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  • 101.
    Partanen, Petri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Hälsa för lärande - lärande för hälsa2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar entydigt att det finns ett starkt dubbelriktat samband mellan studieresultat och hälsa. Goda resultat leder till bättre hälsa samti-digt som god hälsa ger bättre förutsättningar att nå kunskapsmålen. Vad innebär detta samband mellan hälsa och lärande för undervisningen, för en förskolas eller skolas samlade hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbete, för utformande av lärmiljöer, för rektorns roll i ledarskapet och för personal som möter barn och unga i vardagen? Vilka frisk- eller skyddsfaktorer kan förskolan och skolan främja och hur kan förekomsten av olika riskfaktorer minskas genom förebyggande arbete?

    Syftet med Hälsa för lärande – lärande för hälsa är att inspirera till diskussion och egen fördjupning kring hur hälsa och välbefinnande kan främjas och hur problem och svårigheter kan förebyggas av alla som arbetar i skola och förskola.

  • 102.
    Pazoki, Nicky
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Kärrberg, Josefin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    ”En känsla av maktlöshet”: En kvalitativ studie om biståndshandläggares upplevelser av att bedöma omsorgsinsatser till personer med demenssjukdom2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att förstå biståndshandläggares upplevelser i deras yrkesprofession när det kommer till personer med en demenssjukdom. För att få en djupgående bild om ämnet var kvalitativ metod bäst lämpad med en hermeneutistiskt vetenskaplig ansats. Semistrukturerade intervjuer gjordes med sex biståndshandläggare med en erfarenhet på minst två år, i tre olika kommuner i Stockholms län. Vi analyserade vår insamlade empiri med hjälp av en latent innehållsanalys vilket resulterade i två huvudteman och sex underteman. I resultatet har vi jämfört vår insamlade empiri med tidigare forskning samt mot teoretiska perspektiv och begrepp som organisationsteori, gräsrotsbyråkrati, handlingsutrymme samt klientrelationen. Vi har kommit fram till att biståndshandläggare upplever en viss problematik med att bedöma omsorgsinsatser till personer med demenssjukdom. Biståndshandläggare känner ofta en maktlöshet i sin yrkesprofession då det saknas riktlinjer och utbildning inom området demens. Biståndshandläggare måste även vidga sitt handlingsutrymme för att påverka brukarinflytandet hos den demenssjuke.

  • 103.
    Persson, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Stojcevic, Elizabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    ”Nu får det vara nog”: En kvalitativ studie om hur kvinnliga socialsekreterare på Socialtjänst ekonomiskt bistånd uppfattar sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö och dess konsekvenser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur kvinnliga socialsekreterare inom ekonomiskt bistånd i en storstad uppfattade sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö och om denna upplevelse har en inverkan på om socialsekreterare vill stanna kvar på sin arbetsplats eller inte. Detta undersöktes genom en kvalitativ studie med genomförande av sex semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultatet från dessa intervjuer tyder på att den psykosociala arbetsmiljön är av betydelse för socialsekreterarnas vilja att stanna på sin arbetsplats. Den psykosociala arbetsmiljöns påverkan på individen är kontextbunden och den komplexa verkligheten är beroende av både socialsekreterares uppfattning av krav-, kontroll- och stöd i förhållande till de omslutande nivåerna som berör individen utifrån utvecklingsekologin.

  • 104.
    Peterson, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Jensen, Louise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    ”Det är okej så länge jag håller mig inom ramarna, så länge det inte syns”: En översikt på området om substansbrukande kvinnor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftade till att undersöka det aktuella forskningsfältet avseende substansbrukande kvinnor samt hur dessa kan påverkas av sociala strukturer, normer och barriärer när det kommer till att tillhandahålla stöd. Angreppssättet har därmed varit att göra en litteraturöversikt genom beaktandet av kritiska teorier utifrån att se om dessa sociala strukturer och normer påverkar kvinnor som brukar substanser att söka hjälp och hur man kan undanröja dessa barriärer. Resultaten visade att tillgängligheten för behandling var sämre för kvinnor än för män samt att attityder och diskriminering spelade en roll i detta. Det framkom även att normer och traditionella könsmönster påverkade kvinnor när det kom till att söka hjälp, och därmed även tillhandahålla stöd.

  • 105.
    Petersson, Tyra Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Wiklander, Lennart
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    ”Men det tog jag inte riktigt på allvar, för det var ju ett barn!”: En kvalitativ studie om hot och våld mot socionomer på HVB-hem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ambitionen med denna studie har varit att undersöka förekomsten av hot och våld mot socionomer verksamma inom HVB-hem och den enskilda socionomens uppfattning om vad hot och våld är. Samtidigt har vi velat synliggöra vem som bär ansvaret för uppkomsten av hot och våld, enligt den enskilda socionomen, samt vilka behov den enskilde socionomen anser sig behöva för att kunna hantera detta. Sex kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts i denna studie, med socionomer verksamma inom HVB-hem. Det insamlade empiriska materialet har analyserats med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Tidigare forskning inom området och två teoretiska perspektiv har också bidragit till grunden för tolkning och analys av resultatet från studien. Studiens resultat påvisar att det finns flera faktorer som påverkar den enskilda socionomens, som är verksam inom HVB-hem, uppfattning om hot och våld. Faktorer som; kunskap om ämnet, tidigare erfarenheter och hög tolerans, resulterar i en snäv definition. En definition som bidrar till att hot och våld normaliseras. Utbildning och en enhetlighet är viktig och positiva faktorer i arbetet med att förebygga och hantera hot och våld. Ytterligare forskning inom ämnet skulle ge bättre förutsättningar i arbetet med att stävja detta problem gällande hot och våld.

