 after 10.7 years, versus HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.83 before 10.7 years). The results pointed towards a dose-response relationship when taking accumulated exposure to job strain over time into account. Conclusion. This study provides support to the hypothesis that work-related stress defined as job strain is linked to an increased risk of AF.

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  • 149. Fransson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Indications of recall bias found in a retrospective study of physical activity and myocardial infarction.2008Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 840-847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of recall bias in retrospective studies of physical activity and myocardial infarction. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: In 2005, seventy-eight cases who had suffered from a myocardial infarction and 243 control subjects, who had previously participated in the Swedish WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen) study, were asked about their physical activity level during 1990-2005. The answers about recalled past leisure time, occupational, and household physical activity level were compared with physical activity level as reported at the baseline examination of the WOLF study in 1992-1998. RESULTS: The proportion who recalled the same activity level as originally reported ranged from 69% to 96% (cases) and 69% to 89% (controls), and the kappa values ranged from 0.30 to 0.91 (cases) and 0.46 to 0.59 (controls), with the exception of perceived physical workload in household work, which showed low agreement between the originally stated and later recalled activity levels. Some differences were found between cases and controls regarding recall of past occupational activity, indicating the presence of recall bias in this domain of physical activity. CONCLUSION: We cannot preclude the existence of recall bias when using retrospectively recalled information about occupational physical activity in studies of physical activity and myocardial infarction.

  • 150.
    Frisk, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Dietisters attityder och åsikter om skatt på sockersötade drycker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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