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  • 1001.
    Viitasara, Eija
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svanholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Health promoting factors for newly arrived migrants - Experiences from rural and urban municipalities2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 475-476Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1002.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programs in Swedish public human service organisations2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on results from two studies concerning workplace health interventions in one Swedish rural municipality. The municipality has implemented a model for human resource accounting, an extensive leader and co-worker development program and specific workplace based health and working environment measures. The studies compare co-workers and leaders self-ratings of health and psychosocial working conditions, and investigate how workplace health interventions affect these ratings by analyzing results before, during and after carried out interventions. 19 workplaces including 311 individuals (20 leaders, 291 co-workers) participated. Results indicate differences concerning how the leaders and the co-workers judge their health and psychosocial working conditions. The leaders report a more varied and interesting work content and more possibilities to develop in work but, on the other hand, they report more tiredness, worry about handling the work situation and time pressure in work. However, both leaders and co-workers experience of being engaged at work correlated positively with items about not tired, not in pain, possibilities to develop abilities and good cooperation in the working group. Comparisons of mean values for used indicators show some improvements after one year, but several non-significant or negative time trends two years after the workplace health interventions starting point. Interviews with 20 female leaders show that they experience high and conflicting job demands, limited possibilities to influence their work situation, insufficient job resources and social support. However, the leaders experience possibilities to develop skills in their jobs and willingness to work with workplace health interventions. The study provides evidence concerning differences between co-workers and leaders health and psychosocial working conditions in public sector workplaces, which indicate the importance of different workplace health measures for these two categories of employees. The results also indicate that relatively extensive workplace health interventions have limited effects on co-workers and leaders perception of their health and psychosocial working conditions. Conclusions are that it is important to develop more high quality workplace health interventions focusing on individual and organizational based measures in public sector workplaces.

  • 1003.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programs in Swedish public human service organisations2014In: International Journal of Disability Mangement Research, ISSN 1833-8550, E-ISSN 1834-4887, Vol. 9, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This presentation focuses on results from studies concerning workplace health and rehabilitationinterventions in one Swedish rural municipality including 19 workplaces with a population of 311 individuals.The municipality has implemented a model for human resource accounting, an extensive leader and co-worker development program and specific workplace based health and rehabilitation measures. Methods: The studies compare co-workers and leaders self-ratings of health and psychosocial working conditions,and investigate how workplace health and rehabilitation programs affect these ratings by analysing quantitativeresults before, during and after carried out interventions. Qualitative data collection consisted of semi-structuredinterviews with middle managers and an examination of documents reviewing content of the interventions thathad been carried out. Findings: Results indicate differences concerning how the leaders and the co-workers judge their health andpsychosocial working conditions. When comparing mean changes in scores on indexes by individuals grouped inthe high quality workplace-based program group with individuals grouped in the low quality workplace-basedprogram group, there were more positive mean changes for the former group. Discussion: The findings of differences concerning how public sector leaders and co-workers judge their healthand psychosocial working conditions give support for different job characteristics for these two categories ofemployees. The rather strong relationships in the assumed direction between employees’ assessment of changesin health, and changes concerning stress and psychosocial working conditions that resulted are in line with otherresearch studies. Comparing workplaces grouped as having high quality workplace-based programs with workplaces with low quality workplace-based programs indicates that workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programsin public human service organizations using a broad change strategy with high levels of participation from bothmanagers and co-workers, and developed leadership behaviour are more effective in improving employee health and psychosocial working conditions.

  • 1004.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Department of Public Health Sciences Stockholm University.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presence. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presence among self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular ours (Gunnarsson, Vingård, & Josephson, 2007; Nordenmark, Vinberg & Strandh, 2012; Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001), indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. Also, self-employed can be seen as a group with low replace ability, which can contribute to high sickness presence (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005).  Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among self-employed in relation to employees, and to analyse if possible differences between the groups can be explained by different psychosocial working conditions related to work demands and time pressure.

    European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation (Eurofound, 2017). The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around one of five of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed (ibid.). Several studies show that the self-employed have very high decision authority and control how work is organised (Hundley, 2001; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). Conversely, most research on the characteristics of the self-employed finds that they report higher job demands and a higher workload than employees do (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). In general, research show that self-employment is associated with a higher degree of job satisfaction than regular employment (Benz & Frey, 2004; Blanchflower, 2004: Lange, 2012). Research show that high adjustment latitude can contribute to fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence (Gerich, 2014). However, according to a recent review research concerning other health outcomes among self-employed show contradictory results (Stephan, 2017). Although, research about sickness presence has increased during the last decade relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Johns, 2010). Sickness presence can cause productivity loss and higher organizational costs than sickness absence (Cooper & Dewe, 2008) and increase the risk for illness among individuals (Bergström et al., 2009). It can be assumed that sickness presence and health among self-employed are particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable.

    This present study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (EWCS) 2015, which has become an established source of information on working conditions and employment in EU Member States. The independent variable – employment type consists of the categories self-employed (with and without employees) and employees. The main independent variable is sickness presence and is measured by the following question: Over the past 12 months did you work when you were sick (1=Yes, 0=No). Several indicators of work demands, time pressure and background variables are used in the analysis.

     

    Preliminary study results show that self-employed report a higher level of sickness presence than employed; 52.4 verses 43.6 percent. The mean number of working hours is 43.5 among self-employed and 35.4 among employed. Self-employed have worked in the evenings on average nearly 7 days a month, which is more than twice as many times as for employees. It is also twice as usual that self-employed have worked on a Sunday compared to employees.  Self-employed have on average worked in the free time once or twice a month and employees have on average worked on their free time less often. All the differences between self-employed and employed are clearly significant and indicate a higher level of sickness presence and time pressure among self-employed. In a bivariate analysis, self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence. When controlling for the indicators of time pressure this relationship becomes insignificant. This means when holding the indicators of time pressure on a constant level there is no significant difference between self-employed and employed regarding the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicator that explains the most of the difference in sickness presence between self-employed and employed is work in free time. All indicators of time pressure are significant related to the risk for sickness presence; the more hours worked and the more often worked in evenings, on Sundays and in the free time, the higher the risk for reporting sickness presence. All these variables are also significant associated to the risk for sickness presence when controlling for background characteristics. Age is significantly associated to sickness presence in the way that a higher age reduces the risk for reporting sickness presence. Women more often report sickness presence than men do. Civil status is not significantly associated to sickness presence. Having children increases the risk for sickness presence and having household economic difficulties increases the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicators of time pressure contribute most to the level of explained variance in all performed regression models.

    The results show that self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence than employed have. This difference is explained by the variables measuring time pressure, which indicates that the self-employed have a higher risk of reporting sickness presence because they experience more time pressure. In the extended paper, we will include other psychosocial working conditions as e.g. job control and consider different clusters of self-employed. The contribution to the small group meeting will be knowledge about sickness presence among different groups of self-employed and implications for researchers and practitioners.