  • 106.
    Pokka, Karolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    ”När man ser på mig för den jag är och inte hur man tror jag är”: En kvalitativ studie om varför svenska samer söker vård hos Sanks i Norge2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien undersöks det varför samer från Sverige söker vård i Norge hos Sanks. Syftet var att få veta mer om svenska samers erfarenheter av aktörer inom hälso-och sjukvård och socialtjänst och undersöka vad det är som gör att svenska samer söker vård hos norska Sanks. Sanks är ett samiskt centrum för psykisk hälsa i Norge och målet är att bidra till en likvärdig vård för den samiska befolkningen som majoritetsbefolkningen. Sanks har behandling för barn, unga och vuxna inom psykisk hälsa och missbruksproblematik. I studien deltar tre personer som alla är samer från Sverige och har sökt vård hos Sanks. Studien är kvalitativ och har genomförts genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultatet har sedan analyserats med hjälp av innehållsanalys. Resultatet av studien är uppdelad i olika teman som samiska identiteten, upplevelser i Sverige, upplevelser från Sanks och förändring. Resultatet visar att kunskapsbrist är en stor anledning till att svenska samer söker vård hos Sanks i Norge. I resultatet framkom det att svenska samer upplever att de ofta får förklara och berätta om sin samiska kultur och bakgrund i vårdmöten. Informanterna upplevde att de blev förstådda och kände inte att de behövde förklara sin livssituation när de fick kontakt med Sanks.

  • 107.
    Quisth, Janine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Det handlar om liv eller död: Transpersoners upplevelser av yrkesverksamma socionomer i utredningsprocessen för könsbekräftande behandling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Transpersoner är en utsatt grupp som blir exkluderade och diskriminerade i samhället. Få studier lyfter dessa människors utsatthet och än mindre deras egna upplevelser av utsattheten. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur transpersoner upplever bemötandet av yrkesverksamma socialarbetare i utredningsprocessen för könsbekräftande behandling. Detta undersöks med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer som sedan analyseras utifrån en tematisk innehållsanalys. Studien utgår från teorierna intersektionalitet och queerteori för att analysera respondenternas utsagor. Studiens konklusion är att respondenterna i denna studie saknar ett professionellt bemötande från yrkesverksamma socialarbetare och att de behövs mer kunskap för att kunna bemöta denna grupp på ett professionellt sätt.

  • 108.
    Rondung, Elisabet
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Ekdahl, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Potential mechanisms in fear of birth: The role of pain catastrophizing and intolerance of uncertainty.2019In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although many pregnant women experience fear, worry, or anxiety relating to the upcoming birth, little is known regarding the psychological mechanisms contributing to these experiences. In this study, we wanted to take a first step in trying to identify mechanisms of potential interest. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to investigate pain catastrophizing, intolerance of uncertainty, positive worry beliefs, and cognitive avoidance as potential mechanisms predicting fear of birth among pregnant women.

    METHODS: A sample of 499 pregnant women, recruited in antenatal health care settings in 2 Swedish regions, completed the Fear of Birth Scale, along with measurements of the mechanisms of interest. Linear and logistic hierarchical regression analyses were used to investigate the extent to which pain catastrophizing, intolerance of uncertainty, positive worry beliefs, and cognitive avoidance predicted fear of birth, both as a continuous and a dichotomous measure.

    RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed high levels of pain catastrophizing and intolerance of uncertainty to be the best predictors of fear of birth, OR 3.49 (95% CI 2.17-5.61) and OR 3.25 (95% CI 2.00-5.27), respectively. Positive beliefs about worry and cognitive avoidance were both correlated with fear of birth as a continuous measure, but did not contribute to the logistic regression model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pain catastrophizing and intolerance of uncertainty were the most evident predictors of fear of birth. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that interventions targeting catastrophic cognitions and intolerance of uncertainty might be relevant to psychological treatment for fear, worry, or anxiety relating to giving birth.

  • 109.
    Rosén, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Kastrati, Granit
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Reppling, Aksel
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Bergkvist, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    The effect of immersive virtual reality on proximal and conditioned threat2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 17407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality lets the user be immersed in a 3-dimensional environment, which can enhance certain emotional responses to stimuli relative to experiencing them on a flat computer screen. We here tested whether displaying two different types of threats in immersive virtual reality enhanced threat related autonomic responses measured by skin conductance responses (SCRs). We studied innate and learned threat responses because these types of threats have been shown to depend on different neural circuits in animals. Therefore, it is possible that immersive virtual reality may modulate one of these threats but not the other. Innate threat responses were provoked by the sudden appearance of characters at proximal egocentric distance, which were compared to the sudden appearance of distant characters (proximal threat). Learned threat responses were studied by conditioning two of the characters to an electric shock (conditioned threat) and contrasting SCRs to these characters with SCRs to two other characters that were never paired with shock. We found that displaying stimuli in immersive virtual reality enhanced proximal threat responses but not conditioned threat responses. Findings show that immersive virtual reality can enhance an innate type of threat responses without affecting a learned threat response, suggesting that separate neural pathways serve these threat responses. 

