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  • 101.
    Gylle, A Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Physiological adaptations in two ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and in Fucus radicans with focus on salinity2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The in origin intertidal marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. grow permanently sublittoral in the brackish Bothnian Sea, side by side with the recently discovered F. radicans L. Bergström et L. Kautsky. Environmental conditions like salinity, light and temperature are clearly different between F. vesiculosus growth sites in the Bothnian Sea (4-5 practical salinity units, psu; part of the Baltic Sea) and the tidal Norwegian Sea (34-35 psu; part of the Atlantic Ocean). The general aims of this thesis were to compare physiological aspects between the marine ecotype and the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus as well as between the two Bothnian Sea species F. vesiculosus and F. radicans.

    The result in the study indicates a higher number of water soluble organic compounds in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the brackish ecotype. These compounds are suggested to be compatible solutes and be due to an intertidal and sublittoral adaptation, respectively; where the intertidal ecotype needs the compounds as a protection from oxygen radicals produced during high irradiation at low tide. The sublittoral ecotype might have lost the ability to synthesize these compound/compounds due to its habitat adaptation. The mannitol content is also higher in the marine ecotype compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and this is suggested to be due to both higher level of irradiance and higher salinity at the growth site.

    77 K fluorescence emission spectra and immunoblotting of D1 and PsaA proteins indicate that both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus as well as F. radicans have an uneven ratio of photosystem II/photosystem I (PSII/PSI) with an overweight of PSI. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus however, indicates a larger light-harvesting antenna of PSII compared to the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans. Distinct differences in 77 K fluorescence emission spectra between the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans confirm that this is a reliable method to use to separate these species.

    The marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus has a higher photosynthetic maximum (Pmax) compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans whereas both the brackish species have similar Pmax. A reason for higher Pmax in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans is the greater relative amount of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The reason for higher Pmax in marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compare to the brackish ecotype however is not due to the relative amount of Rubisco and further studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco is recommended. Treatments of the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus in higher salinity than the Bothnian Sea natural water indicate that the most favourable salinity for high Pmax is 10 psu, followed by 20 psu. One part of the explanation to a high Pmax in 10 psu is a greater relative amount of PsaA protein in algae treated in 10 psu. The reason for greater amount of PsaA might be that the algae need to produce more ATP, and are able to have a higher flow of cyclic electron transport around PSI to serve a higher rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco. However, studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco in algae treated in similar salinities as in present study are recommended to confirm this theory.


  • 102.
    Göransson, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Internal Tar/CH4 Reforming in Biomass Dual Fluidised Bed Gasifiers towards Fuel Synthesis2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of high-quality syngas from biomass gasification in a dual fluidised bed gasifier (DFBG) has made a significant progress in R&D and Technology demonstration. An S&M scale bio-automotive fuel plant close to the feedstock resources is preferable as biomass feedstock is widely sparse and has relatively low density, low heating value and high moisture content. This requires simple, reliable and cost-effective production of clean and good syngas. Indirect DFBGs, with steam as the gasification agent, produce a syngas of high content H2 and CO with 12-20 MJ/mn3 heating value. The Mid Sweden University (MIUN) gasifier, built for research on synthetic fuel production, is a dual fluidised bed gasifier. Reforming of tars and CH4 (except for methanation application) in the syngas is a major challenge for commercialization of biomass fluidised-bed gasification technology towards automotive fuel production. A good syngas from DFBGs can be obtained by optimised design and operation of the gasifier, by the use of active catalytic bed material and internal reforming. This thesis presents a series of experimental tests with different operation parameters, reforming of tar and CH4 with catalytic bed material and reforming of tar and CH4 with catalytic internal reformer.


    The first test was carried out to evaluate the optimal operation and performance of the MIUN gasifier. The test provides basic information for temperature control in the combustor and the gasifier by the bed material circulation rate.


     After proven operation and performance of the MIUN gasifier, an experimental study on in-bed material catalytic reforming of tar/CH4 is performed to evaluate the catalytic effects of the olivine and Fe-impregnated olivine (10%wtFe/olivine Catalyst) bed materials, with reference to non-catalytic silica sand operated in the mode of dual fluidised beds (DFB). A comparative experimental test is then carried out with the same operation condition and bed-materials but when the gasifier was operated in the mode of single bubbling fluidised bed (BFB). The behaviour of catalytic and non-catalytic bed materials differs when they are used in the DFB and the BFB. Fe/olivine and olivine in the BFB mode give lower tar and CH4 content together with higher H2+CO concentration, and higher H2/CO ratio, compared to DFB mode. It is hard to show a clear advantage of Fe/olivine over olivine regarding tar/CH4 catalytic reforming. 


    In order to significantly reduce the tar/CH4 contents, an internal reformer, referred to as the FreeRef reformer, is developed for in-situ catalytic reforming of tar and CH4 using Ni-catalyst in an environment of good gas-solids contact at high temperature.  A study on the internal reformer filled with and without Ni-catalytic pellets was carried out by evaluation of the syngas composition and tar/CH4 content. It can be concluded that the reformer with Ni-catalytic pellets clearly gives a higher H2 content together with lower CH4 and tar contents in the syngas than the reformer without Ni-catalytic pellets. The gravimetric tar content decreases from 25 g/m3 down to 5 g/m3 and the CH4 content from 11% down below 6% in the syngas.


    The MIUN gasifier has a unique design suitable for in-bed tar/CH4 catalytic reforming and continuously internal regeneration of the reactive bed material. The novel design in the MIUN gasifier increases the gasification efficiency, suppresses the tar generation and upgrades the syngas composition. 


  • 103.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The juggle and struggle of everyday life. Gender, division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This thesis explores the division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts. Work (both paid and unpaid) is an arena where gender order is emphasised. Work task specialisation is often based on our ideas of femininity and masculinity. A gender order results in different chances and possibilities in life for men and women, influencing for example access to paid work. Genders are constructed differently across contexts, and countries policies and norms seem to play an important role in for instance the possibilities to combine work and children. Also, gender is important for the understanding and for the experiences of health and well-being. Two main research question are investigated in this thesis. First, how do gendered work division and work-family perceptions relate to well-being? Second, what are the contextual differences (policies and norms) with regard to gendered time use, gender attitude, work-family perceptions and well-being? Methods The thesis is based on data from three sources: the European Social Survey (ESS), the International Social Survey programme (ISSP) and Multinational Time Use Data (MTUS). With these sources, the aim is to capture patterns of behaviours, attitudes and perceptions on both individual level and national level. The methods used are logistic regression (Study I), OLS regression (Study III) and two different types of multilevel analyses (Studies II and IV). Results The results indicate that work-family perceptions are more important for individuals' well-being than actual time spent on paid and unpaid work. Further, the relationship between experiences of imbalance between work and family and low well-being differs by country. In countries where labour markets are more gender-equal the experience of imbalance to a higher degree relate to lower well-being, indicating that those who do experience imbalance in these gender-equal countries report lower levels of well-being than in countries which are less gender-equal. There have been changes in division of work and attitudes towards women's employment over the last few decades. Institutions and policies play a role for the division of work, and to some extent for changes in work task specialisation, as well as attitudes towards women's employment. Conclusion Central findings in this thesis show that it seems as if the experience of balance in life is more important for individuals' well-being than time use. The context in which gender is constructed is important for the relationship between paid work and family life imbalance and well-being and should be taken into consideration in cross-country studies. The fact that individuals in more gender-equal countries report lower well-being when experiencing imbalance could be a result of the multiple burden for both men and women in more gender-equal contexts. Also, the role of context and policies for attitudes and behaviours in relation to work is complex, and although this thesis adds to previous knowledge more research is needed. From a gender perspective the conclusion is that there are dual expectations in relation to work. In more gender-equal countries, women are expected to be equal to men by participating in the labour market. Meanwhile women still have the main responsibility for the home. Thus, it seems as if the equality of work is based on a masculine norm where paid work is highly valued.

  • 104.
    Haller, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Soil Remediation and Sustainable Development : Creating Appropriate Solutions for Marginalized Regions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this doctoral thesis is appropriate soil remediation methods for marginalized regions that go beyond pollution reduction targets and include strategies to support sustainable development. Contaminated soil from industrial or agricultural activities poses potential health threats to animals and humans and also threatens economic systems by making land unsuitable for agriculture and other economic purposes. Remediation of contaminated sites in marginalized regions such as rural areas in developing countries or sparsely populated regions in industrialized countries, need strategies that meet a different set of criteria compared to urban industrial sites in order to be appropriate. A pilot-scale experimental station was built to assess the feasibility of using organic by-products to enhance the degradation of diesel fuel. It was demonstrated that bioremediation based on the use of readily available organic by-products as amendments or phytoremediation based on locally present plants can be appropriate choices of technology in marginalized regions. Systematic sustainability assessments of the regions local environmental and social context of the contaminated site are necessary to design appropriate bioremediation projects. The inclusion of ecological engineering into the framework for strategic sustainable development, as an integrated planning guide, was demonstrated by two case studies to give valuable input to the strategic process when bioremediation is used as a tool to reach sustainability goals. Results from pilot-scale experiments confirm that whey can significantly increase the degradation rate of diesel fuel, but the slow overall degradation rates due to the high clay content in ultisol (a common tropical soil) could be a considerable constraint for efficient pollutant removal in full scale applications. Results from an experiment in soil cylinders show that the vertical migration of added microorganisms was limited in dense soils. Three species of amaranth tested in the field experiment effectively bioaccumulated toxaphene and other persistent organic pollutants which make them potentially interesting candidates for phytoremediation in the region.

  • 105.
    Hallin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Att vara sjuksköterska: En studie av sjuksköterskeprofessionen avseende omvårdnad, handledning och utveckling2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to elucidate Registered Nurses’ (RNs) experiences of the nursing profession regarding nursing, preceptoring and professional development. The thesis includes two qualitative studies (I, II) and two quantitative studies (III, IV). Fifteen RNs were interviewed six years after graduation (I, II). These nurses were among the first in Sweden to graduate from the 3‐year Bachelor programme in nursing. Preceptors for nursing students in clinical education answered a questionnaire regarding experiences of the preceptor role before/after the introduction of a preceptor model (III, IV). In the studies related to preceptoring 113 RNs participated in 2000 (III), and 109 (III) respectively 142 (IV) RNs participated in 2006, with similar response rates of roughly 71% (III, IV). A content analysis (I, II), and statistic analysis (III, IV) were performed. The analysis showed that RNs graduates from the Bachelor programme in nursing, with six years nursing experience, had found their niche (II). None regretted the choice of profession. Several were under stimulated at the same time as they oscillated between strain and stimulation (I) and between obstacles and opportunities (II). The majority thought that growing old in nursing could prove to be difficult (I, II). The introduction of the preceptor model, with its support to both nursing students and preceptors, showed how to organize co‐operation between preceptors and teachers (III) successfully. The majority of the preceptors were satisfied with the support they had received and experienced a feeling of confidence in their role as preceptor (III). However, specialist nurses and non‐specialist‐nurses valued nursing students differently (IV). The necessity of adopting focused learning emerged as a pattern (I, II, III, IV). The results of the thesis show that RNs work in a complex profession that demands skilled nurses to accomplish the tasks they are required to perform. To successful nursing, preceptoring and development the teaching environment is pre‐dominant. It is an environment where theory, practice, research, feedback and reflection are interwoven and where support, co‐operation and professional development are the guiding‐stars. The thesis shows an increased co‐operation between the healthcare organization and university is necessary in order to adapt the nursing education and profession to the ever increasing demands in health care. The results of the thesis are a contribution to continued discussions regarding nursing science and RN’s work from both educational and health care context.

  • 106.
    Hallqvist, Carina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Passion for Participation: The Importance of Creating Support for Motivation2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a study of an open source software project that focuses on the software development of an e-service in a municipal context. The focus is on environmental factors that either limit or promote the motivation to participate in the open source project, the "Parent-Teacher Meeting" project, a web-based communication and information channel whose purpose is to enhance the contacts between schools and parents. The empirical context is situated at the point where traditional information systems (IS) development meets new perspectives regarding organizational structures and boundaries and, as such, provides example of ongoing cross-organizational activities that break current local organizational standards. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of motivational factors for participation and adopts a sociocultural view on the topic motivation to participate.

    The empirical material was collected through interviews, conversations, and meetings. Being a subproject (i.e. an initiative to develop an open source software application) within a triple helix project I found an extensive number of stakeholders. The choice was made to focus on the application development; thereby a central group of participants within the development project team was found and these became the focus within the study. Moreover, I have, in this thesis, chosen to conduct a contextual description of the participants and the course of events that lead to the start of the project of study. This has been done so as to present the context, which is the focus for this study, to the reader and to be able to use these descriptions within the analysis.

    I have, methodologically, approached the problem from a descriptive angle with an interpretative character using a qualitative case study design. Within the thesis, the means by which the case study has been conducted is presented; i.e. the decision regarding research focus, design, and my role as researcher. In relation to the data collection, the main source has been semi-structured interviews, which is consistent with an interpretive case study character and in which my intent is to highlight conditions and events that are important to both groups within the development team.

    To support the investigation of those factors that can explain and assist with the interpretation of my empirical data, my description and interpretations are built on a theoretical framework based on concepts from IS theories and theories relating to human motivation. The framework, self-determination theory (SDT), is used as a lens to direct the focus onto the situated conditions that influence how individuals experience their participation within the software development project. Given the theoretical basis of an analytical comparison of ideal types of software development constructs, together with influences from motivational theories, the analytical framework used for collecting occurrences of motivational behavior and sociocultural conditions has been constructed.