  • 1005.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hedlund, Marianne
    Nord University, Norway; NTNU, Norway.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Norway.
    Ambiguity among Managers in Small-Scale Enterprises: How to Handle Business and Workplace Health Management2017In: Societies, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1-17, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive research on health in working life, few studies focus on this issue from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs). To gain deeper knowledge of managers’ perceptions and strategies for dealing with workplace health management, 13 Norwegian and Swedish SSE managers were interviewed after participating in a workplace health development project. The methodical approach was based on Grounded Theory with a constructivist orientation. The main theme that emerged was ‘ambiguity in workplace health management and maintaining the business’, which was related to the categories ‘internal workplace settings’, ‘workplace surroundings’,and ‘leadership strategies’. The managers experienced ambiguity due to internal and external demands. These requirements were linked to the core challenges in dealing with multitasking leadership, financial decision-making, labour legislation, staff development and maintaining business. However, the managers developed new skills and competence and thereby a more reflexive approach and readiness to create a health-promoting workplace from being part of a development project. The implications are that managers in SSEs need to exchange experiences and discuss workplace health issues with other managers in networks. It is also important that occupational health services and social and welfare organizations use tailor-made models and strategies for supporting SSEs.

  • 1006.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Markussen, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Psychosocial working conditions, health and life-style among leaders and co-workers in small-scale enterprises2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem statement and aim: Small-scale enterprises (SSE) and self-employed individuals are regarded as important contributors to economic development. However, there is a limited understanding about the importance of the psychosocial working conditions, the work-life balance, health and well-being in these enterprises. Research on psychosocial working conditions in SSEs is polarized and shows contradictory results, and it is often stated that SSEs have trouble with workplace health processes due to their limited economic and personnel resources, and lack of support from e.g. Occupational and health services (OHS). Research shows that the self-employed experience high job satisfaction, and high levels of job control and job demands.  The aim of this study is to explore the psychosocial working conditions, health and lifestyle among leaders and co-workers in SSEs.

    Materials and method: The data reported here is part of a research- and development project concerning workplace-based interventions in SSEs. In the present s study, 18 enterprises with a population of 249 individuals (231 co-workers, 18 leaders) participated. The individuals answered three validated questionnaires about areas covering health, psychosocial working conditions and workplace health promotion. Also, the leaders answered a questionnaire about stress-related factors, life-style and work-life balance.  

    Results: Preliminary results are that around 60 percent of the co-workers have high work demands, 75 percent get support from the leaders and 40 percent report sickness absence more than two times during the last year. The leaders report high work demands, high job control, long working days and several stress related symptoms. However, around 75 percent of the leaders report high job satisfaction. The results also point at interesting differences between the leaders and co-workers and between individuals from different industrial sectors.

    Conclusions and implications: There are differences in psychosocial working conditions and self-rated health between leaders and co-workers in different industrial sectors. The results point at the need for workplace-based health interventions in small-scale enterprises with measures for both leaders and co-workers.

  • 1007.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kvinnliga ledares arbetsvillkor i en glesbygdskommun – oglamorösa och hindrande för hälsofrämjande insatser?2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, ISSN ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 838-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal workplaces have high levels of sickness absence, and deterioration of the psychosocial work environment has been most pronounced for women and employees in this sector of working life. This study explore how female leaders in one rural municipality experience their working conditions and prerequisites to carry out workplace health promotion measures. Interviews with twenty female leaders were carried out. A qualitative approach with content analysis was used to indentify central processes as perceived by individual

    leaders. The analyses confirm the need for improvements in the prerequisites for female leaders in public human service organizations. It is important to focus to a greater degree on leaders’ working conditions and health, and to remove identified hinders for workplace health promotion processes.

  • 1008.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sustainable small-scale enterprises – a case study in Norway and Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Small-scale enterprises (SSEs) with fewer than 20 employees are regarded as important contributors to economic development. In Norway and Sweden around one-fifth of the working population are employed in this enterprise group. The increasing importance of SSEs in today’s working life has led to an expansion of research on small-scale businesses in recent decades. However, there is a limited understanding about the importance of the psychosocial working conditions, the work-life balance, health and well-being in these enterprises. Also, workplace health management are rarely addressed in small business research.

    Purpose and method: The overall aim of the study is two-fold: 1) to explore SSEs conditions for managing health promoting workplace from a leader perspective, 2) to investigate psychosocial working conditions and health outcomes in Norwegian and Swedish SSEs. Data from interviews with leaders in 18 SSEs were used together with questionnaire data from 179 individuals (149 coworkers and 30 leaders).

    Findings: The findings revealed four main categories as important for creating health-promoting workplaces: Prerequisites for corporative a healthy workplace, Cultivating workplace health management, Restricted leeway and External Commitments. Examples of sub-themes were solidarity and flexibility among employees; self-steered task management; good and joyful working conditions; legal framework and regulations; advice from the board; guidance from mentors; work-related networks; family and friends as buffers. The quantitative data showed significant relations between changes of several psychosocial indices and health indices. The results also point at relative high values concerning salutogenic health indicators and work environment indicators for SSE coworkers and leaders compared to other occupational groups. However, especially the leaders express high and conflicting work demands.  

    Conclusions: The leader’s view of health promoting workplaces point at great consciousness and maturity in their approach to create a health-promotive workplace. However, the leaders experience several obstacles and limited resources for health-promoting processes. The study results point at relative good psychosocial working conditions and employee health, although there is a potential for improvements concerning some working condition factors. There is a need for more adapted models, both at a societal and organizational level, to support SSEs when creating healthy and sustainable workplaces. The leader’s competence concerning working conditions and health-related issues is crucial for successful results in creating such workplaces.        

  • 1009.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Workplace health interventions in Swedish public sector workplaces2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1010.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Norway.
    Workplace-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation Programs in Swedish Public Human Service Organisations2014In: International Journal of Disability Mangement Research, ISSN 1833-8550, E-ISSN 1834-4887, Vol. 9, article id Art. no. e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to knowledge about workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programs by investigating effects on outcomes concerning employee health, psychosocial working conditions, sickness absence, sick-cases and rehabilitation indicators in 19 Swedish public human service workplaces including 311 individuals. Interviews with middle managers and an examination of documentation about prevention and rehabilitation interventions at the workplaces made it possible to group the workplaces in two workplace program groups — high versus low quality workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programs. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t tests. Results indicate significant associations between changes in employee-judged stress and psychosocial working conditions, and changes in employee-judged health. The results concerning changes in employees’ health, stress and psychosocial working conditions (after workplace-based programs) showed significant differences between workplaces with high quality workplace-based programs compared with workplaces with low quality workplace-based programs, with the former having more favourable results. The study indicates that workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programs with a broad change strategy and high levels of management and employee involvement can apply to small public sector workplaces.

  • 1011.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil J
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Modeller för företagshälsovård i mindre företag: Behovsanpassade insatser med fokus på hälso- och arbetsmiljökompetens hos ledare2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Projektets syfte var att utveckla och förädla modeller för företagshälsovårdstjänster i mindre företag och mikro­företag, främst i segmentet 5-19 anställda, samt bidra till kunskap om effekter av ledarbaserade interventioner. Genomförande: Två ettåriga ledarfokuserade interventioner, ledda av en svensk och en norsk företagshälsa, innehöll kartläggningar av arbetsmiljö och hälsa, nätverksträffar/utbildning och individuellt ledarstöd. Totalt i forskningsstudierna deltog 19 företag i interventionerna, 15 företag fungerade som referens­­företag. Mätningar gjordes av ledares och medarbetares psykosociala förhållanden och hälsa före och efter interventionerna via tre enkäter. Motsvarande före/efter-mätningar av ledarnas hälsostatus gjordes via fysiska hälsotester och självskattningar via en enkät. Intervjuer genomfördes med 18 ledare i interventionsföretagen. Resultat: Enkätresultaten visade positiva förändringar avseende självskattad prestation och sjukfrånvaro i interventionsföretagen jämfört med referensföretagen, men oförändrade/negativa tendenser på flera index. Ledarnas hälsostatus pekade på goda värden jämfört med en normalpopulation. Några positiva tendenser kunde noteras, både för ledare i interventions- och referensföretagen, gällande kroppssammansättning och styrka. I intervjuer angav ledarna förutsättningar för att driva ett hälsofrämjande ledarskap och en hälsofrämjande kultur. Solidaritet, flexibilitet, lojalitet och humor samt betydelsen av ett processorienterat ledarskap var viktigt. Andra områden som framkom var lagstiftning, resurser, externt stöd från styrelse, mentorer och familj/vänner. Ledarna var positiva till flera av interventionernas aktiviteter och utbytet med andra företag i nätverk. De uppvisade en mogenhet och vilja att arbeta med hälsofrämjande processer i företagen, men pekade på behov av verktyg och stöd för sådana processer. Spridning: Projektet har resulterat i sex vetenskapliga artiklar, presentationer vid nationella/internationella konferenser och fortsatt forskning i angränsande projekt. 