  • 110.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Leiler, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Is the refugee health screener a useful tool when screening 14-18 year old refugee adolescents for emotional distress?2019In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 32, no Special_Issue_1, p. i141-i150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high number of asylum seekers in Sweden has highlighted the need for structured assessment tools to screen for refugee mental health problems in clinical services. We examined the utility of the Refugee Health Screener (RHS) in refugee adolescents, aged 14-18, attending routine clinical examinations or staying in group homes/refugee centres (N=29). Participants completed a survey, including the RHS, administered through iPads in their native language. The RHS showed excellent internal consistency (α = .96) and correlated moderately with symptoms of PTSD (r=0.41, p=.025). Mean scores and prevalence rates were comparable to a study of adult refugees in Sweden. Unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) scored significantly higher (M=32.0, SD=12.9) compared to youth staying with their families (M=7.5, SD=8.2, p<.001, d=2.27). Our findings confirm that the RHS can be used in the adolescent population in Sweden.  These findings moreover suggest that URMs are a particularly vulnerable group with a large burden of mental health problems.

  • 111.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Warner, Georgina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Fängström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Durbeej, Natalie
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Lampa, Elin
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Baghdasaryan, Zaruhi
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Osman, Fatumo
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Gupta Löfving, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Perez Aronsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Sampaio, Filipa
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Calam, Rachel
    University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Leiler, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Rondung, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Wasteson, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Oppedal, Brit
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Keeshin, Brooks
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.
    Evaluation of the Teaching Recovery Techniques community-based intervention for unaccompanied refugee youth experiencing post-traumatic stress symptoms (Swedish UnaccomPanied yOuth Refugee Trial; SUPpORT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2020In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 21, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In 2015, 162,877 persons sought asylum in Sweden, 35,369 of whom were unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs). Refugee children, especially URMs, have often experienced traumas and are at significant risk of developing mental health problems, such as symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety, which can continue years after resettlement. The Swedish UnaccomPanied yOuth Refugee Trial (SUPpORT) aims to evaluate a community-based intervention, called Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT), for refugee youth experiencing PTSD symptoms.

    METHODS/DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in which participants will be randomly allocated to one of two possible arms: the intervention arm (n = 109) will be offered the TRT programme, and the waitlist-control arm (n = 109) will receive services as usual, followed by the TRT programme around 20 weeks later. Outcome data will be collected at three points: pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2; about 8 weeks after randomisation) and follow-up (T3; about 20 weeks after randomisation).

    DISCUSSION: This study will provide knowledge about the effect and efficiency of a group intervention for URMs reporting symptoms of PTSD in Sweden. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN47820795. Prospectively registered on 20 December 2018.

  • 112.
    Sejadi, Madina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Vi blir inte lyckligare av att sova bättre: En behandlingsstudie med KBT-I som undersöker om olika behandlingsupplägg påverkar livskvalitet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 113.
    Silva, Catarina
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Lisboa, Portugal; Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille, France.
    Jover, Chloé
    Service de Pédopsychiatrie, Marseille, France.
    Da Fonseca, David
    Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille, France; Service de Pédopsychiatrie, Marseille, France.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work. Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Lisboa, Portugal.
    Deruelle, Christine
    Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille, France.
    Acting on observed social exclusion and pro-social behaviour in autism spectrum disorder2020In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 233-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are commonly motivated towards cooperation and prosociality. In this study, we examined this motivational predisposition in autistic individuals. Using an adaptation of the Cyberball paradigm, we investigated subsequent pro-social behaviour after witnessing social exclusion. Participants witnessed and played a series of Cyberball games, rated their affective state and valued emotional faces with respect to their approachability. Results showed that participants from both groups were aware of the social exclusion. However, while neurotypically developing participants engaged in pro-social behaviour in reaction to the exclusion, autistic participants showed less alterations, in terms of either behaviour or affective state. The current findings suggest a distinct motivational drive and processing of social reward stimuli in autism, which may result in behavioural responses divergent from typical development when engaging in the social world.

  • 114.
    Sjöberg Dahlgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Fyhr, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    ‘Following guidelines from above’: A qualitative study about how professionals working with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda, experience the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) sees Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) as a worldwide health problem and is therefore an important component in their strive to promote good health, comfort and sustainable development. The aim of this study is to explore how professionals within two organisations in Kampala, Uganda, implement and work to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to HIV/AIDS. Semi-structured interviews and documents has been collected and analysed with content analysis. Previous research shows that there are both possibilities and limitations related to the SDGs and that the context of different nations will affect how the SDGs are implemented and used. The System theoretical organisations theory has provided insight to understand how the context contributes to and affect the implementation process. The result shows that the SDGs is implemented through guidelines, which the originations and the professionals follows. These guidelines come from the government in which they have interpreted and adjusted the SDGs to their national context. The guidelines are seen by the participants as both helpful and as an obstacle in their work to prevent HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, the professionals experience difficulties achieving the goals and preventing new HIV infections do to, stigma, culture believes and values as well as lack of resources Therefore, there is a need for change on several levels within the society to further develop the work to prevent HIV/AIDS.