    After the findings and my interpretation of them with the assistance of my analytical framework have been presented, a discussion and conclusions are then detailed. The conclusions of the study are argued as being relevant as an explanation for the understanding of intrinsic and internalized extrinsic motivation to participate in a hybrid open source projects. The study contributes to our understanding of some of the challenges that are to be considered when putting together and managing systems or software development processes. In this way, the study may provide some basis for improving and meeting new demands regarding how development is adopted in a mixed scenario and this provides valuable knowledge to both practice and IS research.

  • 107.
    Halvarsson, Sören
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Manufacture of straw MDF and fibreboards2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop an economical, sustainable, and environmentally friendly straw Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) process, capable of full-scale manufacturing and to produce MDF of requested quality. The investigated straw was based on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryzae sativa L.). In this thesis three different methods were taken for manufacture of straw MDF; (A) wheat-straw fibre was blowline blended with melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF), (B) rice-straw fibre was mixed with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in a resin drum-blender, and (C) wheat-straw fibre was activated in the blowline by the addition of Fenton’s reagent (H2O2/Fe2+) for production of non-resin MDF panels.  The MUF/wheat straw MDF panels were approved according to the requirements of the EN standard for MDF (EN 622-5, 2006). The MDI/rice-straw MDF panels were approved according to requirements of the standard for MDF of the American National Standard Institute (ANSI A208.2-2002). The non-resin wheat-straw panels showed mediocre MDF panel properties and were not approved according to the requirements in the MDF standard. The dry process for wood-based MDF was modified for production of straw MDF. The straw MDF process was divided into seven main process steps.

    1. 1.       Size-reduction (hammer-milling) and screening of straw
    2. 2.       Wetting and heating of straw
    3. 3.       Defibration
    4. 4.       Resination of straw fibre
    5. 5.       Mat forming
    6. 6.       Pre-pressing
    7. 7.       Hot-pressing




    The primary results were that the straw MDF process was capable of providing satisfactory straw MDF panels based on different types of straw species and adhesives. Moreover, the straw MDF process was performed in pilot-plant scale and demonstrated as a suitable method for producing straw MDF from straw bales to finished straw MDF panels. In the environmental perspective the agricultural straw-waste is a suitable source for producing MDF to avoid open field burning and to capture carbon dioxide (CO2), the biological sink for extended time into MDF panels, instead of converting straw directly into bio energy or applying straw fibre a few times as recycled paper. Additionally, the straw MDF panels can be recycled or converted to energy after utilization.

    A relationship between water retention value (WRV) of resinated straw fibres, the thickness swelling of corresponding straw MDF panels, and the amount of applied adhesive was determined. WRV of the straw fibre increased and the TS of straw MDF declined as a function of the resin content. The empirical models developed were of acceptable significance and the R2 values were 0.69 (WRV) and 0.75 (TS), respectively. Reduced thickness swelling of MDF as the resin content is increased is well-known. The increase of WRV as a function of added polymers is not completely established within the science of fibre swelling. Fortunately, more fundamental research can be initiated and likely a simple method for prediction of thickness swelling of MDF by analysis of the dried and resinated MDF fibres is possible.

  • 108.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hydrogel-based pH-sensors: Development and characterisation of optical and electrical pH sensors based on stimuli-responsive hydrogels2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure the chemical parameter pH is of high importance in many areas. With new government regulations and evolving markets, there is a strong motivation for improving such measurements and conducting research on new types of pH sensors and sensor materials. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels (a group of polymers) have attracted a lot of attention in recent decades, due to their ability to be customized to suit many applications. One specific area where they have attracted attention is pH sensor technology.

    Two stimuli-responsive hydrogels are used in this thesis. One is a non-toxic hydrogel, 1,4-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,4-AOBAE). Although it was previously used in drug- and DNA- delivery systems, it has not (to my knowledge) been used in a sensor configuration, and thus it is interesting to study. The second hydrogel, 1,3-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,3-AOBAE), is an improved variant of the first one. This improved hydrogel was synthesized because the original hydrogel crystallizes at room temperature, which meant that it was not optimal for various coating techniques. This hydrogel was characterized and verified for pH responsivity in two sensor configurations: electrical and optical. Designing a hydrogel for a specific application can be a complex procedure due to the many synthesizing parameters. For example, increasing a hydrogel's mechanical strength by introducing a higher degree of cross linking, leads to a smaller mesh size, which in turn leads to a lower diffusion rate and less solution absorption. The two hydrogels examined in this thesis respond to pH changes by absorbing or desorbing water; this change in the hydrogel's water content also changes its effective refractive index and permittivity. These changes can be measured using optical or electrical sensor systems. Three types of sensor systems were used in this thesis to verify the hydrogel's pH response and to ensure that they are suitable for use in thin-film techniques on various substrates (e.g. glass and plastic). The experimental results prove that these hydrogels are suitable for use in both electrical and optical sensor configurations. For electrical systems, a pH range of approximately 3-12 was achieved, and for optical, the range was approximately 2-12. These ranges can likely be improved, as the sensor film delaminated from the substrate at low pHs due to adhesion problems and as measurements above 12 were not conducted.

    The findings of this thesis could, after more research, have strong implications for the development of improved pH-sensor configurations, especially for medical and healthcare applications and in environmental monitoring.

  • 109.
    Hamrin, Solange
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Communicative leadership: (Re)Contextualizing a Swedish concept in theory and within organizational settings2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to theorize about the concept of communicative leadership as well as explore the construction of the concept in three Swedish national and multinational organizations. ‘Communicative leadership’ is a concept often used in Swedish organizations and, in practice, refers to leaders’ communication competence related to others, and specifically toward her or his employees. It generally assumes that communicative leaders are better communicators than other leaders. Organizations using the concept accordingly evaluate and develop leaders’ communication competence. The thesis consists of five studies; one grounded in qualitative and quantitative literature on leadership and leadership communication and the other four using interviews with leaders and employees as datasets. The first article extends our understanding of communicative leadership with four communication behaviors to be applied toward developing leaders and defining communicative leadership with focus on leaders’ communicative behavior towards others. The results from the other four articles further contribute to our understanding of communicative leadership and they were obtained applying a constructionist and discursive framework in order to analyze the connections of contexts to the discourses of communicative leadership and highlight the socially constructed nature of communicative leadership. The results emphasize that different contexts found locally have consequences for the relation between leaders and employees, constitutively affecting local discourses and context. In addition to defining and conceptualizing the notion, this thesis thus also clarifies the roles of leaders and employees in leadership practices, highlights how micro- and macro-contexts interplay and what elements interact with them, mutually influencing consequences for perceptions and constructions of leadership locally. Furthermore, the empirical studies demonstrate that communicative leadership discourses do not just reveal contexts and how they are constituted and perceived; leaders’ and employees’ discourses can also reveal which changes organizational members desire to implement.

  • 110.
    Hansson, Anneli
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Arbete med skolutveckling - En potentiell gränszon mellan verksamheter?: Ett verksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv på en svensk skolas arbete över tid med att verksamhetsintegrera IT2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en skola som historiskt präglats av en differentierad arbetsorganisation och autonoma traditioner kan ett skolövergripande arbete med att verksamhetsintegrera informations­teknik antas ställa aktörerna inför en rad utmaningar som involverar både omskapande och nyskapande processer. Föreliggande studie utgör ett bidrag till att med en holistisk och verksamhetsteoretisk ansats utforska arbete med förändring, i detta fall ett arbete med att verksamhetsintegrera modern teknik, i skärningspunkten mellan en skolas arbete med att sprida och utveckla teknikbruk över skolan samt dess lärares arbete med pedagogisk praxisförändring. Studiens övergripande fråga löd: Hur kan arbete med skol­utveckling förstås och förklaras i det potentiella spänningsfältet mellan arbete med skolförändring och lärares arbete med eller motstånd mot pedagogisk praxisförändring? Syftet var att utforska den förändringsprocess som uppstod när en skola satte i sikte att utveckla ”digitala” kompetenser och IT-stödd undervisning inom dess verksamhets­område liksom att över tid följa lärare, IT-pedagoger och skolledare i detta arbete. Studien genomfördes över tre år mellan hösten 2008 och våren 2011 som en etnografiskt orien­terad fallstudie vid en 7–9 skola i en mellan­stor svensk stad. Data­produktionen skedde genom närvaro vid skolan och på nätet genom deltagande och ickedeltagande observationer, genom informella samtal, semistrukturerade intervjuer, dokument­insamling samt genom en enkät. Resultatet visar framför allt hur verksamhets­integreringen av IT, bland de lärare som utforskar informationstekniken, i hög utsträckning motiveras av undervisningsrelaterade och elevutvecklande behov, medan arbetet med att leda skolans arbete med verksam­hetsintegrering av IT i högre utsträckning motiveras av organisations­relaterade behov, samt att dessa skilda motiv framträder på olika och systemiskt inkonsekvent sätt inom skolan. Utifrån studiens resultat formuleras tre interrelaterade utmaningar för skolut­veckling. Dessa rör (a) praxis- och objektsförståelse, vilket uppfattas ha betydelse för möjligheter att åstad­komma gemensam riktning i ett kollektivt och flerstämmigt arbete, samt (b) förutsättningar för gränsöver­skridande lärprocesser inom skolan mellan lärare sinsemellan liksom mellan lärare och skolledning jämte (c) processledarskap och dess förutsättningar.

  • 111.
    He, Jie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Gasification-based Biorefinery for Mechanical Pulp Mills2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern concept of “biorefinery” is dominantly based on chemical pulp mills to create more value than cellulose pulp fibres, and energy from the dissolved lignins and hemicelluloses. This concept is characterized by the conversion of biomass into various bio-based products. It includes thermochemical processes such as gasification and fast pyrolysis. In thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) mills, the feedstock available to the gasification-based biorefinery is significant, including logging residues, bark, fibre material rejects, bio-sludges and other available fuels such as peat, recycled wood and paper products. On the other hand, mechanical pulping processes consume a great amount of electricity, which may account for up to 40% of the total pulp production cost. The huge amount of purchased electricity can be compensated for by self-production of electricity from gasification, or the involved cost can be compensated for by extra revenue from bio-transport fuel production. This work is to study co-production of bio-automotive fuels, bio-power, and steam via gasification of the waste biomass streams in the context of the mechanical pulp industry. Ethanol and substitute natural gas (SNG) are chosen to be the bio-transport fuels in the study. The production processes of biomass-to-ethanol, SNG, together with heat and power, are simulated with Aspen Plus. Based on the model, the techno-economic analysis is made to evaluate the profitability of bio-transport fuel production when the process is integrated into a TMP mill.The mathematical modelling starts from biomass gasification. Dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG) is chosen for syngas production. From the model, the yield and composition of the syngas and the contents of tar and char can be calculated. The model has been evaluated against the experimental results measured on a 150

    KWth Mid Sweden University (MIUN) DFBG. As a reasonable result, the tar content in the syngas decreases with the gasification temperature and the steam to biomass (S/B) ratio. The biomass moisture content is a key parameter for a DFBG to be operated and maintained at a high gasification temperature. The model suggests that it is difficult to keep the gasification temperature above 850 ℃ when the biomass moisture content is higher than 15.0 wt.%. Thus, a certain amount of biomass or product gas needs to be added in the combustor to provide sufficient heat for biomass devolatilization and steam reforming.For ethanol production, a stand-alone thermo-chemical process is designed and simulated. The techno-economic assessment is made in terms of ethanol yield, synthesis selectivity, carbon and CO conversion efficiencies, and ethanol production cost. The calculated results show that major contributions to the production cost are from biomass feedstock and syngas cleaning. A biomass-to-ethanol plant should be built over 200 MW.In TMP mills, wood and biomass residues are commonly utilized for electricity and steam production through an associated CHP plant. This CHP plant is here designed to be replaced by a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant or a biomass-to-SNG (BtSNG) plant including an associated heat & power centre. Implementing BIGCC/BtSNG in a mechanical pulp production line might improve the profitability of a TMP mill and also help to commercialize the BIGCC/BtSNG technologies by taking into account of some key issues such as, biomass availability, heat utilization etc.. In this work, the mathematical models of TMP+BIGCC and TMP+BtSNG are respectively built up to study three cases: 1) scaling of the TMP+BtSNG mill (or adding more forest biomass logging residues in the gasifier for TMP+BIGCC); 2) adding the reject fibres in the gasifier; 3) decreasing the TMP SEC by up to 50%.The profitability from the TMP+BtSNG mill is analyzed in comparison with the TMP+BIGCC mill. As a major conclusion, the scale of the TMP+BIGCC/BtSNG mill, the prices of electricity and SNG are three strong factors for the implementation of BIGCC/BtSNG in a TMP mill. A BtSNG plant associated to a TMP mill should be built in a scale above 100 MW in biomass thermal input. Comparing to the case of TMP+BIGCC, the NR and IRR of TMP+BtSNG are much lower. Political instruments to support commercialization of bio-transport fuel are necessary.


  • 112.
    Hellström, Lisbeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    On the wood chipping process: a study on basic mechanisms in order to optimize chip properties for pulping2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In both the chemical and mechanical pulping process, the logs are cut into wood chips by a disc chipper before fibre separation. To make the wood chipping process more efficient, one have to investigate in detail the coupling between process parameters and the quality of the chips. One objective of this thesis was to obtain an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind the creation of wood chips. Another objective with the thesis was to investigate whether it was possible to, in a way tailor the chipping process so as to reduce the energy consumption in a following mechanical refining process.