  • 1012.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Romild, Ulla
    Levanger Hospital, Nord-Tröndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway .
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Tröndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway .
    Prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces: Effects on co-workers’ and leaders’ health and psychosocial working conditions2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 891-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Leaders and co-workers in Swedish public sector organizations are exposed to demanding psychosocial working conditions; more knowledge about workplace-based interventions in this sector of working life is needed. OBJECTIVE: To compare co-workers’ and leaders’ self-ratings of health and psychosocial working conditions, and investigate how prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces affects these ratings. METHOD: The longitudinal panel data consisted of 311 individuals (20 leaders, 291 co-workers) at 19 workplaces. Based on questionnaire data, statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U-Test, pair-wise Spearman correlations, a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA and Friedman’s test. RESULTS: Results indicate differences in how the leaders and the co-workers judge their health and psychosocial working conditions. Leaders report work content that is more varied and interesting as well as more possibilities for personal development through work, yet they also report more tiredness, concern over managing their work situation and time pressure at work. Comparisons of mean values for used indicators show some improvements after one year, but also several non-significant or negative time trends two years after the interventions were initiated. CONCLUSION: The study provides some support for experienced differences between co-workers’ and leaders’ health and psychosocial working conditions in public sector workplaces, indicating the importance of different workplace-oriented prevention and rehabilitation interventions for these two categories of employees.

  • 1013.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tjulin, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arbetsplatsen som arena för hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbete2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1014.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Torsdatter Markussen, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cooperation Between Occupational Health Services and Small-Scale Enterprises in Norway and Sweden: A Provider Perspective2017In: Workplace Health & Safety, ISSN 2165-0799, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although small-scale enterprises (SSEs) dominate the private enterprise sector, knowledge about support for these organizations from occupational health services (OHSs) is insufficient. The aim of this research was to study OHS services provided and staff cooperation with SSEs in Norway and Sweden. In total, 87 Norwegian and 51 Swedish OHS providers answered a survey on their experiences providing requested services from and cooperation with SSEs. Based on survey questions and constructed indices, providers in the two countries were compared using independent sample t tests and non-parametric tests. Open-ended questions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that SSEs, particularly in industrial, construction, and trade sectors, commonly contract for Norwegian and Swedish OHSs, and these contracts have increased in the last 12 months. Norwegian providers state that SSEs request broader organizationallybased services; their Swedish counterparts request more individual-based health-related services. Improvements concerning specific strategies for OHS collaboration with SSEs may be needed.

  • 1015.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Warne, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alcohol use among seasonal employees in SMEs at ski resorts2015In: Understanding Small Enterprises (USE) Conference 2015 'A Healthy Working Life in a Healthy Business', 2015, p. 721-728Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a survey aimed at shed some light on drinking and alcohol-related problems among seasonal employees in small businesses at ski resorts. In total, 292 employees (49 % men, 51 % women) answered a questionnaire with a response rate of 46 %. The questionnaire covered areas as employment relations, social aspects, psychosocial working conditions, health, alcohol consumption and preventive measures. Results were that there are several significant differences between seasonal employed men and women. The women are younger, have more university education, work more less than full-time and in restaurants or hotels and they live outside the ski resort to a higher degree after the winter season. Concerning psychosocial working conditions, health outcomes, hazardous drinking and preventive work at the workplace there are no significant differences between the groups. Around 75 percent of both seasonal employed men and women have a hazardous drinking behavior, which is significant higher in comparison with Swedish studies of other occupational groups. Regression analyses with hazardous drinking (AUDIT) as an outcome variable showed different patterns for seasonal employed women and men, although there are also similarities between the groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that particularly social aspects as living with other employees and having friends with heavy drinking were significantly associated with hazardous drinking. It is important to reduce the seasonal employee’s alcohol consumption behaviors by influencing attitudes towards hazardous drinking and to change the culture among this group in working life. There is also a need for developing strategies for effective workplace preventive measures and rehabilitation measures for employees with alcohol consumption problems. For small businesses it can be successful to integrate work-related alcohol problems with occupational health and safety issues.

  • 1016.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Warne, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Långt hemifrån men nära till alkohol: En studie av arbetets och kontextens betydelse för riskkonsumtion hos kvinnor och män i säsongsanställning2015In: Sprickor, öppningar & krackeleringar: Nya perspektiv på arbetsmiljö / [ed] Angelika Sjöstedt Landén, Gunilla Olofsdotter, Malin Bolin, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2015, p. 157-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1017.
    Viracca, Andrea
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Beskrivningar av arbetsklimatet på ett korttidsboende – Vårdares upplevelser av inflytande, arbetsbelastning och stöd från arbetsledaren.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1018.
    Virtanen, M.
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Jokela, M.
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Lallukka, T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Ahola, K.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Alfredsson, L.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Batty, G. D.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Bjorner, J. B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Borritz, M.
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Koge Hospital, Koge, Denmark .
    Burr, H.
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany .
    Casini, A.
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium .
    Clays, E.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    De Bacquer, D.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Dragano, N.
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Erbel, R.
    Department of Cardiology, West-German Heart Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany .
    Ferrie, J. E.
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom .
    Fransson, E. I.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hamer, M.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Heikkilä, K.
    School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland .
    Jöckel, K. -H
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany .
    Kittel, F.
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Ladwig, K. -H
    Helmholtz Zentrum München (German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH)), Oberschleißheim, Germany .
    Lunau, T.
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Unit of Social Medicine, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Nordin, M.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Oksanen, T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Pentti, J.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Rugulies, R.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Salo, P.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland .
    Schupp, J.
    German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin, Germany .
    Siegrist, J.
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Inserm U1018, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France .
    Steptoe, A.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Suominen, S. B.
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland .
    Theorell, T.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Vahtera, J.
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland .
    Wagner, G. G.
    Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany .
    Westerholm, P. J. M.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Westerlund, H.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kivimäki, M.
    Inserm U1018, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France .
    Long working hours and alcohol use: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data2015In: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.), ISSN 0959-8146, E-ISSN 0959-535X, Vol. 350, p. Art. no. g7772-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. Conclusions: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.