  • 115.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Estimation of Speaker Age: Effects of Speech Properties and Speech Material2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate factors related to accuracy in estimation of speaker age and the role of certain speech properties in perception and manipulation of speaker age, as well as their interaction with the speech material that the age estimates were based on. This thesis consists of three studies.

    In Study 1 the aim was to investigate the role of speech rate as well as the level of accuracy in estimation of speaker age, depending on linguistic variation in the speech material (read versus spontaneous speech). In two experiments, one using read speech from 36 female and male speakers in three age groups (younger: 20-25 years, middle aged: 40-45 years and older:60-65 years old) as stimuli, and the other using spontaneous speech from the same speakers, we investigated how changes in speech rate influenced listeners’ age estimates of young adult, middle aged and older speakers. The results revealed that listeners estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older speakers in comparison with younger speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate was decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech.

    Study 2 investigated how speakers spontaneously manipulate two age related vocal characteristics (fundamental frequency and speech rate) in attempts to sound younger versus older than their true age, and if the manipulations correspond to actual age related changes in fundamental frequency (F0) and speech rate. The study also aimed at determining how successful vocal age disguise is by asking listeners to estimate the age of generated speech samples and to examine whether or not listeners use F0 and speech rate as cues to perceived age. Participants from three age groups (20–25, 40–45, and 60–65 years) agreed to read a short text under three voice conditions. There were 12 speakers in each age group (six women and six men). They used their natural voice in one condition, attempted to sound 20 years younger in another and 20 years older in a third condition. Sixty listeners were exposed to speech samples from the three voice conditions and estimated the speakers’ age. Each listener was exposed to all three voice conditions. The results indicated that the speakers increased F0 and speech rate when attempting to sound younger and decreased F0 and speech rate when attempting to sound older. The voice manipulations had an effect on age estimation in the sought-after direction, although the achieved mean effect was only 3 years, which is far less than the intended effect of 20 years. Moreover, listeners used speech rate, but not F0, as a cue to speaker age. It was concluded that age disguise by voice can be achieved by naïve speakers even though the perceived effect was smaller than intended.

    In Study 3 the aim was to study confidence and accuracy in estimates of speaker age and whether confidence can serve as an indicator of estimation accuracy. Two experiments were performed investigating accuracy in estimation of speaker age, as well as the listeners’ confidence that their estimates were correct. In Experiment 1 listeners made age estimates based on spontaneous speech while in Experiment 2 the estimates were based on read speech. The purpose of the study was to explore differences in accuracy and confidence depending on speech material, speaker characteristics (gender and age) and listener gender. Another purpose was to examine the realism in the listeners’ confidence ratings in estimations of spontaneous versus read speech. No differences in accuracy or confidence were found due to speech material type. Although accuracy was higher in estimates of male speakers, confidence was higher in estimates of female speakers. As the correlation between confidence and accuracy was weak, it was concluded that confidence should not be relied on as an indicator of accuracy in estimation of speaker age.

    The three studies in this thesis provide some insight into different aspects of perception of speaker age. Possible implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  • 116.
    Storm, Hanne
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Günther, Anders
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm.
    Sackey, Peter Victor
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Bernhardsson, Jens
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Measuring pain: Physiological and self-rated measurements in relation to pain stimulation and anxiety2019In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 668-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate how emotions influence pain, measured by one subjective self-rated measure, the numeric rating scale (NRS), and one objective physiological measure, the number of skin conductance responses (NSCR). Method: Eighteen volunteers were exposed to conditions with pictorial emotional stimuli (neutral, positive, negative), authentic ICU-sound (noise, no-noise) and electrical stimulation (pain, no-pain) individually titrated to induce moderate pain. When using all combinations of picture inducing emotions, sound, and pain, each of these conditions (12 conditions lasting for 60 seconds each) were followed by pain ratings. Ratings of arousal (low to high) and valence (pleasant to unpleasant) were used as indicators of affective state for each condition. Mean NSCR was also measured throughout the experiment for each condition. Results: Even though NRS and NSCR increased during painful stimuli, they did not correlate during the trial. However, NSCR was positively correlated with the strength of the electrical stimulation, r = 0.48, P = 0.046, whereas NRS showed positive correlations with the anxiety level, assessed by affective ratings (arousal, r = 0.61, P < 0.001, and valence, r = 0.37, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The NRS was strongly influenced by affective state, with higher pain ratings during more anxiety-like states, whereas NSCR correlated to the strength of electrical pain stimulation. That reported pain is moderated by anxiety, puts forward a discussion whether reduction of the anxiety level should be considered during analgesia treatment.