    Both experimental and analytical/numerical approaches have been taken in this work. The first part of the experimental investigations, were performed with an in-house developed chipping device and a digital speckle photography equipment.

    The results from the experimental investigation showed that the friction between the log and chipping tool is probably one crucial factor for the chip formation. Further more it was found that the indentation process is approximately self-similar, and that the stress field over the entire crack-plane is critical for chip creation.

    The developed analytical model predicts the normal and shear strain distribution and to be more specific, the model can predict the compressive stresses parallel to the fibre direction for an assumed linear elastic and orthotropic material. The analytical distributions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the corresponding distributions obtained from a finite element analysis.

    To be able to study the chipping process under realistic conditions, which for example means to use chipping rates representative for a real wood chipper, a laboratory chipper was developed. Details regarding the chipper and how to evaluate the force measurements are given together with an example of how the force on the cutting tool (the knife) varies with time during cutting.

    To investigate the influence of a certain chipping process parameter, the chips were after production in the laboratory chipper, refined in a pilot refiner during conditions optimized for TMP (thermomechanical pulp) and CTMP (chemithermomechanical pulp) processes. It was concluded that the details concerning the chip process had a large impact on e.g. the energy consumption in both first stage and second stage refining. Results showing this are given in this thesis.

  • 113.
    Hermansson, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Shift work and cardiovascular disease2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shift work is often defined as working time outside daytime hours (06:00 to 18:00). In recent years, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. While some studies support the associations, others do not. Therefore, more research is needed. The aim of this thesis was to further study the association between shift work and CVD. This was addressed by performing four studies, one analysed if shift workers had an increased risk of ischemic stroke, the second study analysed whether shift workers had an increased risk of short-term mortality (case fatality)after a myocardial infarction (MI). The third study analysed if shift work interacts with other risk factors for MI and the fourth study analysed if parental history of CVD interacted with shift work on the risk of MI. The studies were performed using logistic regression analyses and additive interaction analyses in two different case-control databases. Shift workers did not have an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Male shift workers had an increased risk of death within 28 days after a MI. Shift work interacts with some CVD risk factors and interacts with paternal history of CVD and the risk of MI for males. The findings from this thesis provide new evidence showing that shift work is in different ways associated with an increased risk of MI and related mortality, but not with ischemic stroke. However, more research is needed to clarify and characterise these results.

  • 114.
    Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Employment Status and Inequalities in Health Outcomes: Population-based Studies from Gävleborg County2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: From a public health perspective, it is important not only to improve and maintain health, but also to promote equality in health. Epidemiological research has showed the importance of work and unemployment in the development of socio-economic health inequalities, and peoples life chances are suggested to be conditioned by participation or exclusion from the labour market. The most recent economic recession has brought further changes to the labour market that might have aggravated the already multifaceted image of inequalities in health. Gävleborg County was one of the hardest hit counties in Sweden, which experienced a myriad of changes in the labour market that went beyond those of the Swedish national average, in terms of increase in flexible forms of employment, factory closures, and lay-offs. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between employment status and health-related inequalities in Gävleborg County, Sweden. In addition, the Specific objectives for the thesis were to: assess the relationship between employment status and self-reported health in Gävleborg (Study I); to estimate the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation during the economic recession in Gävleborg (Study II); to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among economically active people living in the Municipality of Gävle (Study III) and to assess experiences and perceptions of well-being after involuntary job loss in Gävle (Study IV).

    Methods: Study I and II in this thesis used data from the 2010 Health in Equal Terms survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in Gävleborg County in Sweden. A total of 4,245 individuals, aged 16–65 years were included in the analyses. Study III was performed in Wave 1 (baseline survey) of the Gävle Household, Labour Market Dynamics and Health Outcomes survey (GHOLDH), a panel survey with household as the follow-up unit. A total of 241 persons completed a self-administered postal questionnaire which collected information on the employment status and psychological health (anxiety and depression) among persons aged 18–65 years. The thesis used descriptive analyses and logistic regression models to describe and explore the relationship between employment status, self-reported health and suicidal ideation in Gävleborg County (Studies I and II). Descriptive analysis of means and a multiple regression analysis for adjusted means of HADS, were used in order to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among economically active persons residing in the Gävle Municipality (Study III). Study IV used a qualitative approach to gain a deeper understanding of how involuntarily unemployed persons in Gävlexperceive their well-being. Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28–62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts in Study IV were analysed using thematic analysis.

    Results: In Study I, the prevalence of poor self-reported health (SRH) was twice as high in the group of people who were not employed (42%) compared to the employed group (21.6%). Individuals outside the labour market had odds of poor health of 2.64 (Cl 2.28–3.05) compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other covariates reduced the risk slightly to 2.10 (1.69–2.60), but remained statistically significant. Moreover, other variables such as long-standing illness, age, income and lack of social support were associated with self-reported poor health. In Study II, among those not employed, 11.2% had been in a situation where they had seriously considered taking their life (at some time during the past 12 months). The corresponding figure for those employed was 2.9%. Unadjusted results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that people who were not employed had about a four times higher risk of suicidal ideation, with an OR of 4.21 (CI: 3.14–5.64) compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other covariates, reduced the risk from 4.21(CI 3.14–5.64) in model I, to 1.73 (CI 1.16–2.57) in model IV, but remained statistically significant. In addition, other variables were associated with suicidal ideation. In Study III, the prevalence and risk of anxiety and depression were high among people who were out of work. In the multiple regression analysis, compared to employed people, those who were not employed had a risk of anxiety of 7.76 (5.97–9.75) and 4.67 (3.60–5.74) for depression. Study IV revealed six different themes from the interviews: Work was perceived as the basis for belonging; loss of work affected people’s social life and consumption patterns due to changes in their financial situation. Feelings of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness were reported, affecting the respondents’ physical well-being. Longer duration of unemployment increased the respondents’ negative emotions. Activities, structure, and affiliation in other contexts were reported as part of their strategy for coping with poor mental health.

    Conclusion: This thesis found a statistically significant relationship between being outside the labour market and poor SRH, a high risk of suicidal ideation, anxiety, and depression during the recent economic recession. The relationship between employment status and SRH was partially explained by socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle variables. In addition, the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation was, for the most part, explained by demographic, socio-economic and self-reported psychological variables. Atxithe municipal level, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was higher among those who were out of the labour market as compared to those who were employed and the odds of anxiety and depression were higher among people out of the labour market, but this was less prominent for depression than for anxiety. Job loss created feelings of loss of dignity and belonging as a human being. The participants experienced feelings of worry, insecurity, and stress due to their changed financial situation, which in turn led to isolation and loss of self-esteem. Social support and having activities other than work gave structure and meaning to everyday life. The results of this thesis indicate a need for early detection and potential treatment of people out of the labour force and for being aware of the increased risk of poor health symptoms and disorders among unemployed individuals. The findings also indicate a need for primary prevention strategies, implying that policy-makers must pay attention to the health status of those who are out of work, especially during times of combined economic hardship and labour market fluctuations. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to shed further light on the mechanisms through which employment status and conditions impact physical and psychological health outcomes.

  • 115.
    Holmström, Sara J M
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Organic acids and siderophores in forest soil solution2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Hoppstadius, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Mäns våld mot kvinnor: Diskurser och kunskap i det sociala arbetets praktik2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines knowledge and discourses guiding social services’ work related to male violence against women. The focus of the research questions is on discourses on male violence against women, social workers’ knowledge and understandings of these issues. The thesis has a feminist and an intersectional perspective and is based on two studies. The empirical data in the first study consists of five study guides published by the National Board of Health and Welfare. Carol Bacchi's policy approach What’s the Problem Represented to Be? and Norman Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis were used in the qualitative analysis. The second study consists of survey data obtained from social workers occupied in social services in three Swedish municipalities. The thesis reveals three primary results. First, male violence is framed in gender-neutral terms, and the violence is described as a problem in relationships and/or as family violence. Second, neither the study guides nor the social workers pay particular attention to structural causes, and do not problematise male superiority. Third, the knowledge and discourses on men’s violence against women centre around individual needs and causes of violence. In particular, they focus on the needs of the groups of women that the Government considers particularly vulnerable to violence. The latter leads to women being collectivized and men's responsibility for the violence, in particular Swedish men, and the link between violence, equality and other social structures, being neglected. Professional experience with cases where violence occurs and education in the area are factors that social workers consider contribute to increased knowledge. Despite this, respondents with long working experience, high education and continuing education state that they lack knowledge of men's violence against women. Although many social workers indicated that they lack knowledge, the result revealed that they only use knowledge-enhancing guidelines to a limited extent. This thesis contributes with knowledge of the importance of language use for how we understand men's violence against women. The results can be used as a basis for questioning and challenging prevailing norms and perceptions in society about men's violence against women.

  • 117.
    Hummelgård, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Nanoscaled Structures of Chlorate Producing Electrodes2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium chlorate is mainly used for production of chlorine dioxide (a pulp bleaching agent). Sodium chlorate is produced by an electrochemical process where chloride ions (from sodium chloride dissolved in water) are oxidized to chlorine on the anodes and hydrogen is evolved on the cathodes. The anode of this process consists of a metal plate coated with a catalytically active metal oxide film. The electrocatalytic properties of the anode coating film have been widely investigated due to the great importance of these electrodes in the electrochemical industry. The material properties are, however, not as well investigated, and the studies described in this thesis are an attempt to remedy this.

    Several standard material characterization methods were used, such as SEM, TEM, AFM, EDX, XRD, porosimetry and DSC. Also, a novel model system based on spin coated electrode films on smooth substrates was developed. The model system provided a way to design samples suitable for e.g. TEM, where the sample thickness is limited to maximum of 100 nm. This is possible due to the ability to control the film thickness by the spinning velocity when using the spin coating technique.

    It was shown here that the anode coating has a nanostructure. It consists of grains, a few tens of nanometers across. The nanostructure leads to a large effective area and thus provides an explanation of the superior catalytic properties of these coatings. The grains were also shown to be monocrystalline. The size of these grains and its origin was investigated. The calcination temperature, the precursor salt and (if any) doping material all affected the grain size. A higher calcination temperature yielded larger grains and doping with cobalt resulted in smaller grains and therefore a larger real area of the coating. Some preparation conditions also affected the microstructure of the coating; such as substrate roughness. The microstructure is for example the cracked-mud structure. A smoother substrate gave a lower crack density.

    The cathode of chlorate production is usually an uncoated metal plate, therefore 'less catalytically active'. It is, however, possible to activate the cathode by for example in situ additions to the electrolyte. It was shown here that sufficient addition of molybdate to the electrolyte resulted in a molybdenum film deposited on the cathode and thereby an increase of its surface area and an activation the hydrogen evolution reaction.

  • 118.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    In-situ TEM Probing of Nanomaterials2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanomaterials because of their small size, may have special properties unlikely to be seen in ordinary types of materials. Nanomaterials like nanotubes,nanowires and nanoparticles are best studied at the nanoscale, vital but also problematic. In this thesis we use a transmission electron microscope (TEM)combined with a scanning tunneling microscope probe. This system allows TEM images to be captured and recorded into a movie together with recordedelectrical data for real time analysis. Using this method we found that the electrical conductivity of molybdenumbased nanowires Mo6S3I6 can be improved by current induced transformation. This might be a general method of improving nanowires which is of high valueif the wires are to be used in electrical circuits or field emission devices. The bending modulus for these nanowires were also determined, by an electromechanical resonance method, to 4.9 GPa. The sintering phase of silver nanoparticles, used in electrical conductive ink for printing electrical circuits, were studied by the in-situ TEM probing method. We observed that percolation path ways are formed and that the dispersive agent of the particles can be pyrolysed into a net of carbon with characteristics similar to graphite. We also developed a method for decorating nanowires and nanotubes with gold nanoparticles. Nanowire particle composites are often used in assembling more complex devices (electronic circuits) or for linking to organic molecules (biosensor applications) and existing particle decoration methods are either difficult or with low yield. By in situ TEM probing we found that carbon nanocages can be grown onto these gold nanoparticles. The size of the gold nanoparticles is controllable an thus the size of the nanocages. These nanocages may be used in medicine- or hydrogen storage-applications.

  • 119.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lokalpressens självbilder 1920-2010: Exemplet Gävleborg2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The newspaper press is in a state of flux, reflecting both technological, cultural, economic and political changes. The digitization of the media is expected to bring about major changes in the media landscape and many are predicting the demise of the traditional newspaper.

    However, the media landscape has always been in transition and the press has always had to adapt to new competing media as well as new economic circumstances. The focus of this study is on the meaning production of newspapers and the overarching question is how, at different times, newspapers have marketed their products, communicated their identities and legitimated their privileges.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the self-images of local newspapers in a historical perspective. It contributes to the study of the media history of the press by investigating how four local newspapers in the county of Gävleborg in Sweden have formulated and communicated their self-images over time. Self-image is defined broadly and contains different meanings of, and aspects on, the concept of newspaper. A common feature of the texts included in the empirical material of this study is that they, in different ways, describe what the newspaper is, what it does, how and/or why.

    The period studied comprises ninety years, from 1920 and the time of the modernisation of the Swedish press after the First World War, until 2010 and the changing media landscape of today. The overarching questions for this study are: (1) What aspects of newspaper (institution or individual newspaper, opinion making or news reporting, the organisation or the audience) have been emphasised in the meaning production at different times? (2) What differences and similarities are there between the different newspapers regarding the self-images? (3) How have the self-images changed over time?