  • 1019.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland; Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm.
    Lallukka, Tea
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland; Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Koge Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Koge, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth BAuA, Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Dusseldorf, Med Fac, Inst Med Sociol, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Cardiol, West German Heart Ctr Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England; Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Hlth Serv & Policy, London, England.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lahelma, Eero
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Unit Social Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rahkonen, Ossi
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark; Univ Copenhagen, Dept Psychol, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland; Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland.
    Schupp, Jurgen
    German Inst Econ Res, Berlin, Germany; Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England; INSERM, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Villejuif, France.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland; Univ Skövde, Skövde; Folkhälsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland; Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland.
    Wagner, Gert G.
    German Inst Econ Res, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Berlin, Germany; Berlin Univ Technol, Berlin, Germany.
    Wang, Jian Li
    Univ Ottawa, Sch Epidemiol Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Inst Mental Hlth Res, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara
    Australian Natl Univ, Ctr Res Ageing Hlth & Wellbeing, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Australian Natl Univ, ARC Ctr Excellence Populat Ageing Res, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm.
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland; Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland; UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 239-250Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms.

    Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies.

    Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working >= 55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I-2 = 45.1%, P=0.004). A strong association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small.

    Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.

  • 1020.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth BAuA, Berlin, Germany.
    Casini, Annalisa
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Elovainio, Marko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Univ Duisburg Essen, West German Heart Ctr Essen, Dept Cardiol, Essen, Germany.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Hamer, Mark
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Kittel, France
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Pahkin, Krista
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Vaananen, Ari
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Slopen, Natalie
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Soc Human Dev & Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Soc Human Dev & Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland.
    Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis2013In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 347, p. Art. no. f4746-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease. Design A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review. Data sources We obtained individual level data from 13 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. Four published prospective cohort studies were identified by searches of Medline (to August 2012) and Embase databases (to October 2012), supplemented by manual searches. Review methods Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for clinically verified incident coronary heart disease by the level of self reported job insecurity. Two independent reviewers extracted published data. Summary estimates of association were obtained using random effects models. Results The literature search yielded four cohort studies. Together with 13 cohort studies with individual participant data, the meta-analysis comprised up to 174 438 participants with a mean follow-up of 9.7 years and 1892 incident cases of coronary heart disease. Age adjusted relative risk of high versus low job insecurity was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.59). The relative risk of job insecurity adjusted for sociodemographic and risk factors was 1.19 (1.00 to 1.42). There was no evidence of significant differences in this association by sex, age (<50 v >= 50 years), national unemployment rate, welfare regime, or job insecurity measure. Conclusions The modest association between perceived job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease is partly attributable to poorer socioeconomic circumstances and less favourable risk factor profiles among people with job insecurity.

  • 1021.
    von Krusenstierna, Charlotte
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sterner, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Coachernas arbetsmetod mot unga i utanförskap, på ett Navigatorcentrum2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1022.
    Vrettou, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    MI inom folkhälsoarbete - en kvalitativ studie om insatscoachers upplevelser av MI-metoden i arbete med social utsatta individer.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1023.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8276-8300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  • 1024.
    Wall, Erika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    John, Selander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Return to Work After Long-Term Sick Leave: Stories of Employed Women With Common Mental Disorders2018In: International Journal of Disability Mangement Research, ISSN 1833-8550, E-ISSN 1834-4887, Vol. 13, no e4, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions of female employees on long-term sickness absence due to common mental disorders (CMDs), in relation to what they perceive would best help them to return to work. Data were collected through a survey answered by employees at a municipality in Sweden on long-term sick leave. Results of the current study are based on a part of that material, namely from 56 women with CMDs who responded to the final open question. The analysis involves two steps. Initially, we explored themes that form the accounts in the findings. Secondly, based on the themes, collective narratives, storylines were identified. Three different storylines were found to be prominent in the findings. The storylines describe how the participants collectively expressed themselves in relation to the possibilities for return to work, and the following storylines were derived: It feels like too much, Things are moving too fast, and I have to get out of here!. The findings are related to perceived demands, control and support. From a disability management perspective, we have learned the importance of restoring the balance between demands, control and support — not only to prevent absence from work, but also to facilitate return to work after a period of long-term sickness.

  • 1025.
    Wallin, Sofia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jaldemark, Ulrika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Den sociala bakgrundens betydelse för långtidsarbetslösa unga vuxnas rehabiliteringsprocess: - En kvalitativ intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1026.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, B.
    et al.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University, Köln, D-50933, Germany .
    Bucksch, J.
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, D-33615, Germany.
    Hansen, S.
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6229 ER, Netherlands .
    Schantz, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Froboese, I.
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sports University, Köln, D-50933, Germany .
    Sitting time in Germany: An analysis of socio-demographic and environmental correlates2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, no 1, p. Art. no. 196-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour in general and sitting time in particular is an emerging global health concern. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of sitting time in German adults and to examine socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time. Methods. A representative sample of German adults (n = 2000; 967 men, 1033 women; 49.3 ±17.6 years of age) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, including one question on overall sitting time and answered questions about the neighbourhood environment, as well as concerning demographics. Daily sitting time was stratified by gender, age group, BMI, educational and income level, as well as physical activity (PA). To identify socio-demographic and environmental correlates of sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions. Results: The overall median was 5 hours (299 minutes) of sitting time/day and men sat longer than women (5 vs. 4 hours/day; p < 0.05). In both genders age and PA were negatively and the educational level positively associated with sitting time. The level of income was not a correlate of sitting time in multivariate analyses. Sitting time was significantly positively associated with higher neighbourhood safety for women. The variance of the multivariate model ranged from 16.5% for men to 8.9% for women. Conclusions: The overall sitting time was unequally distributed in the German adult population. Our findings suggest implementing specific interventions to reduce sitting time for subgroups such as men, younger aged adults and adults with a higher education and lower PA. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the specific correlates of different types and domains of sitting in order to guide the development of effective public health strategies.

  • 1027.
    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
    Froboese, Ingo
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, German Sport University, D-50933 Cologne, Germany.
    Schantz, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, FoU-gruppen för rörelse, hälsa och miljö.
    Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment: Looking at the Association the Other Way Around2014In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8093-8111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The association between physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environment mainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that the environment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction of cause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environment differs depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of thecity of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age =35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ),as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguishbetween residents with ‘low’ and ‘high’ PA, we split the samples into two on the basis of the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the ‘high’ vs. ‘low’ PA group of the overall sample, we noted 4–16% more ‘PA favourable’ environmental perceptions in seven of the 15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- and recreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmental perception. In this case,levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerning environmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents with higher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environment in a more ‘PA-favourable’ way than residents with lower levels.

  • 1028.
    Wallner, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Enhetschefs främjande av anställdas psykosociala arbetsmiljöEn kvalitativ studie på kommunala äldreboenden.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1029.
    Warne, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Där eleverna är: Ett arenaperspektiv på skolan som en stödjande miljö för hälsa2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is not created in a vacuum but in the relationship between individuals and their surroundings. School is therefore an important arena for children and youth since they spend the majority of their waking hours there. Earlier research has been particularly focused on risk factors related to mental illness in children and youth, rather than what promotes and strengthens their possibilities for positive health. Through a salutogenic approach, one can obtain knowledge about factors that contribute to a supportive environment for health. In order to gain understanding of the needs and values of new generations, students need to be made a part of their studies and the development of their own everyday environment.

    The aim of the dissertation was to study school as a supportive environment for health by involving students and finding methods of studying the positive aspects of health. The aim of the articles included challenges and possibilities for using a method to increase participation, deepen the understanding about aspects that promote health and learning, with a special focus on participation and support and how positive health can be measured.