  • 117.
    Syed, Husain
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Wojdyla, Karolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    “Jag är anställd på hundra procent men det är som att man ändå bara försöker kämpa för att få skolan att hålla näsan över vattenytan”: En kvalitativ studie om skolkuratorers upplevelser och uppfattningar om deras uppdrag i skolan samt deras förväntningar i yrkesrollen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur skolkuratorer ser på sin yrkesroll, sin funktion och sitt uppdrag i skolan samt om de upplever att de hinner med sina arbetsuppgifter. Studien byggde på en kvalitativ ansats och datainsamlingen var baserad på sju semistrukturerade intervjuer som gjordes i Stockholmsområdet. Empirin analyserades med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys och har tolkats med hjälp av rollteorin och professionsteorin. Resultatet visar att skolkuratorers yrkesroll är otydlig. Lärarna är den profession i skolan som upplever skolkuratorns yrkesroll som otydlig medan för elevhälsan är skolkuratorns yrkesroll tydlig. Skolledningen har däremot en varierande syn på skolkuratorns uppdrag. Skolkuratorerna är eniga om att de inte hinner med det förebyggande och hälsofrämjande arbetet och att de alltid måste prioritera bort många av sina arbetsuppgifter på grund av tidsbrist. Detta beror på att skolkuratorerna oftast ansvarar för ett högt antal elever och även på grund av olika förväntningar som riktas mot de från andra professioner inom skolans arena. Det är främst lärarna som förväntar sig utav skolkuratorerna att de ska ha huvudansvaret för olika typer av anmälningar och dokumentation i skolan vilket orsakar överbelastning i skolkuratorernas arbetssituation.

  • 118.
    Tadeusdotter, Iwona
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Familjehem – föräldraskap på uppdrag: En kvalitativ studie om familjehemsföräldrars upplevelser och erfarenheter av Familjehemsuppdraget och samarbetet med socialtjänsten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker familjehemsföräldrars upplevelser och erfarenheter av familjehemsuppdrag och socialtjänstens samarbete och stöd. Undersökningen riktar in sig på tre frågeställningar med fokus på hur familjehemsföräldrarna upplever sitt uppdrag, om det finns tillräckligt med stöd och samarbete från socialtjänsten för att kunna hantera uppdraget och vad som behövs förbättras från socialtjänsten sida för att bidra till ett välfungerande familjehemsuppdrag. I denna undersökning har fem familjehem intervjuats med hjälp av halvstrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer. Materialet som samlats in har analyserats med hjälp av innehållsanalys och tolkats med teoretiska perspektiv som New Public Management och utvecklingsekologiskt perspektiv. Resultatet visar att familjehemsuppdraget är ett svårt och ansvarsfullt uppdrag, men samtidigt väldigt givande och stimulerande. Med relevant stöd och hjälp från socialtjänsten är det mycket lättare att utföra uppdraget. Resultaten visar däremot att det finns brister i stödet till familjehemmet. I resultaten kommer det även fram förslag till förbättringar vilka socialtjänsten kan göra och en del åtgärder som ligger mer på nationell nivå.

  • 119.
    Tell Norström, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Tågefelt, Ville
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Anmäla våldet eller inte – en rädsla för att sakna bevis: En kvalitativ studie om hemtjänstpersonalens erfarenheter av våld mot äldre i nära relationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mörkertalet för hur många äldre som utsätts för våld i nära relationer bedöms vara stort. Hemtjänstenspersonal är en yrkesgrupp som arbetar nära äldre människor i deras hem och kan därför ha goda möjligheter att uppmärksamma tecken på våld mot äldre i nära relationer. Syftet med studien var att genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med två chefer och fem personal inom hemtjänsten få fördjupade kunskaper, utifrån deras professionella erfarenheter, om hur våld i nära relationer mot äldre hanteras inom äldreomsorgen. Det framkom att hemtjänstpersonalen inte upplevde att våld mot äldre i nära relation var vanligt förekommande samt att hemtjänstpersonalen ogärna rapporterar om de inte är säkra på sin sak. Av resultaten framgår det att det behövs bättre riktlinjer och utbildning i ämnet, primärt kring hur tecken på våld ska tolkas och rapporteras.

  • 120.
    Temesgen, Meron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Vem humaniseras?: En kritisk diskursanalys av hur västerländska nyhetsartiklar framställer vita terrorister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att analysera hur västerländska nyhetsartiklar porträtterar vita terrorister, för att visa vad en orättvis och ojämlik medialskildring kan få för konsekvenser på både en strukturell och individuell nivå. Västerländsk nyhetsmedia tenderar att generellt porträttera vita och icke-vita människor annorlunda, vilket också är fallet gällande ämnet terrorism. Studien är kvalitativ och genomfördes med Teun A. van Dijks modell för kritisk diskursanalys. Det analyserade materialet bestod av sex artiklar beträffande tre fall av vita terrorister; Brenton Tarrant, Dylann Roof and Anders Behring Breivik. Resultatet visade att vita terrorister skildras i ett humaniserande ljus. Västerländsk nyhetsmedia är benägna att, i fall av vita terrorister, vara försiktiga vid användandet av ordet ”terrorist”. Västerländsk nyhetsmedia visar också en vilja att uppnå förståelse för terrorattackerna utförda av vita terrorister. Detta görs genom en redogörelse för terroristernas bakgrund, intressen och övergripande potentiella förklaringar till attackerna. Humaniseringen av vita terrorister är, särskilt ur teori-linsen orientalism, ett exempel på hur diskriminering, ur ett privilegierat perspektiv, förekommer i praktiken.