    The study concludes with a historical periodisation covering the most important changes in the self-images. The period studied is divided into four sub-periods in which different aspects of newspaper have been prominent in the self-images: (1) Mobilization (1920-1945). The newspapers are described primarily as a means of political mobilization and the medium is understood as a political tool or weapon. (2) News reporting (1935-1965). The newspapers (and their supporting technologies, especially the teleprinter) are characterised as a fast and technologically sophisticated media between the readers and the world beyond the local. (3) Critique (1965-1995). The local newspapers portray themselves as scrutinizers of the local governments and others in power. (4) Construction (1995-2010). The newspapers start to describe themselves as constructors and maintainers of local communities and identities. In a globalized and boundless world, the local newspapers provide their readers with a sense of place and community.

    The overall conclusion of this dissertation is that the self-images of the local press has undergone significant changes in the period studied. What the press – according to itself – is, what it does, how and why, and to whom, are questions that have received very different answers at various moments in history.

  • 120.
    Häggström, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Att organisera en trygg och sammanhållen vårdkedja mellan IVA och allmän vårdavdelning.: En grundad teori om organisation, vård och samarbete i förflyttningsprocessen2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med avhandlingen var att generera en grundad teori om huvudproblemet i förflyttningsprocessen mellan intensivvårdsavdelningar (IVA) och allmänna vårdavdelningar, det vill säga den vård som ges; före, under och efter det att patienter förflyttats från intensivvård till allmän vårdavdelning. Avhandlingen består av 4 delstudier (I- IV) som ligger till grund för en slutlig övergripande teori. Datainsamling har skett med hjälp av fokusgruppsdiskussioner, individuella intervjuer, observationer samt en enkät. Data inhämtades från tre sjukhus och fyra IVA-avdelningar samt sex allmänna vårdavdelningar. Olika personalgrupper och närstående har varit i fokus beroende på delstudiens syfte. I de olika delstudierna har Grundad Teori (GT) (I, II, III) och mixed method (IV) använts som metod. De fyra delstudierna har slutligen syntetiseras till en övergripande Grundad Teori.


    Avhandlingen visar att samspelet kring IVA-patienters förflyttningar påverkas av sjukhusets organisations- och säkerhetskultur och hur vårdkedjan organiserats. Det som upplevdes vara huvudproblemet för de inblandade var att organisera en trygg och sammanhållen vårdkedja mellan IVA och allmän vårdavdelning. Detta inkluderade att på ett patientsäkert sätt överbrygga de olikheter och det glapp som fanns mellan vården och vårdkulturen på den personaltäta, högteknologiska intensivvårdsavdelningen jämfört med vården och den vårdkultur som återfanns på de allmänna vårdavdelningarna.   Resultatet i den övergripande teorin visade att ett centralt behov hos såväl personal som hos närstående, är att uppleva kontroll och delaktighet i förflyttningsprocessen (kärnkategori). Detta behov kunde tillgodoses genom att det fanns och delgavs rutiner och strategier för vården före, under och efter förflyttning, att upprätta ett kliniköverskridande samarbete, genom kompetens och kunskap, att resurser fanns och genom att ge en personcentrerad vård. Om personal och närstående upplevde egen kontroll och delaktighet i förflyttningsprocessen bidrog detta till att reducera oro och osäkerhet och till att underlätta samverkan och samordning mellan IVA och allmän vårdavdelning. När den egna kontrollen och delaktigheten däremot uteblev, ökade istället de negativa upplevelserna av ett stort glapp mellan IVA och de allmänna vårdavdelningarna och desto mer negativt framstod skillnaderna vara mellan de olika enheterna och istället uppstod ett revirtänkande och misstro mellan personalgrupperna på de inblandade avdelningarna. 

    Det fanns ett behov av ett gott samarbetsklimat samt en god organisations- och säkerhetskultur för en sammanhållen vårdkedja. Utöver detta påverkades också förflyttningprocessen av om avdelningen byggt upp en god lärandemiljö med fungerande teamwork och rutiner och strategier kring patientomflyttningar. För att kunna ge god vård genom vårdkedjan behövdes också resurser. Personalens intentioner var att ge god, personcentrerad vård genom hela processen men de fick oftast balansera dessa intentioner mot bristande resurser och de förutsättningar som gavs, i form av personalbrist, bristande vårdplatser och avsaknad av planering. Vårdkedjan mellan IVA och allmänna vårdavdelningar kräver en organisation och en kultur som främjar individers egen kontroll och delaktighet. Dessutom krävs det planering och strategier som främjar patientsäkerhet, samordning och kontinuitet samt en tydlig nedtrappningsfas av den högteknologiska vården. Resultatet visar vidare att sjuksköterskor och andra i vårdteamet kring den svårt sjuke patienten har en stor pedagogisk utmaning i att kvalitetssäkra informationsflödet och kunskapsöverföringen om vad som skall hända i processen för närstående och för patienter.

  • 121.
    Högberg, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    DNA-mediated self-assembly of nanostructures: theory and experiments2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Högström, John
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Quality of Democracy Around the Globe: A Comparative Study2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the quality of democracy, and its purpose is to examine which factors affect the varying levels of the quality of democracy in the stable democracies in the world. The research question posited in the study is: what explains the varying levels of the quality of democracy in the democratic countries in the world, and do political institutions matter? Theoretically, the quality of democracy is distinguished from other similar concepts employed in comparative politics, and what the quality of democracy stands for is clarified. The quality of democracy is defined in this study as: the level of legitimacy in a democratic system with respect to democratic norms such as political participation, political competition, political equality, and rule of law. In total, four dimensions of the quality of democracy are included that are considered to be very important dimensions of the quality of democracy. These dimensions are political participation, political competition, political equality, and the rule of law. To explain the variation in the quality of democracy, an explanatory model has been developed. The explanatory model consists of five different groups of independent variables: political institutional variables, socioeconomic variables, cultural variables, historical variables, and physical variables. Methodologically, a large-n, outcome-centric research design is employed and statistical analysis is used to examine what effect the five groups of independent variables have on the four dimensions of the quality of democracy. Empirically, the results show that cultural variables and political institutional variables outperform socioeconomic, historical, and physical variables in relation to their effect on the quality of democracy. Consequently, cultural and political institutional variables are the two most important groups of variables when explaining the variation in the quality of democracy in the democratic countries in the world. In relation to the other groups of variables, historical variables are slightly more important than socioeconomic variables when explaining the variation in the quality of democracy. The physical variables constitute the group of variables that has the least importance out of the five groups of variables when explaining the variation in the quality of democracy. In summary, the findings from the study show that the best way of increasing the level of the quality of democracy may be to choose political institutions such as parliamentarism as the executive power system and a proportional system as the electoral system. To put this clearly, to increase the possibility of democratic countries achieving a high level of the quality of democracy they should avoid majority electoral systems and presidential or semipresidential executive systems.

  • 123.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    An applied approach to numerically imprecise decision making2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that unguided decision making might lead to inefficient and nonoptimal decisions, decisions made at organizational levels seldom utilise decisionanalytical tools. Several gaps between the decision-makers and the computer baseddecision tools exist, and a main problem in managerial decision-making involves the lack of information and precise objective data, i.e. uncertainty and imprecision may be inherent in the decision situation. We believe that this problem might be overcome by providing computer based decision tools capable of handling the uncertainty inherent in real-life decision-making. At present, nearly all decision analytic software is only able to handle precise input, and no known software is capable of handling full scale imprecision, i.e. imprecise probabilities, values and weights, in the form of interval and comparative statements. There are, however, some theories which are able to handle some kind of uncertainty, and which deal with computational and implementational issues, but if they are never actually operationalised, they are of little real use for a decision-maker. Therefore, a natural question is how a reasonable decision analytical framework can be built based on prevailing interval methods, thus dealing with the problems of uncertain and imprecise input? Further, will the interval approach actually prove useful? The framework presented herein handles theoretical foundations for, and implementations of, imprecise multi-level trees, multi-criteria, risk analysis, together with several different evaluation options. The framework supports interval probabilities, values, and criteria weights, as well as comparative statements, also allowing for mixing probabilistic and multi-criteria decisions. The framework has also been field tested in a number of studies, proving the usefulness of the interval approach.

  • 124.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Energy Efficient and Programmable Architecture for Wireless Vision Sensor Node2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Vision Sensor Networks (WVSNs) is an emerging field which has attracted a number of potential applications because of smaller per node cost, ease of deployment, scalability and low power stand alone solutions. WVSNs consist of a number of wireless Vision Sensor Nodes (VSNs). VSN has limited resources such as embedded processing platform, power supply, wireless radio and memory.  In the presence of these limited resources, a VSN is expected to perform complex vision tasks for a long duration of time without battery replacement/recharging. Currently, reduction of processing and communication energy consumptions have been major challenges for battery operated VSNs. Another challenge is to propose generic solutions for a VSN so as to make these solutions suitable for a number of applications.

    To meet these challenges, this thesis focuses on energy efficient and programmable VSN architecture for machine vision systems which can classify objects based on binary data. In order to facilitate generic solutions, a taxonomy has been developed together with a complexity model which can be used for systems’ classification and comparison without the need for actual implementation. The proposed VSN architecture is based on tasks partitioning between a VSN and a server as well as tasks partitioning locally on the node between software and hardware platforms. In relation to tasks partitioning, the effect on processing, communication energy consumptions, design complexity and lifetime has been investigated.

    The investigation shows that the strategy, in which front end tasks up to segmentation, accompanied by a bi-level coding, are implemented on Field Programmable Platform (FPGA) with small sleep power, offers a generalized low complexity and energy efficient VSN architecture. The implementation of data intensive front end tasks on hardware reconfigurable platform reduces processing energy. However, there is a scope for reducing communication energy, related to output data. This thesis also explores data reduction techniques including image coding, region of interest coding and change coding which reduces output data significantly.

    For proof of concept, VSN architecture together with tasks partitioning, bi-level video coding, duty cycling and low complexity background subtraction technique has been implemented on real hardware and functionality has been verified for four applications including particle detection system, remote meter reading, bird detection and people counting. The results based on measured energy values shows that, depending on the application, the energy consumption can be reduced by a factor of approximately 1.5 up to 376 as compared to currently published VSNs. The lifetime based on measured energy values showed that for a sample period of 5 minutes, VSN can achieve 3.2 years lifetime with a battery of 37.44 kJ energy. In addition to this, proposed VSN offers generic architecture with smaller design complexity on hardware reconfigurable platform and offers easy adaptation for a number of applications as compared to published systems.

  • 125.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Creating a Quality Management Culture: Focusing on Values and Leadership2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When applied successfully, the QM initiatives TQM and Lean enhance an organization´s ability to meet and exceed the expectations of the customers as well as co-workers and other stakeholders. There are however also QM initiatives that fail and one reason for this is the organization’s inability to create a supportive culture, a culture that rests on a number of values which aim at improving the quality and thereby customer satisfaction. Even though this is known by both practitioners and researchers, little has been written on how to achieve a QM culture in practice and there are not many methodologies and tools designed directly with purpose of creating this culture. In addition, the measurements used for monitoring organizational success focus mainly on ‘hard’ process or financial measures such as lead-time reduction and operating income.  

    The purpose of this thesis has been to ‘examine how a strong organizational culture can be created and to contribute with knowledge about how to create and measure a QM culture’. To fulfill this purpose, a number of case studies have been carried out and a questionnaire has been developed in order to measure the presence and importance of a number of QM values.

    The research presented in this thesis reinforces the fact that culture is an important factor to take into account when applying QM initiatives. A structured way of working with culture and the development of a strategy on how the culture in the organization will be changed is needed. This in combination with methodologies and tools aiming directly at enhancing a QM culture. The research also shows that the relationship between organizational culture, values and behaviors needs to be considered when working to create a strong QM culture. Most of the methodologies and tools found in the case studies aim directly at reinforcing the ‘right’ behaviors in the organization, hence enhancing the underlying values. For instance, the way an organization works with selection, e.g. recruitment and promotion, based on behaviors rather than documented merits is one methodology found in the research. The leadership was found to be important when it came to building or strengthening the culture. Managers are considered key players and need to act as role models, displaying the desired behaviors themselves. The managers need to be present among their co-workers and aware of how their own actions affect the possibility to build a strong QM culture.

    Another conclusion drawn is the need to measure the ‘softer’ side of QM. One starting point when applying a QM initiative should be the assessment of the existing culture in the organization as a complement to the ‘harder’ measures. The research presented in this thesis suggests that the questionnaire that has been developed could be an appropriate tool for this purpose. If the existing culture in an organization does not support the values within QM, the behaviors of managers and co-workers that are needed to improve quality and thereby customer satisfaction could be hard to achieve.