    Students in a high school were chosen to be the participants in two qualitative studies. The method of photovoice was studied through sound recordings of the students’ dialogue during their work with photovoice and their points of view as well as the teachers’ during the focus group interviews. Data was analyzed by using content analysis (Paper I). Grounded theory was used to study the students’ view of what is important to health and learning (Paper II). A survey was used to create a positive health scale and to study factors associated with health among students in grades 6-9. The survey was taken by 1527 students (52,3% girls, 47,7% boys) in grades 6-9 in schools in the municipality of Östersund. The response rate was 80%. A principal component analysis was used to adjust and validate a positive health scale for the age group 12-16 (Paper III). In order to study the association between factors that might be associated with positive health, a multiple logistic regression was chosen (Paper IV).

    The results showed that photovoice worked as a method in high school to increase participation in matters related to health and learning. However the method needed to be adjusted to the student group. Photovoice was perceived as stimulating but also challenging by both teachers and students. Critical aspects were tied to the teacher role and the democratic organization (Paper I). The students’ view of what promoted health and learning were related to treatment, personal and pedagogical support and the potential for recovery. The results also showed that students regarded school as something that creates distinction between those who perceived themselves as under or over achievers (Paper II). The positive health scale (PHS) proved to be valid for students 12-16 years old and the scale should be useful for work with systematic health promotion where the starting point is a salutogenic perspective (Paper III). Factors associated with positive health among girls and boys age 12-16 were: a perceived participation in the classroom, support from teachers and friends and support from both parents. Socioeconomic status, measured as having as much money as pupils, was shown to be independently associated with positive health (Paper IV).

    The conclusion was that important factors for a supportive environment for health were; students’ perception of and possibility to participate in the classroom and in the school’s work environment, personal support from teachers and support in their education, support from friends and conditions that permit recovery during and after school. At the same time the results showed that there are distinctions between different groups of students in relation to health and support.

    In order to develop a supportive environment for health in schools, photovoice can be used to engage students and discover unique aspects of the individual school. With the help of the positive health scale (PHS), promoting factors can be examined, which increases the possibilities for systematic health promoting work with a salutogenic perspective.

  • 1030.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Torget: en plats för hållbarhet ur ett socialt, ekologiskt, kulturellt och ekonomiskt perspektiv2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 64-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1031.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Costenius, Catrine
    Luleå tekniska Universitet.
    Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti
    Norges miljö- och biovetenskapliga universitet.
    Challenges and possibilities with participatory visual research methods in health promotion2018In: 10th IUHPE European Conference and International Forum for Health Promotion Research: Implementing Health Promotion inthe Life Course - User Involvementin Practice and Research / [ed] Siw Tone Innstrand, Geir Arild Espnes and Bjarne Bruun Jensen, Trondheim, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this workshop is to discuss pros andcons using participatory visual methods in health promotion research. The interest of visual research is growing and it is time to look more critical to this increasingly popular research focus. The first part of the session, we shortly introduce visual methods in health promotion by giving examples and experiences from our research. In the second part of the session, we will discuss experiences and reflections about, e.g. vulnerable groups, power relations, ethical problems and the use of photographs together with the participants. The goals for the session are to expand the dialogue about the need for high ethical standards when using visual methods in health promotion research, to share experiences and to create contact between researchers within this field.

    There is growing body of research about visual methods in health promotion and the presenting researchers have, together and separately, used participatory visual methods for data collection and participatory action research. The authors have all experience with the PhotoVoice method, developed by Wang and Burris in the late 90th, as well as other visual methods, like cell philms and drawings and participatory research. Examples from different research projects are; non verbal language of drawings and photographs in participatory visual methods when aiming at understanding children’s life worlds, young girls' experiences of daily life at school and girls' views of sexual harassment. However alongside the many opportunities there are equal number of challenges when using nonverbal arts-based research methods in order to go beyond the limits of language to capture the meaning of lived experience in a multimodal and holistic way.

  • 1032.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Photovoice: An opportunity and challenge for students' genuine participation2013In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 299-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been highlighted that youth empowerment and participationare important principles for school health promotion.Despite this fact, children and youth are rarelygiven instruments to participate or to influence their situationsand the environments in their schools. Photovoice isa method to increased empowerment and participation.Originally it was created as a community action researchmethod based on Freire’s critical pedagogy and feministtheory. The purpose of this study was to explore challengesand opportunities for applying photovoice in aschool setting to support genuine participation. Togetherwith teachers and students in an upper secondary schoolin O ¨ stersund’s municipality in the north of Sweden, thephotovoice method was field tested and modified to aclassroom situation. The teachers and the students wereinterviewed about their experiences with the method. Theresults were interpreted by content analysis and showedthat the teachers’ capability to be facilitators and the students’possibility to make a difference for the school orthe municipality were the most important factors tosucceed with photovoice. The conclusions were thatphotovoice challenges schools and society to have a betterstructure for genuine participation if youth participation isseen as valuable.

  • 1033.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Siandinovic, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Berman, Anne H
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Källmén, Håkan
    STAD, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Risky consumption of alcohol and drugs among employees at ski resorts2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 201-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate risky consumption of alcohol and drugs among Swedish men and women who are employed at ski resorts. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 611 employees in 48 small and medium-sized enterprises responded to a questionnaire covering alcohol and drug use, social aspects around work and working conditions. Consumption of alcohol and drugs in the study sample was compared to population data. Data were analysed using Mann–Whitney U-tests and logistic regression analyses. Results: Compared to the general population, the study group of ski resort employees had higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in all age groups except 35+ for men. Regarding the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) scores, only men in the 18–24 age group had higher scores compared to the general population. The prevalence of risky alcohol and drug use was higher among seasonally employed individuals; 82.9%, compared to 58.0% among other employees for alcohol; 8.3% compared to 2.8% for drugs. The regression analysis indicated that social aspects such as living together with colleagues and having co-workers/friends who are frequently inebriated were the most significant explanatory variables for explaining risk consumption of alcohol (OR 16.82 and OR 4.33). Risky use of drugs was associated with being younger (OR 0.15) and male (OR 0.86), as well as with having co-workers/friends who are frequently inebriated (OR 4.25). Conclusions: The study showed a high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption among ski resort employees compared to the general population, with higher risky drug consumption found only among younger men. Social aspects such as living with colleagues and having co-workers or friends who are often inebriated, were identified as important explanatory factors. Preventive measures should be introduced, targeting norms and work culture surrounding alcohol and drug use among ski resort employees. 

  • 1034.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Adaptation and validation of a positive health scale for adolescents2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 1079-1093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a demonstrated need to develop alternative approaches to measuring health from a positive health perspective in order to support systematic planning and evaluation of health promotion in schools. The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) aims to measure health from a positive perspective, However, it has not been developed, or previously been tested, for use with adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16, at which age youth often exhibit a need for extra support in order to be successful in school and life. Inspired by the SHIS, we generated a Positive Health Scale (PHS) appropriate for 12-16-year-olds and determined its validity and reliability using principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, the scale was tested in a sample of 1,527 Grade 6-9 students, using PCA. The findings indicated the need to reduce the scale to nine items, which was then shown to be valid and reliable for use with both adolescent boys and adolescent girls. We conclude that the PHS can be used in systematic health promotion planning and evaluation. Communities and schools can use this scale to examine and improve health determinants in different adolescent settings.