  • 121.
    Toutin, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Långvarig skolfrånvaro hos elever med neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning: En kvalitativ studie om skolans miljömässiga riskfaktorer och elevhälsans förebyggande arbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hemmasittare kallas de elever som har långvarig ogiltig frånvaro i skolan. Bland de elever som är hemmasittare har majoriteten en neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning. Dessa elever har ofta svårigheter i att bearbeta intryck, tolka sin omgivning och kommunicera med andra. Koncentrationsproblem och svårigheter med att anpassa aktivitetsnivån är även vanligt. Utan miljö & kravanpassningar för elever med neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning riskerar skolans miljö att bidra till utvecklandet av långvarig skolfrånvaro. Genom att undersöka vilka riskfaktorer som finns i skolans miljö och hur dessa riskfaktorer kan undvikas, så kan tillgängligheten främjas även för elever med neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka riskfaktorer som finns i skolans miljö som kan bidra till långvarig skolfrånvaro. Syftet är vidare att undersöka hur elevhälsan arbetar för att främja tillgängligheten för elever med neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats där tre intervjuer har genomförts med personal inom elevhälsan. Resultatet visar på att det finns viss kunskapsbrist gällande neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning inom elevhälsan. Resultatet visar också att det förekommer flertalet riskfaktorer som ökar risken för långvarig skolfrånvaro i skolans miljö. Det förebyggande arbetet inom elevhälsan riktar sig främst till personal och till enskilda elever.

  • 122.
    Wahlborg, Rasmus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Äldre och alkohol: En litteraturstudie rörande äldres alkoholvanor samt om äldres riskbruk och missbruk av alkohol2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkoholkonsumtionen bland äldre personer har under senare år ökat och frågan kring äldres alkoholkonsumtion har länge förbisetts och ignorerats. Alkoholforskningen har till stor del fokuserats på andra åldersgrupper och befintlig forskning på området är delvis tunn. Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att undersöka alkoholvanor hos äldre personer över 60 år. Den övergripande bild av problemet som presenteras i föreliggande studie är baserad på aktuell forskning. Underlaget för studien utgörs av 15 stycken vetenskapligt granskade artiklar som presenteras i tre olika temaområden. Det vetenskapliga materialet har sedan sammanknutits och analyserats utifrån teoretiska perspektiv som ansetts lämpliga för problemområdet. Slutsatserna som drogs efter denna analys av materialet var att aktuell forskning på området beskriver att äldre personer dricker mer alkohol än tidigare och att äldre personer är extra känsliga för alkoholens skadliga effekter. Den aktuella forskningen pekar också på att frågan kring den ökande alkoholkonsumtionen hos äldre personer länge har ignorerats och inte tagits på allvar.

  • 123.
    Wallin, Lina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Vesterberg, Pia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Evidensbaserad praktik inom socialt arbete i Sverige: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Evidence based practice within social work in Sweden: a systematic literature study

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the research concerning EBP in a Swedish context.

    Method: a systematic literature study, wherein 16 articles were used and assessed using thematic analysis.

    Results: the study further clarifies the vagueness concerning the term EBP and what it contains. The results point to several factors which facilitate as well as inhibit the implementation of EBP, and that organization and leadership pose a significant role in the development of social workers organizations. Further findings are the gap between theory and practice and the lack of research of EBP in a Swedish context.

  • 124.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Behavior Change Towards a Sustainable Lifestyle – Effects of Interventions and Psychological Factors on Pro-Environmental Behaviors2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes due to human-caused global warming are serious challenges for the planet. Changes in individual human behavior towards more pro-environmental actions are thus highly necessary. Human behavior is complex, however, and promoting behavior change requires a solid understanding of how people behave in different situations and contexts.

    Previous research has pointed out several reasons why people do not behave in accordance with our knowledge about the threat of climate change. Besides structural barriers, other reasons may be related to psychological barriers, such as beliefs, values, and social norms, which limit us in adopting more pro-environmental choices and behaviors. The overall aims of this thesis were to investigate the effects of interventions on energy conservation and ecological food consumption in promoting pro-environmental behavior, to explore the experiences of an energy-saving intervention from the perspective of the participants, and to investigate how values, attitudes, and other psychological factors predict pro-environmental behavior and pro-environmental intentions.

    This thesis is built on four studies. The first study was a survey, where an investigation was made of the predictive power of value orientation, awareness of consequences, environmental concern, moral judgment competence, locus of control, and sense of coherence, on eight pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions. The results showed that only the value type universalism predicts pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions, with attitudes, awareness of consequences for the biosphere, and environmental concern for the biosphere as intermediate or transmitting variables. The results indicate that found determinants of one single behavior may not be applied to other behaviors as dependent variables. Thus, a separate analysis for every type of both actual and intentional lifestyle might have been more successful in confirming these independent variables as determinants of pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions.