  • 126.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Internationella komparativa studier av lagar om tvångsvård vid missbruk: -omfattning, trender och mänskliga rättigheter2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights state that everyone has the right to good health. According to the conventions, the states have obligations to prevent and combat disease, and if necessary, ensure that the conditions for treatment of the disease are appropriate (UDHR 1948, UNCESCR 1966). The broad wording in the conventions on the right to good health includes the right to care of substance use disorders. In the 1960ies the World Health Organization recommended, that people with such disorders should be seen as sick and that the legislation governing such care should be in accordance with special administrative legislations and not criminal legislation. The recommendation indicates WHO:s clear position that persons with substance use disorders primarily should be treated as persons suffering from disease and in need of care, and not primarily as disruptive individuals or criminals who should be disciplined or punished. This applies also to situations when treatment and care cannot be provided on a voluntary basis, but compulsorily. In Swedish context, the most commonly mentioned law in these cases is the social special legislation Law (1988: 870) on care of misusers, special provisions (LVM). Ever since the implementation of LVM in 1982, its legal position as well as application in institutional care has been subject of critical discussions within social work as well as in social science research. Such debate in the Nordic countries has until now mostly been marked by two important limitations. First, most comparisons are restricted to very few countries, e.g. four of the Nordic countries; secondly the notion of involuntary care is often limited to social legislation on compulsory care without taking criminal justice legislation or mental health legislation into account. The present dissertation studies legislations on compulsory commitment to care of persons with substance use problems (CCC), and compares these legislations from a larger number of countries, on global or European levels. This approach makes it possible to explore the great variation in CCC legislation between countries, i.e. type of law (criminal justice, mental health care and social or special legislation),  time limits (maximum duration) as well as levels of ambition, ethical grounds, criteria for admission, and adaption to human and civil rights.  In addition, the comparisons between many countries are used to investigate factors related to different national choices in legislations from country characteristics, e.g. historical and cultural background as well as economic and social conditions, including level and type of welfare distribution. Available datasets from different times permits trend analyses to investigate whether CCC or specific types of such are increasing or decreasing internationally.

             Empirical materials: Article I is based on three reports from the WHO on existence of CCC legislation, before the millennium shift, in 90 countries and territories in all populated continents. Articles II and IV are based on own data collection from a survey in 38 European countries. Article III uses a combination of those data and additional information from country reports in scientific and institutional publications in three times of observation during more than 25 years, and including a total of 104 countries. Additional data for Articles I and II are information on various countries' characteristics obtained from different international databases.

             Findings based on data from WHO reports at the eve of the millennium show that CCC legislation was very common in the world, since 82 per cent of the 90 countries and territories had such law. Special administrative (“civil”) legislation (mental health or social) was somewhat more prevalent (56 %), but CCC in criminal justice legislation was also frequent and present in half of the countries. The study shows that economically stronger countries in the western world and many of the former communist countries in Eastern Europe, the so-called "first and second worlds" in cold war rhetoric, more often had adapted to the recommendations made by WHO in the 1960ies, with CCC more often regulated in civil legislation. In the so-called "third world" countries, CCC in criminal justice legislation dominated. The new data collection from 38 European countries ten years later confirmed that legislation on CCC is very common, since 74 per cent of the explored countries have some type of legislation. The most common type was now CCC in criminal legislation (45%), although special administrative legislation (mental health or social) was almost equally common (37%). Special administrative legislation on CCC (both acute and rehabilitative), was more common in countries with historic experience of a strong influential temperance movement, and in countries with distribution of health and welfare more directed through the state, while countries with less direct government involvement in distribution of health and welfare and lacking former influence of a strong temperance movement more often had CCC in criminal justice legislation. During all the 25 years period from early 80ies up to 2009, it was more common for countries to have some type of law on CCC than not, although some reduction of CCC legislation is shown, especially during the last decade. But within countries having CCC, more cases are compulsorily committed and for longer time duration. This is related to a global shift from civil CCC to CCC in criminal justice legislation, directly in the opposite direction from what WHO recommended in the 60ies. Changes in CCC legislation are often preceded with national political debate on ethical considerations, and criticisms questioning the efficiency and content of the care provided. Such national debates are frequent with all types of CCC legislation, but ethical considerations seem to be far more common related to special administrative (civil) legislation. National legislations on CCC within Europe should conform to the human and civil rights stipulated in ECHR (1950). There seems, to be some limitations in the procedural rules that should protect persons with misuse or dependence problems from unlawful detentions, regardless type of law. The three types of law differ significantly in terms of criteria for CCC, i.e. the situations in which care may be ensured regardless of consent.

           Conclusions: It is more common that societies have legislation on CCC, than not. This applies internationally – in all parts of the world as well as over time, for a period of 25 years, at least. Sweden’s legislative position is not internationally unique; on the contrary, it is quite common. Law on CCC tend to be introduced in times of drug epidemics or when drug-related problems are increasing in a society. Changes in CCC legislation are often preceded by national debates on ethics, content and benefits of such care. These findings here discussed may reflect different concurrent processes. A shift from welfare logic to a moral logic may be understood as more moralization, perhaps due to relative awaking of traditionalism related to religious movements in various parts of the world (Christian, Hindu, Muslim or other). But it may also be understood from more libertarianism that stresses both individual responsibility for one’s welfare and the state´s responsibility to discipline behaviours that inflict negatively on the lives of others. Possibly do these two tendencies work in conjunction to one another. At the same time, however, there is a stronger emphasis on care content within criminal justice CCC, especially in the Anglo-Saxon drug court system. Some shift within Civil CCC is also noticed, i.e. from social to mental health legislation. Thus drug abuse and dependence is increasingly more recognized and managed in the same way as other diseases, i.e. an increased normalization. Since social CCC has been more in focus of research and debates, this may also result in CCC turning into a more hidden praxis, which from ethical perspectives is problematic. The thesis shows that there are examples of focus on humanity and care in all three of the law types, but there are also examples of passive care, sometimes even inhumane and repressive, in all types. Thus, type of law cannot be said to in general correspond to a specific content of care. Although CCC can be delivered in accordance with human and civil rights, there is still a dissatisfying situation concerning the procedural rights that should ensure the misuser his/her rights to freedom from unlawful detention. The possibility to appeal to a higher instance is missing in about 20 percent of European CCC laws, although not differentiating one type of legislation from the others. A clear difference between the three law types concerns criteria that form the basis for who will be provided care according to the laws. This is of major importance for which persons of the needy who will receive care: addicted offenders, out-acting persons or the most vulnerable. The criteria for selecting these relate to the implicit ambitions of CCC – correction, protection, or for support to those in greatest need for care. The question is what ambition a society should have concerning care without consent in case of substance abuse and addiction problems. The trend that CCC according to special administrative legislation is declining and criminal legislation increases in the world should therefore be noticed.



    Keywords: Alcohol, drugs, substance misuse, coercive care, compulsory commitment to care, involuntary care, mandatory care, legislation, human and civil rights, comparative analysis, prediction models, and trend analysis

  • 127.
    Jason, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fibre-Optic Displacement and Temperature Sensing Using Coupling Based Intensity Modulation and Polarisation Modulation Techniques2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical fibre sensors are employed in the measurements of a number of different physical properties or for event detection in safety and security systems. In those environments which suffer from electromagnetic disturbance, in harsh environments where electronics cannot survive and in applications in favour of distributed detection, fibre-optic sensors have found natural areas of use. In some cases they have replaced conventional electronic sensors due to better performance and long-term reliability, but in others they have had less success mainly due to the higher costs which are often involved in fibre-optic sensor systems.

    Intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors normally require only low-cost monitoring systems principally based on light emitting diodes and photodiodes. The sensor principle itself is very elemental when based on coupling between fibres, and coupling based intensity modulated sensors have been utilised over a long period of time, mainly within displacement and vibration sensing. For distributed sensing based on intensity modulation, optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) systems with customised sensor cables have been used in the detection of heat, water leakage and hydrocarbon fluid spills.

    In this thesis, new concepts for intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors based on coupling between fibres are presented, analysed, simulated and experimentally verified. From a low-cost and standard component perspective, alternative designs are proposed and analysed using modulation function simulations and measurements, in order to find an improved performance. Further, the development and installation of a temperature sensor system for industrial process monitoring is presented, involving aspects with regards to design, calibration, multiplexing and fibre network installation. The OTDR is applied as an efficient technique for multiplexing several coupling based sensors, and sensor network installation with blown fibre in microducts is proposed as a flexible and cost-efficient alternative to traditional cabling.

    As a solution to alignment issues in coupling based sensors, a new displacement sensor configuration based on a fibre to a multicore fibre coupling and an image sensor readout system is proposed. With this concept a high-performance sensor setup with relaxed alignment demands and a large measurement range is realised. The sensor system performance is analysed theoretically with complete system simulations, and an experimental setup is made based on standard fibre and image acquisition components. Simulations of possible error contributions show that the experimental performance limitation is mainly related to differences between the modelled and the real coupled power distribution. An improved power model is suggested and evaluated experimentally, showing that the experimental performance can be improved down towards the theoretical limit of 1 μm.

    The potential of using filled side-hole fibres and polarisation analysis for point and distributed detection of temperature limits is investigated as a complement to existing fibre-optic heat detection systems. The behaviour and change in birefringence at the liquid/solid phase transition temperature for the filler substance is shown and experimentally determined for side-hole fibres filled with water solutions and a metal alloy, and the results are supported by simulations. A point sensor for on/off temperature detection based on this principle is suggested. Further the principles of distributed detection by measurements of the change in beat length are demonstrated using polarisation OTDR (POTDR) techniques. It is shown that high-resolution techniques are required for the fibres studied, and side-hole fibres designed with lower birefringence are suggested for future studies in relation to the distributed application.

  • 128.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bandwidth Efficient IPTV Distribution: On Error Resilience and Fast Channel Change2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Television is now changing its traditional distribution forms to being distributed digitally over broadband networks. The recent development of broadband Internet connectivity has made the transition to Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) possible. When changing distribution technique of an existing service, it is important that the new technique does not make the service worse from the user’s point of view. Although a broadband network offers high capacity and has excellent performance there will be occasional packet losses and delays which could negatively influence the user experience of the delivered broadband service. Since bandwidth is a key constraint for video distribution there is a strong incentive for finding schemes to increase bandwidth utilization, especially when distributing high bandwidth IPTV services. In digital video coding it is common to use predictive coding to remove temporal redundancy in video sequences. This technique greatly increases the coding efficiency but makes the sequence more sensitive to information loss or delay. In addition, the use of predictive coding also introduce a inter frame dependency which could make the channel change significantly slower.

    This thesis addresses two important areas related to bandwidth efficient IPTV distribution, namely error resilience and fast channel change. A method to numerically estimate the decoded objective video quality of scalable coded video is presented and evaluated. The method can be used to estimate objective video quality for a scalable video transmission system subject to packet-loss. The quality gain of temporally scalable video in a priority packet dropping environment is also investigated and quantified. Synchronization Frames for Channel Switching (SFCS) is proposed as a method to code and distribute video with IP-multicast, which can be used to efficiently combat packet-loss, increase bandwidth utilization, and offer a channel change speed up. The performance of SFCS is analyzed and bandwidth estimation expressions are formulated, analytical results are complemented with computer simulations. The results show that SFCS deployed in an IPTV delivery system can significantly lower the bandwidth consumption and speed up the channel change.

  • 129.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy efficiency and CO2 mitigation in residential buildings2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to control climate change it is important to limit the atmosphericconcentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased energy efficiency, as well as ashift from fossil fuels to renewable resources can reduce net CO2 emission. Theenergy required for constructing and operating buildings is significant in manycountries, and it is thus important to design energy efficient buildings and energysupply systems.Improvements in existing buildings are needed in order to achieve short-termemission reductions. The Swedish building stock expanded greatly during the1960s and 1970s. The energy efficiency of these houses was often quite low, andmany of them were built with resistance heating. In this thesis increased energyefficiency in such buildings is studied, as well as conversions from resistanceheating to other heating systems, and various technologies and fuels for theproduction of electricity and heat. The effects of these measures are analysed withrespect to primary energy use, CO2 emission and societal cost. The studies wereperformed using process-based systems analysis in a life-cycle perspective. Thesystem boundaries include energy chains from the natural resources to the usefulelectricity and heat in the houses. The results show that the choice of heatingsystem in the house has a greater effect on the primary energy use than measureson both the house envelope and the energy supply chains. District heating basedon cogeneration of heat and electricity and bedrock heat pumps were found to beenergy-efficient systems. The net emission of CO2 is dependent on the fuel and theCO2 emissions from these systems are comparable to those from a wood pelletboiler, if biomass-based supply chains are used. Conversion from resistanceheating to any of the other heating systems studied is also profitable from a societaleconomic perspective.The decision to implement energy-efficiency measures or install a new heatingsystem in a detached house is taken by the house owner. In order for successfulimplementation the alternatives must either be sufficiently attractive or incentivesor policy instruments that affects this large, inhomogeneous group must beimplemented. In this thesis, the house owners’ economic situation when changingthe heating system and implementing energy-efficiency measures on the buildingenvelope is analysed. The economic analysis includes current Swedish policyinstruments, such as an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, anincome tax deduction for replacing windows, levying a consumer electricity tax

    and increasing real estate tax. House owners’ perceptions of different heatingsystems are analysed through the results of comprehensive questionnaires. Societaleconomy, private economy and individuals’ perceptions are compared. Theconversion subsidy provides some incentive to house owners to act according tothe national energy policy, as does the electricity tax, which has a significantinfluence on consumer costs. The use of economic instruments seems efficient inpromoting systems in line with environmental goals since environmental factorsare ranked much lower by the home owners. However, the effect on the annualcost of most of the policy instruments studied is smaller than the price variationsbetween different energy suppliers. Energy suppliers thus have considerableopportunity to influence house owners.To achieve long-term changes in the building sector new houses should beconstructed with as low primary energy use and emission as possible, seen overtheir entire life cycle. The primary energy use is analysed for both the productionand operational phase of several types of residential buildings. When the demandfor operational primary energy decreases, due to a high energy standard orenergy-efficient supply, the relative importance of the energy required forproduction will increase. The amount of primary energy required for theproduction of a new low-energy building is significant compared with the primaryenergy required for space heating. One way of reducing both primary energy useand CO2 emission in the production phase is to use constructions with woodframes instead of concrete.The energy supply system is nevertheless still important also for low energybuildings. A new house built to passive standard, heated with fossil-fuel-basedresistance heating gives rise to higher primary energy use and CO2 emission than aconventional detached house from the 1970s that is heated with an energy-efficientbiomass-based heating system. The results thus indicate that wood-framed houseswith a high energy standard, together with efficient energy supply systems, couldbe an option for sustainable residential construction.