  • 1035.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Participation and support – associations with Swedish pupils’ positive health2017In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 1373579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of salutogenesis, schools have opportunities to create supportive environments for health and well-being, but there is a need for more knowledge about positive health determinants in the school setting. The aim of this study was to analyse adolescents’ self-reported positive health and its association with supportive factors in the school environment. Data was derived from a cross-sectional study in which pupils were aged 12–16 (n=1527). A positive health scale was used to examine the association of positive health with the following determinants: classroom participation; teacher support; peer support; parental support; and personal relative affluence. Data was analysed with multiple logistic regression. The results showed that positive health was associated with classroom participation and support from teachers and parents more commonly among boys than girls. All determinants were significantly associated with pupils’ positive health. The conclusion is that students’ positive health is strongly associated with support from the school. Classroom participation and support are major concerns for the health of pupils, and it is essential to develop these aspects of the school environment.

  • 1036.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Promoting an Equal and Healthy Environment: Swedish Students' View of the Daily Life at School2013In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1354-1368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education is an important factor in health equity, but many students still do not complete high school. A focus on the school context rather than on individual problems might help to create a supportive environment for health and learning. In this study we explored factors that promote health and learning from the perspective of vocational and low-achieving high school students in Sweden. We used grounded theory with a constructivist orientation, informed and sensitized by the concept of salutogenesis. Students from a school in a mid-sized municipality in Sweden participated, and we collected data using the photovoice method and interviews. Students identified general factors as significant to their well-being and success in school. The main theme, "promoting driving forces for health and learning," emerged from the categories "longing to be seen by teachers," "longing for support," and "longing for recuperation."

  • 1037.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The role of participation, teachers and peers in grades 6–9: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of factors associated with pupils’ positive health in Swedish schoolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the school environment on pupils’ health has more often been described in terms of health problems than health. From a perspective of health promotion and salutogenesis, schools have opportunities to create supportive environments for health. From this point of departure there is a need for more knowledge about positive health determinants in the school setting. The aim of this study was to analyze adolescents’ self-reported positive health and its association with supportive factors in the school environment. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study in which pupils aged 12–16 completed a questionnaire during school hours (n= 1527). The response rate was 80%). A new positive health scale was used to examine the association with the following determinants: classroom participation, school-related support, peer support, parent support and socioeconomic status. Data were analyzed with chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression. The results showed that positive health, participation and support from teachers and parents were more common among boys than girls. All determinants except support with homework from the school were significantly associated with pupils’ positive health. The conclusion is that schools have a great potential to enable pupils’ health. The association between support from teachers and peers and participation is a major concern for pupils’ health and it is essential develop these aspects in the school environment.

  • 1038.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alkohol och droger bland säsongsanställda på turistorter.: Medarbetares svar på frågor om alkohol, droger, anställningsvillkor, förebyggande arbete och hälsa2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En enkätstudie om riskkonsumtionen av alkohol och droger bland anställda i olika företag i Åre genomfördes våren 2014 av Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap, Mittuniversitetet. Denna delrapport är framtagen till styrgruppen för projektet ”Trygg i Åre - arbetsgivare mot droger”. Projektet finansieras av Folkhälsomyndigheten och beräknas pågå under 2014-2016.

     

    Enkäten besvarades av 611 personer vilket motsvarar en svarsfrekvens på cirka 47 procent. Riskkonsumtion av alkohol mättes genom frågeformuläret AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Gränsvärde för riskkonsumtion är 8 eller däröver för män och 6 eller däröver för kvinnor på en skala mellan 0-40. Drogbruk mättes genom DUDIT (Drog Use Disorders Identification Test). Gränsvärde för drogbruk för båda könen är 1 eller däröver.

     

    Resultatet visade att i gruppen 18-24 år fanns den högsta riskkonsumtionen av både alkohol och droger. I åldersgruppen 18-24 år fanns inga skillnader mellan könen när det gällde riskbruk av alkohol medan fler män än kvinnor visade sig ha ett drogbruk. När det gäller alkoholkonsumtionen i åldersgrupperna över 34 år är mönstret att männen i nästan dubbelt så hög grad har en riskkonsumtion i jämförelse med kvinnorna. Droganvändning förekom i stort sett inte bland dem som besvarat enkäten och var över 34 år.  

     

    Riskkonsumtionen av alkohol bland män och kvinnor visade sig vara associerat till:

     

    • Bo med kollegor/vänner
    • Ej vara fast boende i Åre
    • Ha vänner som dricker sig berusade ofta
    • Arbeta i högt tempo (endast män)
    • Om företaget inte använder slumpvisa utandningstester (endast män)

    Analysen av data visade ingen association mellan de undersökta faktorerna (boende, vänner som ofta dricker sig berusade, anställningsvillkor, riskkonsumtion av alkohol) och kvinnors bruk av droger. För männens del var bruk av droger associerat till:

     

    • Ha vänner som ofta dricker sig berusade
    • Bo med kollegor/vänner
    • Vara tillfälligt anställd
    • Ha en riskkonsumtion av alkohol

    Deltagarna i studien hade möjlighet att lämna förslag på vad de ansåg att arbetsgivaren skulle kunna göra ytterligare när det gällde det alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbetet. Fem områden identifierades:

     

    • Mer kontroller
    • Mer utbildning till anställda
    • Ett förändrat förhållningssätt till alkohol
    • Bättre hjälpinsatser om problem uppdagas
    • Det är bra som det är

    Enkäten innehöll även frågor om hälsa. Resultatet visade att en stor andel av de som svarat mår bra, mätt genom en positiv hälsoskala. Cirka 60 procent rör sig ordentligt en gång i veckan eller oftare. Merparten anser sig ha en meningsfull fritid.

     

    Den insamlade enkäten innehöll fler frågor och ytterligare analyser kommer att genomföras under projekttiden.

  • 1039.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Elefanten i rummet – ett interventionsprojekt med utmaningar2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Baggrund (kontekst, problembeskrivelse, problemstilling og formål)Alkohol och droger bland säsongsanställda på skidturistorter är ett problem som beskrivits i ringa omfattning. Studier visar att förekomsten av alkohol och droger är högre i denna grupp än i befolkningen generellt. Många säsongsanställda är unga och i dessa år är risken stor att en riskfylld konsumtion av alkohol och droger leder till hälsoproblem i framtiden. Arbetsgivare och företrädare för kommun och landsting uppmärksammade problemet och erhöll finansiering av Folkhälsomyndigheten 2014-2016 för att genomföra en intervention i syfte att minska alkohol och droger bland säsongsanställda. Till projektet knöts forskare på ett universitet som genom följeforskning skulle följa och utvärdera projektet. 

    Teoretisk ramme og metodeMed utgångspunkt i systemteoretiskt perspektiv, observationer och samtal under en intervention om alkohol och droger bland anställda, diskuteras aspekter av problemägande, makt, kommunikation och samarbete mellan forskare och projektägare. Vilka hinder och möjligheter finns för sammabete mellan forskning och praktik när en intervention genomförs inom ett område som också är en del av projektägarnas näringsverksamhet? 

    Hovedresultater og konklusionerProjektets olika aktörer har olika bakomliggande syften vilka ställs på sin spets när projektresultat kommuniceras externt. Forskningens akademiska frihet, att vara oberoende gentemot marknaden, kan skapa konflikt med andra aktörer som har ett ekonomiskt intresse vilket kan äventyras av att resultat publiceras. Tät kontakt mellan universitet och praktik kan till viss del minska konflikten men metoder behöver utvecklas för att i ett tidigt skede tydliggöra roller, ansvarsområden samt forskarnas akademiska frihet. 

    Betydning for videre forskning, policy eller praksisI allt större utsträckning sker en samverkan mellan forskning och praktik och universiteten får uppdrag från det omgivande samhället. Fördelen är att forskningen når ut snabbare i samhället och kan komma till användning men det behövs fler studier som visar de problem som detta samarbete också kan leda till.