    The second study was a randomized quasi-experimental field study. This field intervention investigated the effect of feedback on residential electricity use in households. For a period of eight weeks, differentiated energy use for daily domestic behaviors was monitored by 15 residents via an internet-based system. Feedback based on Relational Frame Theory was used to enhance motivation for energy conservation, and follow-up studies analyzed the maintenance of change for another three months. Psychological factors, including values, attitudes, moral judgment competence, locus of control, and sense of coherence, were simultaneously assessed by web surveys. No significant effects of the feedback on reduction of energy use were found. The small sample size, and the fact that warm water energy use was not monitored, were discussed as explanatory factors.

    In the third study, semi-structured interviews were conducted among eight households having participated in the intervention in the second study. The interview transcripts were subject to qualitative content analysis with the purpose of exploring the experiences of the participants. Those experiences were, on the one hand, described as a struggle to overcome internal and external barriers as well as feelings of contradiction and ambivalence, representing the limitations imposed by participating. On the other hand, there were also descriptions of feelings of ability and motivation, and interaction between satisfaction and improvements, representing the opportunities available to a participant in this kind of intervention. These results support the importance of specific strategies in developing the design of future interventions for promoting residential energy conservation.

    Finally, in the fourth study, an experimental field study was conducted to investigate the effects of behavioral interventions, commonly known as nudges, in promoting the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. The consumption of both organically and conventionally produced fruits and vegetables was measured during four days (one day every other week) in a grocery store, where consumers were exposed to informational messages in combination with either emotional images or social norm messages. Measurements of daily consumption without exposure to nudges were carried out during four other days (one day every other week, alternated with the nudging days). The results showed that the proportion of sold organic products in the total sale of the selected fruits and vegetables was slightly higher during nudging days when price differences between conventional and organic products were low. This limited effect of nudging disappeared when the price of organic products was considerably higher than the price of conventionally produced products. The results indicate that there is a need to take measures to compensate for the prevailing differences in price between organic and conventional products. Such measures are, for example, the application of a combination of all available nudging tools to strengthen the effects of nudging, as well as collecting psychological data from the participants to be aware of their attitudes towards choices of organic products.

    Taken together, the overall findings of the studies in this thesis confirm the complexity of behavior and of behavior change. Many questions remain unanswered and suggestions on how to develop the research on these issues are discussed.

  • 125.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahlström, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Experiences of reducing household energy consumption - a qualitative analysis of a field studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted among eight households having participated in an intervention with a motivation-increasing design and behavior-focused techniques in order to change behavior towards a reduction of residential energy use. Interview transcripts were subject to qualitative content analysis with the purpose of exploring the experiences of the participants. Those experiences were described as a struggle to overcome internal and external barriers as well as feelings of contradiction and ambivalence, representing limitations imposed by participating, together with descriptions of feelings of ability and motivation, and interaction between satisfaction and improvements, representing the opportunities available to a participant in this kind of intervention. How and to what extent future energy policies and the development of interventions may take these experiences into account is discussed.

  • 126.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahlström, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    The effect of nudging in promoting the consumption of organic fruits and vegetablesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study collecting behavioral data was conducted to investigate effects of behavioral interventions, commonly known as nudges, in promoting the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. Consumption, both organically and conventionally produced fruits and vegetables, was measured in a grocery store during four days (one day every other week) where consumers were exposed to informational messages in combination with either emotional images or social norm messages. Measurements of daily consumption without exposure to nudges were carried out during four other days (one day every other week, alternated with the nudging days). The results showed that the proportion of sold organic products in total sale of the selected fruits and vegetables was slightly higher during nudging days when price differences between conventional and organic products were low. This limited effect of nudging disappeared when the price of organic products was essential higher than the price of conventionally produced products.

  • 127.
    Widberg, Emilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Varför gör min älskling så?: En litteraturöversikt av mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en hög jämställdhet men samtidigt visar statistik oroväckande höga nivåer av mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer jämfört med andra länder. Det behövs medvetenhet kring orsaker om mäns våld mot kvinnor för att kunna förebygga våldet, idag är insatser från socialt arbete främst inriktat mot att hjälpa våldsutsatta kvinnor. Syftet var att genom en litteraturöversikt finna förklaringar kring orsaker om varför män utsätter kvinnor för våld i nära relationer utifrån nordisk forskning. Studien sökte även efter makt-och maskulinitetsnormer i förklaringsmodeller som kunde förklara mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer. Könsmaktsperspektivet och hegemonisk maskulinitetsteori låg till grund för tolkning och analys av insamlat material. Resultaten visade att orsaker för våldet förklarades genom mäns missbruk av alkohol/droger, problematiska barndom, kriminalitet, psykiska ohälsa, arbetslöshet och oavslutade gymnasiestudier. Våldet kunde även förklaras genom makt- och maskulinitetsnormer då män använde våld vid känslan av underordning. Genom våldet försökte männen upprätthålla nuvarande norm om att mannen är överordnad kvinnan.