  • 130.
    Joelsson, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    On Swedish bioenergy strategies to reduce CO2 emissions and oil use2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Becoming a father: Sources of information, birth preference, and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The period of pregnancy and childbirth is an important and sensitive time for men’s upcoming parenthood. Research into fathers’ experiences of childbearing has received less attention compared to maternal experiences. The purpose of this thesis was to study the sources fathers use to obtain information about pregnancy and childbirth, fathers’ preference for the mode of birth of their baby, and fathers’ childbirth experience and their perception of postnatal care quality.In 2007, 1105 expectant fathers were enrolled in the study when their partner had reached the middle of pregnancy. The fathers were followed until one year after the birth of their baby. The fathers were living in the county of Västernorrland in Sweden and their babies were born in one of the three hospitals in the county. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and content analysis. An index was created from a combination of fathers’ experiences of postnatal care quality.iiiCommon sources of information about pregnancy and childbirth used by prospective fathers were the Internet, their partners and the midwife. Fathers who were expecting their first baby (OR 1.4; 1.2-1.7), had a high level of education (OR 1.3; 1.2-1.5) and fathers with previous experience of caesarean section (OR 1.3; 1.1-1.6) were the greatest users of the Internet. Of the prospective fathers 71 (6.4%) desired caesarean section for the birth of their baby. Previous negative birth experience (PR 8.6; 2.6-28.3) and the experience of caesarean section (PR 5.7; 2.8-11.9) were factors associated with the wish that the baby would be born by caesarean section. A desire to plan the day of the baby’s birth (PR 6.0; 1.5-24.1) was associated with a preference for caesarean section for the men who were expecting their first baby. Two months after the birth of the baby 604 (74%) of the fathers in this group had had a positive birth experience. A correlation with a less-positive birth experience was with emergency caesarean section (OR 7.5; 4.1-13.6), instrumental vaginal birth (OR 4.2; 2.3-8.0) and if the man was unhappy with the medical care which the partner received (OR; 4.6; 2.7-7.8). Positive experience of healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes was related to a satisfactory birth experience. The deficiencies in the postnatal care were mainly related to deficiencies in the information on the baby’s care and needs, and fathers’ experiences of their partners’ inadequate check-ups and medical care. A year after the birth 488 (79%) of the fathers were satisfied with the overall postnatal care, although they had pointed to deficiencies in the provision. Deficiencies in the attitude of the staff (OR 5.01; 2.80-8.98) and the medical care and check-ups their partner received were associated with fathers’ dissatisfaction with the overall postnatal care (OR 2.13; 1.25-3.62).ivMost fathers in this study had a positive birth experience and were happy with the postnatal care. The thesis highlights, however, opportunities for improvements in intrapartum and postnatal care. Healthcare professionals should be informed regarding the information provided via the web and to discuss the information that expectant fathers receive about pregnancy and childbirth. Prospective fathers should be given the opportunity to discuss their preferences and attitudes to the mode of birth. In addition, professionals should provide supportive information and be present in the delivery room. The information about the newborn baby’s care and needs can be strengthened, both before and after birth.

  • 132.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Measuring and modelling light scattering in paper2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about measuring and modelling light reflected from paper by using goniophotometric measurements. Measuring bidirectional reflectance requires highly accurate instruments, and a large part of the work in this thesis is about establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure valid data. A spectral goniophotometer is used for measuring the light reflected from paper and methods are developed for analyzing the different components, i.e. the fluorescence, surface reflectance and bulk reflectance, separately. A separation of the surface and bulk reflectance is obtained by inkjet printing and analyzing the total reflectance in the absorption band of the ink. The main principle of the method is to add dye to the paper until the bulk scattered light is completely absorbed. The remaining reflectance is solely surface reflectance, which is subtracted from the total reflectance of the undyed sample to give the bulk reflectance. The results show that although the surface reflectance of a matte paper is small in comparison with the bulk reflectance, it grows rapidly with increasing viewing angle, and can have a large influence on the overall reflectance.

    A method for quantitative fluorescence measurements is developed, and used for analyzing the angular distribution of the fluoresced light. The long-standing issue whether fluorescence from turbid (or amorphous) media is Lambertian or not, is resolved by using both angle-resolved luminescence measurements and radiative transfer based Monte Carlo simulations. It is concluded that the degree of anisotropy of the fluoresced light is related to the average depth of emission, which in turn depends on factors such as concentration of fluorophores, angle of incident light and the absorption coefficient at the excitation wavelength.

    All measurements are conducted with a commercially available benchtop sized double-beam spectral goniophotometer designed for laboratory use. To obtain reliable results, its absolute measurement capability is evaluated in terms of measurement accuracy. The results show that the compact size of the instrument, combined with the anisotropic nature of reflectance from paper, can introduce significant systematic errors of the same order as the overall measurement uncertainty. The errors are related to the relatively large detection solid angle that is required when measuring diffusely reflecting materials. Situations where the errors are most severe, oblique viewing angles and samples with high degree of anisotropic scattering, are identified, and a geometrical correction is developed.

    Estimating optical properties of a material from bidirectional measurements has proved to be a challenging problem and the outcome is highly dependent on both the quality and quantity of the measurements. This problem is analyzed in detail for optically thick turbid media, and the study targets the case when a restricted set of detection angles are available. This is the case when e.g. an unobstructed view of the sample is not possible. Simulations show that the measurements can be restricted to the plane of incidence (in-plane), and even the forward direction only, without any significant reduction in the precision or stability of the estimation, as long as sufficiently oblique angles are included.

  • 133.
    Jonsson, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Surface Status Classification, Utilizing Image Sensor Technology and Computer Models2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great need to develop systems that can continuously provide correct information about road surface status depending on the prevailing weather conditions. This will minimize accidents and optimize transportation. In this thesis different methods for the determination of the road surface status have been studied and analyzed, and suggestions of new technology are proposed. Information about the road surface status is obtained traditionally from various sensors mounted directly in the road surface. This information must then be analyzed to create automated warning systems for road users and road maintenance personnel. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how existing technologies can be used to obtain a more accurate description of the current road conditions. Another purpose is also to investigate how existing technologies can be used to obtain a more accurate description of the current road conditions. Furthermore, the aim is to develop non-contact technologies able to determine and classify road conditions over a larger area, since there is no system available today that can identify differences in road surface status in the wheel tracks and between the wheel tracks.

    Literature studies have been carried out to find the latest state of the art research and technology, and the research work is mainly based on empirical studies. A large part of the research has involved planning and setting up laboratory experiments to test and verify hypotheses that have emerged from the literature studies. Initially a few traditional road-mounted sensors were analyzed regarding their ability to determine the road conditions and the impact on their measured values when the sensors were exposed to contamination agents such as glycol and oil. Furthermore, non-contact methods for determining the status of the road surface have been studied. Images from cameras working in the visible range, together data from the Swedish Transportation Administration road weather stations, have been used to develop computerized road status classification models that can distinguish between a dry, wet, icy and snowy surface. Field observations have also been performed to get the ground truth for developing these models. In order to improve the ability to accurately distinguish between different surface statuses, measurement systems involving sensors working in the Near-Infrared (NIR) range have been utilized. In this thesis a new imaging method for determining road conditions with NIR camera technology is developed and described. This method was tested in a field study performed during the winter 2013-2014 with successful results.

    The results show that some traditional sensors could be used even with future user-friendly de-icing chemicals. The findings from using visual camera systems and meteorological parameters to determine the road status showed that they provide previously unknown information about road conditions. It was discovered that certain road conditions such as black ice is not always detectable using this technology. Therefore, research was performed that utilized the NIR region where it proved to be possible to detect and distinguish different road conditions, such as black ice. NIR camera technology was introduced in the research since the aim of the thesis was to find a method that provides information on the status of the road over a larger area. The results show that if several images taken in different spectral bands are analyzed with the support of advanced computer models, it is possible to distinguish between a dry, wet, icy and snowy surface. This resulted in the development of a NIR camera system that can distinguish between different surface statuses. Finally, two of these prototype systems for road condition classification were evaluated. These systems were installed at E14 on both sides of the border between Sweden and Norway. The results of these field tests show that this new road status classification, based on NIR imaging spectral analysis, provides new information about the status of the road surface, compared to what can be obtained from existing measurement systems, particularly for detecting differences in and between the wheel tracks.

  • 134.
    Junehag, Lena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Peer mentoring - A complementary support to persons after an acute myocardial infarction2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate the experience of having an acute myocardial infarction in newly afflicted persons living in sparsely populated counties, and whether an intervention with peer mentors would provide support by affecting the perception of illness, health related quality of life and everyday life. The aim was also to describe the support of peer mentors from their perspective and what the mentoring meant to them. The thesis was based on four empirical studies (I-IV) and had a prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, comparative design. A suitable sample was recruited, comprising 72 individuals who were newly afflicted with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for the first time; 34 of them were offered contact with a peer mentor, while 38 were not. Furthermore, 34 peer mentors participated in the project. The results were based on data collected from 28 individuals with mentors, 33 individuals without and 22 peer mentors. In studies I and III, qualitative approaches were used based on individual interviews with 20 newly afflicted individuals with (n=11) and without (n=9) mentors one year after AMI. The aims were to describe individuals’ perceptions of the psychosocial consequences of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and of their access to support one year after the event (I) and to describe individual perceptions of their lifestyle and support, 1 year after an AMI with or without mentorship (III). Study II was quantitative, consisting of data from questionnaires IPQ-R and SF-36 answered by 61 newly afflicted individuals with (n=28) and without (n=33) mentors. It aimed to investigate whether changes in illness perception and health-related quality of life occur over time after an intervention with peer mentors 1, 6 and 12 months after an AMI. Study IV had a mixed design and included peer mentors with the purpose to describing the personal meaning of being a peer mentor, for a person recovering from an acute myocardial infarction. Data consisted of individual interviews (n=15) and some data from IPQ-R and SF-36 that were provided on two occasions (n=22). All of the interviews (I, III, IV) were digitally recorded and analysed by qualitative content analysis, while the quantitative studies included descriptive data and were further compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) (II) and the paired-sample t-test (IV).


    The results from all four studies are interpreted and presented together, and they show differences and similarities between the newly afflicted with or without peer mentors and the peer mentors. The results comprise six main areas; the meaning of becoming a person with an AMI (I, II, III) pointed toward an awareness of the situation expressed both in positive and negative terms, as being thankful or of being afraid of having a second AMI. View at health care (I) indicated that follow-up after discharge was sometimes a positive experience but more often resulted in dissatisfaction with this part of the health-care system. Consequences (II) showed significant effects between groups in the dimensions ‘consequences’ and ‘timeline acute/chronic’ (IPQ-R), with higher mean values for those without mentors and a significant effect of time in both dimensions. There were also physical consequences for many of the participants (I, II, III, IV) as well as psychological consequences (I, II, IV). Everyday life (I, III) was affected by AMI that sometimes limited activities. There were demands to change areas of life-style that were perceived as both positive and negative. Health (II, III, IV) showed that health increased for most individuals during the year, as confirmed by significant values for time for those newly afflicted. The peer mentors showed a decrease in mean values but expressed that they felt healthier after compared with before their commitment. Meaning of support (I, IV) indicated that families and relatives had an important, supportive role for newly afflicted participants. The mentorship showed that the relationship was, in some cases and for different reasons, unsuccessful. However, most of them were satisfied, and new friendships arose. More of the mentors felt pride and were thankful because their experience was shown to be valuable to others in addition to themselves.

     The results were synthesised using the Human Becoming nursing theory, which confirmed that recovery after an AMI is a process that occurs over time in which that those afflicted must accept and be comfortable being a person who is afflicted by an AMI. Some tendencies indicated an advantage for the newly afflicted participants who had received contact with a peer mentor. Conclusion: Because the mentor had experienced the same event, the relationship contributed to the security of the mentee. The peer mentors matured with the task because they felt that their experience was valuable and they felt unique.

  • 135.
    Jönsson, Jessica H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Localised Globalities and Social Work: Contemporary Challenges2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global and structural transformations, a West-centric development agenda and the triumph of neoliberal politics have led to destructive consequences for many local communities and individual life chances. The global dominance of the West-centric development agenda, with its roots in the colonial past, has created uneven developments and an unjust world in which Western countries continue to gain advantages and increase their prosperity. Although a minority elite in many non-Western countries share the same interests as Western countries and their global organs, the majority of people in these countries are suffering from increasing socioeconomic inequalities. As a result of the dogmatic belief in a singular and West-centric modernity and its practices, many problems are considered to be the result of non-Western countries’ inabilities to complete the project of modernity in accordance with Western blueprints. This has also influenced social work as a global and modern profession. Social problems are often individualised and the reasons behind many inequalities are increasingly related to non-Western people’s individual shortcomings and traditional cultural backgrounds. In Western and non-Western countries equally are the neoliberal structural and institutional transformations ignored and social problems of individuals and families defined as a matter of wrong and deviant actions and choices.

    The main objective of the dissertation, which is constituted of four articles and an overall introduction and summary, is to examine the consequences of recent neoliberal globalisation based on the belief in a single and West-centric modernity and development agenda and their consequences for social work facing increasing global inequalities. The following research questions have guided the work: ‘How can social work play an effective role in combating social problems and otherisation, marginalisation and increasing inequalities in a globalised world?’, ‘How does the global development agenda function within the local arenas of social work?’, ‘Are development projects improving people’s life chances in local communities in non-Western countries?’, ‘How informed and responsive are social workers towards the global context of local problems?’