  • 1040.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sun, snow, skiing, work and a lot of party – HR leaders and seasonal workers’ views on alcohol and alcohol prevention at a ski resort in Northern Sweden.2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of abstracts – FALF 2016, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2016, p. 13-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter tourism hires thousands of young seasonal workers every year. Work, but mostly skiing and party attracts them to stay at the ski resort for four or five months.  Previous research shows that seasonal employment is associated with hazardous drinking and risk taking behaviors. Seasonal workers’ health and healthy working environment are important issues for the tourism sector. Between 2014 and 2016 the project “Safe in Åre – employer against drugs” is running with the purpose to reduce alcohol and drugs among seasonal employees.  

    A qualitative method was used to understand critical factors for alcohol prevention among seasonal workers. Twelve HR managers in tourism companies were interviewed about alcohol prevention and the role of alcohol in seasonal workers’ daily lives. The interviews were analyzed with content analysis together with one open ended questions about seasonal workers view of the companies’ alcohol- and drug prevention. The question was answered by 611 of 1313 employees.  

    The results shows that HR managers view on alcohol prevention was two-edged. They contribute to the preservation of existing alcohol norm but have policies to control soberness at work. Emerging themes were: Retention of existing alcohol norms and Alcohol-controlled working environment. But it was also a tendency of a preventive approach among some HR managers. 

    The results are in progress but the preliminary conclusion is that the double message from the manager to the seasonal workers with restrictions and control of alcohol use at work but invitations to drink in the evening is problematic and contribute to the norm of “party culture”.

  • 1041.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alcohol- and drug prevention among seasonal employees at a Swedish ski resort2018In: 10th IUHPE European Conference and International Forum for Health Promotion Research: Implementing Health Promotion in the Life Course - User Involvement in Practice and Research / [ed] Siw Tone Innstrand, Geir Arild Espnes and Bjarne Bruun Jensen, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal employees at ski resorts represent a high-risk population for the use of alcohol and drugs, as well as other negative lifestyle behaviours. These employees work and live in a context where the customers are on holiday and hence alcohol is used frequently. To our knowledge there is a gap in the literature regarding alcohol and drug consumption among seasonal employees. Particularly studies in the context of ski resorts are lacking. The overall purpose of our study was to evaluate a policy-based intervention at a ski resort area in Sweden. The intervention was led by a project leader together with managers from different tourism industries, the health sector, social service and police. Components in the intervention were e.g. policy development and implementation, education of managers and creation of a manager network.  In total, 48 enterprises participated. A questionnaire, concerning alcohol and drug use and social aspects, was distributed before and after the intervention. The firs questionnaire was answered by 611 (47%) respondents and 423 (34%) respondents the follow-up questionnaire after two years. In addition, five persons in the project group was interviewed after the intervention.  Based on survey data, comparisons before and after the intervention showed several positive results. The  results show a significant reduction of hazardous drinking and an  increased awareness of the companies’ alcohol- and drug policies among the employees. No significant effects on drug consumption were found. The project group reported better knowledge about alcohol and drugs. However, most important was the increased collaboration between managers in tourism industries. The intervention also resulted in new norm breaking ideas such as a sober end of the season instead of the traditional “drinking the bar dry” and managers taking employees out on hiking instead of going out for a beer.

     

    The conclusion is that seasonal tourism industries need to work with hazardous alcohol- and drug consumption from a “whole village perspective”. Successful health promotion work among seasonal employees, needs collaboration between private and public sector and should be related to cultural norms as well as working- and living conditions in the particular context, in this case the tourist resort.

  • 1042.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Närvarande elever och positiv skolmiljö för ökat välbefinnande och måluppfyllelse i skolan: Slutrapport från forskarna i projekt Hälsofrämjande skolutveckling inom ramen för Skolverkets anslag för 2016-20172017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Elevers närvaro i skolan är viktig både för deras kunskapsutveckling men även för deras hälsa och välmående idag och som vuxna. En betydelsefull faktor för närvaro är de sociala interaktioner som är en del av skolans vardag. Runt 20 000 elever hade 2015 olika formera av upprepad frånvaro och forskning visar att ströfrånvaro kan leda till långa perioder av frånvaro från skolan. Syftet med denna studie var att med utgångspunkt i ett pilotprojekt undersöka hur rutinerna kring rapportering och uppföljning av elevers frånvaro fungerade på två skolor i Östersunds kommun, en kommunal F–5-skola och en kommunal 6–9-skola, samt att identifiera hinder och framgångsfaktorer för elevers närvaro i skolmiljön. Erfarenheterna från projektet förväntades ge ökade kunskaper om orsaker till frånvaro och närvaro samt ge uppslag till interventioner som främjar närvaro och positiva sociala relationer i skolan. De metoder som användes var en analys av närvarorapporteringen och fokusgruppsintervjuer med elever i årskurs 9, vårdnadshavare, elevhälsopersonal på 6–9-skolan samt lärare på de två skolorna.Resultatet visar att det program som används för att rapportera närvaro på skolorna upplevs fungera bra men att det samtidigt skapar avstånd mellan vårdnadshavare och lärare. Sen ankomst och även när elever avviker från en lektion hanteras olika av olika lärare men även olika av samma lärare från gång till gång. Det finns en samstämmighet om ansvaret för elevers skolnärvaro, men eleverna upplever inte att skolan kan bidra med något om en elev inte vill gå till skolan. Det bedrivs enligt skolorna ett strukturerat arbete för likabehandling med elevhälsoplanen, och även andra strategier som syftar till ett närvarofrämjande arbete. Eleverna verkar dock inte så medvetna om det arbete som pågår utan behöver göras mer delaktiga. Relationerna mellan eleverna lyfts fram som viktiga för att främja närvaro i skolan av alla. Eleverna saknar dock en bättre relation mellan elever och lärare och ansvaret för dessa relationer kan inte ges till en annan yrkesgrupp, som till exempel fritidsledarna. Relationen mellan vårdnadshavare och skolpersonal upplevs ha brister och vårdnadshavare och skola verkar kommunicera mer digitalt än via personliga kontakter. Detta riskerar att fördjupa en frånvaroproblematik eller att tidiga signaler inte fångas upp. Också den fysiska miljön har betydelse för hur eleverna trivs på skolan. Slitna skolmiljöer och smutsiga toaletter sänder ut negativa signaler till eleverna och riskerar i sin tur att bidra till fortsatt förstörelse. Tillgång till en avkopplande miljö och återhämtning är viktiga faktorer för att främja närvaro. För ett fortsatta närvarofrämjande arbete behöver de sociala relationerna mellan framförallt elever och lärare förbättras liksom mellan vårdnadshavare och skola. Arbetet med strategier och bemötande kring sen ankomst och närvaro i klassrummet behöver utvecklas.

  • 1043.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Managers’ and employees’ views of critical aspects for alcohol abuse prevention at small and medium enterprises: the case of ski resorts in NorthernSweden2017In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no sup1, p. 67-79, article id UNSP 1355719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal workers at tourism resorts, particularly young employees, represent a high-riskpopulation for alcohol abuse and other negative lifestyles. This study explores how managers and employees at ski resorts in Northern Sweden experience critical aspects for hazardous alcohol use at small- and medium-sized enterprises. This analysis is based on one open-ended question about hazardous alcohol use prevention at the workplace answered by 153 employees,and semi-structured interviews about being a manager at a ski resort conducted with 13managers. The analysis showed that managers’ views regarding hazardous alcohol use prevention were double-edged, which was confirmed by the employees’ answers. The managers contribute to the preservation of existing alcohol norms but simultaneously enforce policies and administer tests to control employees’ sobriety at work. Three themes emerged: reproducing existing alcohol norms, an alcohol-controlled working environment and care-taking managers. The results identified a need for early prevention initiatives focusing on the norms and work cultures of small- and medium-sized ski resorts. In relation to the theory of planned behaviour, the analysis illuminates how evaluations of behaviours related to alcohol consumption are communicated in policies and through leadership. In addition, the importance of social pressure regarding alcohol use is clarified in the material.