  • 128.
    Wirdebäck, Ola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Faktorer som påverkar psykologers och psykologstudenters benägenhet att söka hjälp vid   psykis ohälsa2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 129.
    Ödegaard, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Är den ojämlika hälsan nästa samhällsutmaning?: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att medellivslängden ökar och vi blir allt friskare fortsätter den ojämlika i hälsan att öka. Samhället bör skapa goda förutsättningar för att jämna ut skillnader i hälsa, som i sin tur bidrar till en hållbar utveckling. Eftersom socialarbetare kommer i kontakt med utsatta grupper i sitt dagliga arbete, har de en unik position att vägleda individer i rätt riktning som främjar en god hälsoutveckling. Syftet med studien är att studera aktuell forskning för att skapa en förståelse för de bakomliggande mekanismer som ger upphov till ojämlik hälsa. Metoden är en litteraturstudie som analyserar aktuellt forskningsläge inom valt ämnesområde. Resultatet visar att individer med låg utbildningsnivå och låginkomsttagare tillhör riskgrupper för att utveckla en sämre hälsa. Sämre hälsa riskerar även att reproduceras och överföras till nästa generation. Studien visar även att en jämn fördelning av samhällets resurser bekämpar ojämlikhet i hälsa.

  • 130.
    Österman, Johanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Helsing, Linnéa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    ”Jag valde utbildningen för att jag vill jobba med människor!”: En kvantitativ studie om valet av utbildning och högkänsligt personlighetsdrag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether people with the highly sensitive personality trait are more often looking for an education with a focus on a human treatment profession. The study is quantitative and was conducted through questionnaires on students in four classes from the program in Social Work and the program in Economics at Mid Sweden University in Östersund. The collected empirical data was analyzed through a bivariate analysis and then presented in descriptive statistics. The result indicated that there were no major differences between the programs regarding the choice of education and the highly sensitive person. Some results, on the other hand, show a difference between the sexes in relation to the highly sensitive personality, it is also possible to indicate that there may be a certain connection between the highly sensitive personality trait and the choice of education.

  • 131.
    Östman, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Unaccompanied refugee minors and political responses in Sweden: Challenges for social work2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there are 68.5 million people forcibly displaced around the world, which is the highest figure since World War II. The affected individuals have fled their homes to seek protection elsewhere, either within their own country or across national borders. Approximately 16.2 million people were newly displaced during the year 2017 as a result of conflict, persecution, generalised violence and human rights violations. Against this backdrop of increased displacement, it is worthy of note that 52 per cent of the world’s refugee population is comprised of children under 18 years of age, which is the greatest number in a decade. Within this particular group, the number of unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) seeking asylum has increased significantly and has today reached its highest level since the United Nations Higher Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) began collecting such systematic data in 2006 (UNHCR, 2018). Although statistics show that the number of URMs seeking asylum in Sweden has steadily increased since 2006, the sudden increase of this group in 2015 in particular was considerable and both caused a poisonous political debate concerning the country’s immigration policy and created a major challenge for Swedish reception and integration policy. This study is focused on the case of unaccompanied minors from Afghanistan who immigrated to Sweden in 2015.

    The main objective of this study is to examine how the Swedish reception system and social work institutions meet the needs and ambitions of URMs. The study seeks to answer the following research questions: how has the increase in immigration in 2015 influenced Swedish political parties’ programmes and policies?; how does the municipal receiving system for unaccompanied refugee minors in Sweden function according to the experiences of minors and their carers?; what are some of the possibilities and hindrances that exist in respect of unaccompanied refugee minors’ integration into Swedish society?; and how well-informed and prepared are Swedish social workers and the ‘staff from family-homes’ in meeting the needs and ambitions of unaccompanied refugee minors? The methodology used in this study is qualitative content analysis based on the Swedish political debate regarding migration and integration between 2014–2018, and the result of 29 interviews with 12 URMs, nine carers, three persons from ‘family-homes’, three municipal social workers and two legal guardians.

    The theoretical framework used to analyse the data in this study is postcolonial theory and critical intersectionalism. Given the fact that Afghanistan has, during the course of its modern history, been subjected to the colonial and imperialist politics of European countries, the recent increase of Afghan URM migration to Sweden cannot be separated from this: that is, foreign direct intervention in the home country of these refugees in the form of Western countries’ postcolonial political and economic policies. When used critically, an intersectional perspective helps us to avoid unqualified generalisations, which is often interwoven in the concept of ‘immigrants’ in general and URMs in particular.

    The analysis suggests that the political debate influencing Swedish migration and integration policies almost totally ignores the role of Western countries in the war and violence created in countries such Syria, Iraq, Libya and Afghanistan, which is one of the major reasons behind increasing migration from those countries. It also suggests that there are many shortcomings and problems in the Swedish reception system, such as social authorities’, and carers’ lack of adequate knowledge about migration and integration in general and in relation to the life conditions of URMs and their personal histories and ambitions in particular. There is also evidence of a strong West-centrism in how reception staff work with URMs. Together, these factors harm URM’s future integration in society. It is argued that social work needs critical knowledge in the education of social workers, and adequate training in skills for working with transnational families and new global family formations and relations. Also important for progressive social policy and social work are special individual-adjusted education programmes for URMs, and educating the teachers and carers who work with URMs, in critical knowledge and skills and socio-political mobilisation against racism and xenophobia. The topics of the study are important in a time of increasing racism and right-wing populism in mainstream politics, trends which risk negatively influencing public policy and social work research, education and practices.

  • 132.
    Östman, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    War, violence and migration: The case of unaccompanied minors2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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