    The work is based on a qualitative design using qualitative content analysis for analysing data collected through interviews, participant observations and official documents. The results show that irrespective of where and in which context social problems are appearing, since local problems often have global roots, a global perspective to local problems should be included in every practices of social work in order to develop new methods of practices in an increasingly globalised field of work. Destruction of local communities, forced migration from non-Western countries, and marginalisation of people with immigrant background in Western countries should not be considered only as local problems, but also as problems with their roots in global structural inequalities which reproduces global social problems with local consequences.

    It is argued that social work should consider the dilemmas and problems connected to the taken for granted West-centric theories, understandings and practices of social work in order to develop new methods of practices for combating social problems, marginalisation and increasing inequalities in a globalised world. Such a position includes practicing multilevel social work, social work in global alliances beyond the division of East and West, and mobilisation against neoliberalism and the retreat of the welfare state. This requires critical standpoints against the relationship between the global context of the neoliberal ideology and practices in a Western-dominated and postcolonial world and the daily practices of social work.



  • 136.
    Jönsson, Mari Therese
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The importance of small forest set-asides for saproxylic biodiversity at stand- landscape- and regional scales2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Kachlami, Habib M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social Entrepreneurship and Influence on Regional Firm Demography2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central interest of this thesis is the emergence of social  ventures. In this regard, it investigates two types of questions: what regional factors influence the emergence of social  ventures? and what  types of interaction may emerge between the emergence of social  ventures and the demography (entry,  exit  and migration) of commercial ventures in a region? The thesis also aims to adopt a macro-oriented approach to studying the research questions.

    To  answer  those  questions, this  thesis  applies  both  theoretical  and empirical  analysis.  For the theoretical analysis, instead of a single theory it applies three middle-range theories: theory of organisational ecology, market failure theory, and the demand and supply theory of  entrepreneurship. The empirical analysis is based on two large-scale databases from  Sweden  and  the U.S. The Swedish database includes nonprofit social ventures and commercial ventures for the 1990-2014 period from all of the 290 municipalities across Sweden, while the database from U.S. includes 88 counties in the State of Ohio between 2003-2007.

    The answers to the research questions are presented in the form of six papers. Paper 1 provides an overall picture of the different possible functions of social ventures within communities and  their contributions to regional development. With this overall view, Papers 2 and 3 answer the  first  research question, that is the factors influencing the emergence of social ventures. Thus, while  Paper 2 provides a review of previous research, Paper 3 empirically examines some of  the  regional factors that may influence the emergence of social ventures in a region. The  results of Paper 3 revealed that factors such as gender, education, entrepreneurial role models, wealth, unemployment rate, age, and urbanisation positively influence the emergence rate of the of social venture in a region.

    Papers 4, 5 and 6 are dedicated to answering the second type of research question, in other  words the interaction between the emergence of  social ventures and the demography (entry, exit and migration) of commercial ventures. As such, Paper 4 studies how the emergence of social ventures is influenced by the entry and exit of commercial ventures, Paper 5 investigates how the emergence of social ventures influences the entry of commercial ixventures, and Paper 6 examines how the emergence of social ventures influences the migration of commercial  ventures. In summary, the results of these three papers reveal that while the emergence of social ventures negatively influences the commercial ventures inside a region, it has a positive  influence on the commercial ventures outside the region. Paper 6 further investigates the influence of the emergence of commercial ventures on the migration of commercial ventures.  The results show that while the emergence of social ventures attracts commercial ventures from outside into a region, the emergence of commercial ventures repels them from moving into the region.

  • 138.
    Kallberg, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    'The Emperor's New Clothes' Recordkeeping in a New Context2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines if and how information capture and documentation practices and the function of the public archive are changing in relation to archival concepts in contemporary administrative settings, as a result of e-government strategic development. The study aims for a holistic approach from the beginning of the life of the records to their long-term preservation.

    This research is situated in Sweden where the recordkeeping legislation takes a holistic approach: records management is understood as a dimension of the archival function and therefore records managers have not been recognised as a professional group, however recordkeeping practice involves two occupational groups: registrars and archivists. Swedish recordkeeping legislation is based on long administrative traditions in which the public right of free access to official documents is fundamental. Registration of official documents is important as the means of facilitating the citizens´ right to free access information and registrars are primarily responsible for this process, including classification. Archivists manage the full range of recordkeeping tasks, acting not only as custodians of repositories but also strategic experts on recordkeeping as well as auditing on behalf of the archival authority.  The archive legally consists of all the ‘official documents’ created or received in the organisation.

    This is an explorative and documented case study that used several local government bodies (municipalities) for the data collection by document analysis and interviews. Swedish municipalities are particularly interesting because they are autonomous in relation to the national government, with complex organisational structures consisting of several politically controlled committees and administrative departments that implement political decisions and provide services to the public. The National Archives does not have any supervisory role or monitoring function over local governments, but it does publish guidelines on recordkeeping. Nevertheless, the municipalities are controlled to a large extent by the implemented policies decided at national level by the Government and Parliament. Therefore, national initiatives regarding e-government have impacted on the municipalities’ recordkeeping.

    A theoretical lens combining archival science and theory of professions has been chosen to analyse the observed changes in practice. The thesis analyses the issue of recordkeeping awareness in three arenas: the legal arena; the political arena; and the workplace arena in the light of the records continuum model.

    The research findings demonstrate a gap between the legal and workplace arenas caused by lack of recordkeeping awareness primarily within the political arena. Despite the holistic view of keeping archives expressed in the recordkeeping legislation, observed practice appears closer to a life cycle model than proactive continuum thinking and planning.  A lack of recordkeeping legislation awareness in the wider organisation is potentially leading to a division between records management and archives management, jeopardising the continuum approach. Consequently registrars may in the future become more like records managers and archivists may be losing part of their professional jurisdiction. There is a strong focus on business benefits to the organisation rather than the wider view of democratic values and cultural heritage. As a result: archivists seem to suffer a lack of resources as well as skills in order to carry out their responsibilities. The future role of archival authorities such as the National Archives is unclear.

  • 139.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Resource consumption in a distributed Internet of Things: Examining energy consumption, latencies and workload for timely data delivery and lookup2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Improved hydrogene peroxide bleaching of mechanical pulps through fundamental understanding of the influence of heat, iron, fines and chemical treatment on chromophore content2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Karlsson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogiska identiteter: Fostran till entreprenörskap2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this doctoral dissertation project has been to investigate and describe Entrepreneurship Education in one Swedish county, E‐county. The dissertation is based on five studies, four case studies and a minor follow‐up study. Together these studies constitute a multiple case study called The Main Study. The purpose of the study has been to investigate how European policy on entrepreneurship education has been reproduced and realized in different educational settings in E‐county, and the consequences this has had for fostering students and local identity building. The two first studies, cases A and B were carried out in three schools where three high school programs were studied, the Haircare program, a technical program and a social science program. The programs were chosen so that the whole range of highschool programs were represented; a practical program, a semi‐academic program and an academic program. The third case, C, contained the specific educational program ʺSummer Entrepreneur” which was developed in a local municipality in Ecounty, and had been spread throughout Sweden. The program was developed by local people within the framework of an educational concept that had been imported from Canada, “Open For Business“. The fourth study, case D, was carried out in the educational program Youth Enterprise in local high schools, including the so called “Practice school”. The fifth study was a minor study through interviews with representatives from the different educational programs. To enable methodical triangulation, studies A to D were carried out with interviews, questionnaires, observations and document analysis. The studies were based on theories of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education and general education. The theoretical framework for analysis was based on Basil Bernstein’s (2000) theoretical concepts classification, framing, the pedagogic device and pedagogic identities. The major finding from the Main Study was that entrepreneurship education was already part of the educational programs studied for some time before it became part of the Swedish national curricula in 2011. Entrepreneurship had become an element in the fostering of local identities in E‐county. Since it has become a major element of the value base in the national curricula, it will probably be an important part in fostering and identity building in all Swedish schools in the future.

  • 142.
    Karlsson, Linda Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Coding for Improved Perceived Quality of 2D and 3D Video over Heterogeneous Networks2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of video applications for TV, the internet and mobile phones is being taken one step further in 2010 with the introduction of stereo 3D TV. The 3D experience can be further improved using multiple views in the visualization. The transmission of 2D and 3D video at a sufficiently perceived quality is a challenge considering the diversity in content, the resources of the network and the end-users.Two problems are addressed in this thesis. Firstly, how to improve the perceived quality for an application with a limited bit rate. Secondly, how to ensure the best perceived quality for all end-users in a heterogeneous network.

    A solution to the first problem is region-of-interest (ROI) video coding, which adapts the coding to provide a better quality in regions of interest to the viewer. A spatio-temporal filter is proposed to provide codec and standard independent ROI video coding. The filter reduces the number of bits necessary to encode the background and successfully re-allocate these bits to the ROI. The temporal part of the filter reduces the complexity compared to only using a spatial filter. Adaption to the requirements of the transmission channel is possible by controlling the standard deviation of the filter. The filter has also been successfully applied to 3D video in the form of 2D-plus-depth, where the depth data was used in the detection of the ROI.

    The second problem can be solved by providing a video sequence that has the best overall quality. Hence, the best quality for each part of the network and for each 2D and 3D visualization system over time. Scalable video coding enables the extraction of the parts of the data to adapt to the requirements of the network and the end-user. A scheme is proposed in this thesis that provides scalability in the depth and view domain of multi-view plus depth video. The data are divided into enhancement layers depending on the content’s distance to the camera. Schemes to divide the data into layers within a view and between adjacent views have been analyzed. The quality evaluation indicates that the position of the layers in depth as well as the number of layers should be determined by analyzing the depth distribution. The front-most layers in adjacent views should be given priority over the others unless the application requires a high quality of the center views.

  • 143.
    Karlström, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kejsarsnitt utan medicinsk indikation: Attityder, förekomst och önskemål2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Khursheed, Khursheed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Investigation of intelligence partitioning and data reduction in wireless visual sensor network2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Kjällman Alm, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Long-Term Ongoing Structured Support in Early Stage of Dementia: A Family Affair2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia disorders affect more than 35 million people around the world, which will double every twenty years. Dementia is a global disruption of intellectual functioning; there is a decrease of memory ability and other intellectual abilities such as orientation, visuospatial- perceptive ability, language, thinking, executive abilities, problem solving, apraxia and agnosia.  These symptoms are often followed by behavioral changes and changes in the personality, such as loss of initiative, emotional instability, irritation, apathy, coarse social behaviour and mood changes. The most frequent symptoms were apathy, depression, irritability, and agitation. About 25, 000 persons are diagnosed with dementia each year in Sweden. Today, estimates are that 160, 000 persons in total are suffering from dementia in Sweden. In Sweden, most diagnoses are done in the primary health care setting by general practitioners  and are based on the person´s own history, interviews with next of kin and an Mini Mental Score Evaluation- Swedish Revision (MMSE-SR) along with blood work and a brain scan to rule out any other diseases.

    After diagnosis the next of kin often have many questions about the coming lifestyle changes and ways to handle the personality changes that the person suffering from dementia may go through. Previous studies show that in many cases these questions are left unanswered, because it is difficult to get a follow up with a physician and there are few countries where support after diagnose is common.

       In 2009, the Swedish Parliament passed a new law that states that support is to be given to persons caring for people with chronic illnesses, elderly people, or people with functional disabilities. There was, however, no detailed description of the extent or kind of services to be provided, and the municipalities had extensive freedom in implementing the legislation. In the autumn of 2013 the Swedish National Health Board therefore, issued guidelines where eight to ten meetings during a three- to six-month period with information and social support were recommended.A municipality in northern Sweden have a long term ongoing support to persons with dementia and their next of kin since 2006. A close collaboration with the geriatric clinic and private health centers has resulted in support being offered within 4-6 weeks after diagnose.  


    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore experiences of living with dementia both as a sufferer and as a next of kin; and being part of a long-term ongoing support group, the longest for four years.

        Interviews were done with persons with dementia and their next of kin. Results showed that couples who had been the longest in a support group felt great comfort and support. They experienced that their knowledge about the disorder was good and that they could prepare for the changes to come.

    Results also showed that to be an adult child of a person with dementia disease means being burdened with the responsibility to act on behalf of the diseased parent despite a deep sense of grief and loss, which leads to frustration with the situation. 

       Relationships within the family can sometimes change when a family member is affected by dementia. Sometimes for the better; where the family rallied to support the affected member and sometimes for worse; where the relationships were strained when pressure became too much. The persons with dementia who participated in the support groups experienced a great sense of coherence and felt that life was manageable, comprehensible and meaningful. Their healthy partners experienced less comprehensibility and manageability and the adult children more meaningfulness.


    The results of the thesis have founded a model for support called PER-model®; Pedagogical, Emotional and Relationship based model of support.