  • 1044.
    Warner, Grace
    et al.
    Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    Packer, Tanya
    Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    Villeneuve, Michelle
    Univ Sydney, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Audulv, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    Versnel, Joan
    Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    A systematic review of the effectiveness of stroke self-management programs for improving function and participation outcomes: self-management programs for stroke survivors2015In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 37, no 23, p. 2141-2163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A systematic review of stroke self-management programs was conducted to: (i) identify how many and what self-management support strategies were included in stroke selfmanagement interventions and (ii) describe whether self-management programs effectively improved outcomes, focusing specifically on function and participation outcomes. Methods: Twelve databases were searched for the years 1986–2012 to identify self-management programs for stroke survivors. Pre-post, quasi-experimental and randomized controlled trial study designs were included. Descriptive information about the intervention was scrutinized to identify what self-management support strategies were present in the intervention and comparisons were made between programs using a group versus a one-to-one format. All outcomes were included and categorized. Results: The most prominent strategies identified in our review were goal setting and follow-up, and an individualized approach using structured information and professional support. There are indications that self-management programs can significantly increase participation and functional ability. However, the high level of clinical heterogeneity in program delivery, outcomes and level of stroke severity made it impossible to conduct a meta-analysis. Further examination of individual self-management support strategies, such as linking rehabilitation goal setting to post-acute self-management programs, the inclusion of family members and the contribution of peer-support is warranted.

  • 1045.
    Watkins, Jonathan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Platt, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pacing Strategies and Metabolic Responses During 4-Minute Running Time-Trials2017In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1143-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to investigate pacing strategies and the distributionof physiological resources in best versus worst performances during a series of 4-minute, self-paced running time-trials (RunTTs). Methods: Five male and five female recreational runners(age 32 ± 7 years) completed a sub-maximal ramp test and five RunTTs on a motor-driventreadmill fitted with a speed-controlling laser system. The supramaximal V̇ O2 demand wasestimated by linear extrapolation from the sub-maximal relationship between V̇ O2 and speed,enabling computation of the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD). Results: There were nosignificant differences between the five RunTTs for any of the performance, physiological orsubjective responses (P > 0.05). The trial-to-trial variability in pacing (i.e., separate quarters)was typically low, with an average within-athlete CV of 3.3%, being highest at the start andend of the 4 minutes. Total distance covered and distance covered over the first and last 2minutes for best and worst performances were 1137 ± 94 and 1090 ± 89 m (P < 0.001), 565 ±53 and 526 ± 40 m (P = 0.002), and 572 ± 47 and 565 ± 54 m (P = 0.346), respectively.Conclusions: Negative pacing strategies were evident during both the best and worstperformances of the RunTT. Best performances were characterised by more aggressive pacingover the first 2 minutes compared with worst performances. In addition, the relatively low trial-to-trial variability in running speed suggests that pacing strategies are similar during a seriesof 4-minute, self-paced running time-trials.

  • 1046.
    Wecke, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Orsak och konsekvens  av nålstickskador hos sjuksköterskor  - En litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1047.
    Weinéus, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Unga tjejers uppfattning och motivation till en fysisk och hälsosam livsstil2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1048.
    Welbel, M
    et al.
    Department of Studies on Alcohol and Drug Dependence, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, ul. Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warsaw, Poland.
    Matanov, A
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Moskalewicz, J
    Department of Studies on Alcohol and Drug Dependence, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, ul. Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warsaw, Poland.
    Barros, H
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Canavan, R
    Health Promotion Research Centre, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland.
    Gabor, E
    National Institute for Health Development, Budapest, Hungary.
    Gaddini, A
    Laziosanità ASP-Public Health Agency, Rome, Italy.
    Greacen, T
    Laboratoire de recherche, Etablissement Public de Santé Maison Blanche, Paris, France.
    Kluge, U
    Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Lorant, V
    Institute of Health and Society (IRSS), Université Catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Esteban Peña, M
    Madrid Salud, Madrid, Spain.
    Schene, Aart H
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Straßmayr, C
    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Social Psychiatry, Vienna, Austria.
    Vondráčková, P
    Department of Psychiatry, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Priebe, Stefan
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Addiction treatment in deprived urban areas in EU countries: Accessibility of care for people from socially marginalized groups2013In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 74-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study examines the accessibility of addiction treatment within services providing mental health care and support for people from socially marginalized groups in deprived urban areas across EU countries.Methods: Services providing mental health care and support in deprived areas of 14 EU capital cities were assessed with a questionnaire. We analysed the availability and accessibility of those services providing addiction treatment for people from six groups: the long-term unemployed, the homeless, street sex workers, asylum seekers and refugees, irregular migrants and people from travelling communities.Results: While 30% of all the assessed services provided addiction treatment, in 20% of services, addiction was a criterion for exclusion. Among services providing addiction treatment, 77% accepted self-referrals, 63% were open on weekends or in the evening, 60% did not charge any out-of-pocket fees, 35% provided access to interpreters, and 28% ran outreach activities. These results varied substantially among EU capitals.Conclusion: Access to addiction treatment for socially marginalized groups varies across Europe. Some of the models identified may constitute barriers to treatment. Developing care delivery models that facilitate access for vulnerable populations should be a priority for national and European policies.

  • 1049.
    Welde, Boye
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Mathisen, Gunnar E.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Supej, Matej
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Winther, Andreas K.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    The pacing strategy and technique of male cross-country skiers with different levels of performance during a 15-km classical race2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0187111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0), intermediate (3.5) and uphill sections (7.1) of the first and final laps. All skiers adopted a positive pacing strategy, skiing more slowly (11.8%) with shorter cycles (11.7%) on the final than first lap (both p&lt;0.001; pη2 = 0.93 and 0.87, respectively). The fast skiers were 7.0% faster overall (p&lt;0.001, d = 4.20), and 6.1% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.32) and 7.0% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.68) faster on the first and final laps, respectively, compared to slower skiers. On all sections of both laps, the fast skiers exhibited 9.5% more rapid (pη2 = 0.74) and 8.9% (pη2 = 0.48) longer cycles (both p&lt;0.001). On intermediate terrain, the fast skiers employed primarily double poling (DP, 38.9% on the first lap) and double poling with a kick (DPKICK, 50% on the final lap). In contrast, the slow skiers utilized for the most part DP alone (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) or in combination with other techniques (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) and decreased their usage of DPKICK from 27.8% on the first to 16.7% on the final lap. Skiing velocity on flat and intermediate terrain proved to be the best predictor of race performance (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, during a 15-km classical XC skiing race, velocity and cycle length decreased from the first to the final lap, most extensively on flat terrain and least uphill. Moreover, on the intermediate sections the fast and slow skiers chose to use different techniques.

  • 1050.
    Werneholm, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Finell, Moa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö: en kvalitativ studie om psykosocial arbetsmiljö i vården2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
181920212223 1001 - 1050 of 1121
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