  • 146.
    Klareld, Ann-Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Closer Together or Further Apart?: Public administration and archives in the digital age2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this thesis is about recordkeeping in the public sector, focusing especially on the relationship between the public administration and its archives, and selected aspects affecting the way this relationship is developing in the digital era. Two research questions are addressed: RQ1: What are ‘archives’ and ‘recordkeeping’ in the digital context and the developing e-government? RQ2: What are the indications of current and future challenges regarding the cooperation between public administration and archives? Six studies resulting in six papers form the basis of the thesis. Each study explores a unique aspect of how current developments, discussions, and decisions affect contemporary understanding and practices regarding archives and recordkeeping. Public records are authoritative information resources, crucial in the everyday lives of citizens. Public recordkeeping develops continuously alongside administrative practices, technological achievements, and political goals. Examples include the development of shared services within the public sector and the involvement of the private sector in public infrastructure projects through outsourcing. These processes are currently affected both by digital technologies, which offer new possibilities to create, use, and preserve records, and by e-government, characterized by the combination of information and communication technologies with organizational change to improve public services and democratic participation. In these processes, existing practices are reviewed and revised, and the concepts of ‘archives’ and ‘recordkeeping’ redefined. The research was pursued using an interpretive approach. The research methods used were concept analysis; discourse analysis; literary warrant analysis; phenomenography; critical theory; and the records continuum model as a theoretical structure. The results shows that common usage of the terms ‘archive’ and ‘recordkeeping’ is fluid and changing, which can make decision-making challenging and affect the relationship between archives and administration. Efforts to develop recordkeeping strategies may be hampered by factors related to the different ways in which the nature and role of archives and recordkeeping are perceived, including differing understandings of related concepts; varying discourses on what an archive (or e-archive) is or should be, and different ways of interpreting legal frameworks and their significance.

  • 147.
    Kleebthong, Duangkaew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Depression among older people in rural Thailand: Knowledge of population, experiences and perceptions of patients, families, and psychiatric nurses2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of older persons (defined as age 60 and over) in Thailand has grown rapidly, and will be projected to increase to over 20 million by 2035. With an aging population, the number of older people suffering from health problems (such as non-communicable and degenerative diseases) was increasing as well. Older people faced physical and mental health challenges that need to be recognized. Depression among older people is significantly high and associated with physical illness; however it remains overlooked, improperly diagnosed, and inadequately treated.

    Aim: The overall aim of the study was to gain deeper knowledge of the phenomenon of depression in older people in rural Thai areas. The aim of each the study was to describe and understand the experiences and perceptions of individual psychiatric nurses, patients, and their family members, as well as to study public knowledge about depression among older people in rural Thailand.

    Methods: The setting of this thesis was a rural area in Thailand. It included four studies. The first three studies involved qualitative research, and latent content analysis was used to analyze data. In-depth interviews were used to collect data. Purposive sampling was used to select participants for the first three studies, which included 13 psychiatric nurses (study I), 14 older people with depression (study II), and 13 family members of older patients suffering from depression (study III). The fourth study is a quantitative cross-sectional study with 2,636 respondents aged 18 years to 75 and living in a household while data was collected. Respondents were selected using multi-stage random sampling.

    Results: Study I - The psychiatric nurses’ experiences and perceptions of their professional role were mirrored in the following themes: 1) managing a central role in patient care; 2) conflicting interests between the professional needs of caregiving and other requests; and 3) being compassionate beyond their official duties. Study II - the experiences and perceptions of older Thai people with depression were abstracted into two themes. The first theme was 1) leading a life of detachment, and the second theme was 2) inconvenience of obtaining mental health treatment. Study III - the experiences and perceptions of family members of older people showing major depression were abstracted into two themes. The first theme was 1) perceiving a traditional rural view on mental illness, and the second was 2) experiencing complexity in everyday life when caring for older depressed family member. Study IV - The 2,636 respondents have moderate knowledge about depression among older people, with a respondent mean score of 5.86 (SD = 1.68). Education level was significantly associated with knowledge about depression. If education level changes from lower to higher, the odds for level of knowledge about depression increase. This result may indicate the need for enhanced mental health literacy in rural areas.

    Conclusion: Older people with depression in a rural Thai area were the responsibility of an inadequate number of psychiatric nurses. The resultsshowed sign of lacking knowledge about depression among older people and an imbalance between the needs of patients and the mental health care provided by the psychiatric nurses in rural areas. The patients and their relatives, and psychiatric nurses felt burdened in daily life. An immediate concern for mental healthcare providers is providing mental literacy in rural areas. These primary results can be used by mental health authorities to develop plans to enhance quality of care for older people with depression, and as such, provide psychosocial support for patients and their family. This would reduce the burden on psychiatric nurses and adjust human resources in mental health services in district hospitals.

  • 148.
    Klingvall Ek, Rebecca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Electron beam melting: Impact of part surface properties on metal fatigue and bone ingrowth2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]


    The aim of this thesis is to investigate aspects on how additive manufacturing (AM) contributes to functional bone implants with the use of the electron beam melting (EBM) technology. AM manufactures parts according to computer-aided design, and the EBM technology melts powder using an electron beam, which acts similar to a laser beam. The topics discussed in this thesis are related to surface roughness that originate from the melted metal powder, and the thesis tries to define some aspects that affect implant functionality. Process parameters steering the electron beam and biocompatibility arising from the surface texture were the initial parts of the PhD studies, and the other half focused on post-processing and fatigue, which are important for medical and industrial applications. There are six studies in this compilation thesis. They are abbreviated as P - process parameters, M - medical applications, and F - fatigue. Studies P, M2, F2, and F3 are journal articles, and M1 and F1 are conference proceedings.

    Study P used design of experiments to investigate how process parameters affect the surface roughness of as-built EBM-manufactured parts and concluded that beam speed and energy (current) were the most important parameters that influence the surface roughness.

    In studies M1 and M2, EBM-manufactured specimens of cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys were used to evaluate biocompatibility. The blood chamber method quantified the reactions of the human whole blood in contact with the metal surfaces, and the results showed how the as-built EBM surface roughness contributed to coagulation and bone healing.

    Rotating beam fatigue equipment was used in studies F1–F3 and study F1 discussed the size effect on fatigue loaded as-built specimens and included specimens with different sizes and with or without hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Study F2 compared as-built and machined specimens and study F3 investigated how Hirtisation, which is a patented electrochemical surface treatment, and HIP affect the fatigue properties that originate from the electrochemical polishing surface topography. The studies showed that a decreased surface roughness increased the fatigue resistance while the stress concentrations (Kt) in the surface of EBM-manufactured specimens decreased.

    The thesis concludes that EBM-manufactured as-built surfaces are suitable for direct contact with the bone, and that HIP does not improve the fatigue resistance of parts with as-built surfaces, where crack initiation starts at notches.

  • 149.
    Klockmo, Carolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The role of personligt ombud in supporting the recovery process for people with psychiatric disabilities2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to explore the experiences and knowledge of Personligt Ombud (PO) (a Swedish version of Case Management) and how they relate to the client's recovery as well as their own role of supporting clients in the recovery process. The thesis consists of four original papers (I-IV), and both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Paper I showed that there were differences in knowledge and attitude toward recovery between three personnel groups: psychiatric outpatient services (POPS), the supported housing team (SHT) and the PO service, where the POs showed greater knowledge about recovery than both POPS and SHT. The results also indicated that university education and training in recovery was positive related to knowledge and attitudes towards recovery. Findings from papers II - IV showed that the clients' choices permeated all of the work that the POs and clients did together. The strategies used by the POs put the client in an active changing process, where he/she became involved in every aspect of the process. The work of the PO included discussions and collaboration with clients. The relationship with the client was the foundation of the work, and it was important to build a working alliance, which also involved a personal dimension. The findings also showed that POs experienced their role as unbounded, where they didn't have to consider any organizational frames, and POs solely represent the client. However, the free role was also connected with responsibilities concerning their work, and POs had to be able to work independently. The role as POs also enables to get a holistic view to both the client as well as to the welfare system. However, the freestanding role demanded legitimacy, and the POs had to work for this. It was important for the PO service to develop good platforms for cooperation with other actors in the society. In conclusion, it is interesting and leads to the question of whether POs and personnel in POPS can relate to two different kinds of recovery: personal vs. clinical. It may be important to consider the need for university education and training in recovery developing recovery-oriented practices. Findings showed that the PO service has developed a method in accordance to the NBHW guidelines, which in many cases, may benefit the clients' recovery process; however, there were aspects the PO service needed to develop. They seemed to use a problem-oriented approach, and they need to change this and look at the clients' strengths, both individual and environmental, and use them in order to support the client to reach goals in life. In Strengths Model Case Management, the Strengths assessment exists, that may be useful. The POs' service also needs to strengthen their organization and possibly develop support among colleagues.

  • 150.
    Kotte, Hari Babu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    High Frequency (MHz) Resonant Converters using GaN HEMTs and Novel Planar Transformer Technology2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased power consumption and power density demands of modern

    technologies have increased the technical requirements of DC/DC and AC/DC power

    supplies. In this regard, the primary objective of the power supply researcher/engineer

    is to build energy efficient, high power density converters by reducing the losses and

    increasing the switching frequency of converters respectively. Operating the converter

    circuits at higher switching frequencies reduces the size of the passive components

    such as transformers, inductors, and capacitors, which results in a compact size,

    weight, and increased power density of the converter. Therefore, the thesis work is

    focussed on the design, analysis and evaluation of isolated converters operating in the

    1 - 5MHz frequency region with the assistance of the latest semi conductor devices,

    both coreless and core based planar power transformers designed in Mid Sweden

    University and which are suitable for consumer applications of varying power levels

    ranging from 1 – 60W.

    In high frequency converter circuits, since the MOSFET gate driver plays a prominent

    role, different commercially available MOSFET gate drivers were evaluated in the

    frequency range of 1 - 5MHz in terms of gate drive power consumption, rise/fall times

    and electromagnetic interference (EMI) and a suitable driver was proposed.

    Initially, the research was focused on the design and evaluation of a quasi resonant

    flyback converter using a multilayered coreless PCB step down transformer in the

    frequency range of 2.7 – 4MHz up to the power level of 10W. The energy efficiency of

    this converter is found to be 72 - 84% under zero voltage switching conditions (ZVS).

    In order to further improve the energy efficiency of the converter in the MHz

    frequency region, the new material device GaN HEMT was considered. The

    comparisons were made on a quasi resonant flyback DC-DC converter using both the

    Si and GaN technology and it was found that an energy efficiency improvement of 8 –

    10% was obtained with the GaN device in the frequency range of 3.2 – 5MHz. In order

    to minimize the gate drive power consumption, switching losses and to increase the

    frequency of the converter in some applications such as laptop adapters, set top box

    (STB) etc., a cascode flyback converter using a low voltage GaN HEMT and a high

    voltage Si MOSFET was designed and evaluated using a multi-layered coreless PCB

    transformer in the MHz frequency region. Both the simulation and experimental

    results have shown that, with the assistance of the cascode flyback converter, the

    switching speeds of the converter can be increased with the benefit of obtaining a

    significant improvement in the energy efficiency as compared to that for the single

    switch flyback converter.

    In order to further maximize the utilization of the transformer, to reduce the voltage

    stress on MOSFETs and to obtain the maximum power density from the converter

    circuit, double ended topologies were considered. Due to the lack of high voltage high

    side gate drivers in the MHz frequency region, a gate drive circuitry utilizing the

    multi-layered coreless PCB signal transformer was designed and evaluated in both a

    half-bridge and series resonant converter (SRC). It was found that the gate drive power

    consumption using this transformer was around 0.66W for the frequency range of 1.5 -


    3.75 MHz. In addition, by using this gate drive circuitry, the maximum energy

    efficiency of the SRC using multilayered coreless PCB power transformer was found to

    be 86.5% with an output power of 36.5W in the switching frequency range of 2 –


    In order to further enhance the energy efficiency of the converter to more than 90%,

    investigations were carried out by using the multiresonant converter topology (LCC

    and LLC), novel hybrid core high frequency planar power transformer and the GaN

    HEMTs. The simulated and experimental results of the designed LCC resonant

    converter show that it is feasible to obtain higher energy efficiency isolated DC/DC

    converters in the MHz frequency region. The peak energy efficiency of the LCC

    converter at 3.5MHz is reported to be 92% using synchronous rectification. Different

    modulation techniques were implemented to regulate the converter for both line and

    load variations using a digital controller.

    In order to realize an AC/DC converter suitable for a laptop adapter application,

    consideration was given to the low line of the universal input voltage range due to the

    GaN switch limitation. The energy efficiency of the regulated converter operating in

    the frequency range of 2.8 – 3.5MHz is reported to be more than 90% with a load

    power of 45W and an output voltage of 22V

    dc. In order to determine an efficient power

    processing method on the secondary side of the converter, a comparison was made

    between diode rectification and synchronous rectification and optimal rectification was

    proposed for the converters operating in the MHz frequency range for a given power

    transfer application. In order to maintain high energy efficiency for a wide load range

    and to maintain the narrow switching frequency range for the given input voltage

    specifications, the LLC resonant converter has been designed and evaluated for the

    adapter application. From the observed results, the energy efficiency of the LLC

    resonant converter is maintained at a high level for a wide load range as compared to

    that for the LCC resonant converter.

    Investigations were also carried out on isolated class E resonant DC-DC converter with

    the assistance of GaN HEMT and a high performance planar power transformer at the

    switching frequency of 5MHz. The simulated energy efficiency of the converter for the

    output power level of 16W is obtained as 88.5% which makes it feasible to utilize the

    designed isolated converter for various applications that require light weight and low

    profile converters.

    In conclusion, the research in this dissertation has addressed various issues related to

    high frequency isolated converters and has proposed solution by designing highly

    energy efficient converters to meet the current industrial trends by using coreless and

    core based planar transformer technologies along with the assistance of GaN HEMTs.

    With the provided solution, in the near future, it is feasible to realize low profile, high

    power density DC/DC and AC/DC converters operating in MHz frequency region

    suitable for various applications.

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