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  • 1.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Hur mycket är nog för att bevara arterna?2010Ingår i: Fakta Skog, ISSN 1400-7789, nr 12, s. 1-4Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3. Dahlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Hysing, Erik
    Olsson, Jan
    Kruys, Nicholas
    Silfvering, Göran
    Niemälä, Jari
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Vedlevande arters ekologi: kunskaper för skötsel av död ved2005Ingår i: Död ved i levande skogar: hur mycket behövs och hur kan målet nås?, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2005, s. 110-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydelsen av död ved i skogen för biologisk mångfald är väl dokumenterad. Sveriges riksdag har fastställt 15 miljömål och varje mål är uppdelat i flera delmål. I ett av dessa mål, Levande skogar, konstateras att kvantiteten av hård död ved måste öka med åtminstone 40 procent i hela landet och betydligt mer i områden, där biologisk mångfald är speciellt hotad. Men än så länge finns inget detaljerat långsiktigt mål. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka: 1. Vilken kvalitet och kvantitet av död ved behövs i skogen för att bevara mångfalden? 2. Var i landskapet är det viktigast att öka mängden död ved? 3. Hur når vi målet? Arbetet har baserats på litteraturöversikter och frågeformulär till markägare, avverkningsentreprenörer och tjänstemän inom skogsnäringen. Olika scenarier baserade på litteraturgranskningen framställdes via datorsimulationer, där mängden och spridningen av död ved varierade med en beräknad ökningstakt. Utifrån dessa studier kan vi dra följande slutsatser: 1. Somliga arter är specialiserade och kräver ett rikligt utbud av död ved (50 m3/ha eller mer). Dessa arter kan endast bevaras i skyddade områden. 2. Brukade skogar utanför skyddade områden med 20 m3 död ved/ha tycks vara högkvalitativa habitat för många arter. 3. I områden dominerade av skog bör sådana habitat täcka mellan 10 och 30 procent av landskapet. 4. Dessa områden bör lokaliseras i anslutning till skyddade områden och områden med sällsynta arter. 5. Om den här strategin antas, kommer medelvärdet för hela Sverige vara 10 m3 död ved/ha. 6. För att kunna nå det målet 2030 måste mängden död ved öka med 40 procent varje årtionde (vilket innebär en exponentiell ökning). 7. Men ännu viktigare än att nå ett visst medelvärde för hela Sverige är, att så snabbt som möjligt öka förekomsten av död ved i anslutning till områden med hotade arter. 8. Det gäller att så snabbt som möjligt identifiera dessa hotade områden/ biotoper och för det ändamålet behöver regionala bristanalyser tas fram. 9. Men död ved behövs även utanför speciellt rika områden, som en resurs för kommande generationer samt som spridningskorridor mellan olika “hot-spots”. Där kan mängden död ved vara mindre och ökningsgraden lägre. 10. Förutom ökningen av död ved är det viktigt med en större variation av olika kvaliteter samt en kontinuerlig tillförsel. 11. Att öka mängden död ved snabbt i hotade områden (hot-spots) enbart med hjälp av frivilliga åtgärder, kommer troligen att bli svårt. Därför kan olika nya slags politiska åtgärder vara nödvändiga (såsom ekonomisk kompensation). 12. För att definiera målet mer i detalj, behövs mer kunskap om den kritiska tröskeln, spridningsmöjligheter, habitat och substratanspråk samt populationsbiologi för några arter.

  • 4. de Jong, Johnny
    et al.
    Dahlberg, A
    Almstedt, M
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Hysing, E
    Silverling, G
    Mer död ved i skogen: en förutsättning för tusentals arters överlevnad2004Ingår i: Fauna och flora, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 99, nr 2, s. 36-41Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Fungi and wind strongly influence the temporal availability of logs in an old-growth spruce forest2007Ingår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 482-490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is a key habitat for many species in forest ecosystems. To ensure the long-term survival of such species, forest management regimes must include measures that promote dead wood dynamics similar to those of natural forests. Thus, information on CWD dynamics under natural conditions is required, including data pertaining to the underlying agents of disturbance. This study examines modes of mortality, decay rates, and temporal patterns in the availability of Picea abies logs in a Swedish old-growth forest affected by internal, small-scale disturbance. All 684 logs in a 6.6-ha plot were mapped and classified into one of six decay classes. Logs in the early stages of decay were examined for the presence of heart-rot fungi. Six years later all logs were re-inventoried, including newly formed logs. Matrix models based on the transition rates between decay classes showed that it took about 60 years for 90% of the logs to decay beyond class 6 (a deformed trunk with soft wood). Large logs (≥26 cm) decayed 40% more slowly than small logs (≤25 cm). The initial volume of logs was 37.6 m3/ha but increased to 44.8 m 3/ha after six years. In addition, there was a large shift in the decay-class distribution. The volume of logs in early and late decay classes increased by 71% and 45%, respectively, while the volume of logs in the intermediate decay classes decreased by 32%. The fluctuations appear to result from pulses in mortality, driven by a combination of strong winds and the heart-rot fungus, Phellinus chrysoloma, which was present in more than 30% of all logs at an early stage of decay. These results show that large temporal fluctuations in dead wood also occur in the absence of large-scale disturbance, and that heart-rot fungi are important factors driving the overall dynamics of dead wood. Since many wood-inhabiting species are naturally rare and have very specific substrate demands, such temporal variability in dead wood availability may have effects on biodiversity and should be taken into account when designing small, protected forest areas.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Carina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Månsson, Per
    Schlyter, Fredrik
    Sjödin, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Strategier i sökandet efter gnaghämmare mot snytbaggen, Hylobius abietis: Föredrag, 19:e Organikerdagarna i Linköpng 20042004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Carina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Månsson, P
    Sjödin, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Searching for Pine Weevil Antifeedants: Finding an Active Compound in Bark from Linden, Tilia cordata: Joint meeting of International Society of Chemical Ecology and Phytochemical Society of North America, Ottawa, Canada 20042004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Carina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Smitt, O.
    Schlyter, F.
    Sjödin, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Antifeedants for Protection of Pines and Spruces against the Pine Weevil, Hylobius abietis: International Society of Chemical Ecology, Annual Meeting 2001, Lake Tahoe, USA2001Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Carina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Smitt, Olof
    Schlyter, Fredrik
    Sjödin, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Searching for Pine Weevil Antifeedants, Strategy and Synthesis2002Ingår i: 19th annual meeting of International Society of Chemical Ecology, 2002, Hamburg, Germany, 2002, s. 217-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Essner, A.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Unit of Research, Education and Development, Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustås, P.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edge-Hughes, L.
    Canine Fitness Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Zetterberg, L.
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Hellström, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Validity and reliability properties of canine short-term heart rate variability measures-a pilot study2015Ingår i: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 384-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the pilot study was to compare validity and reliability properties of Polar RS800CX (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) against simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG) measuring time- and frequency-based short-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, in dogs during stationary standing position. Five-minute recordings with less than 5% error rates from inter-beat interval (IBI) series obtained by Polar RS800CX and ECG, in 8 adult dogs, were used for HRV analysis. Polar data were statistically compared to the ECG data to assess for systematic differences in time- and frequency-based HRV parameters. Relative and absolute reliabilities were estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman ρ, Bland and Altman analysis, standard error of measurement, and standard error of measurements in percentage. Paired t test was used to determine the statistical significance of differences between the measurement methods. Results: There were high correlation coefficients between HRV parameters obtained from Polar RS800CX and ECG. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.98-1.00, and Spearman ρ was 0.93-0.98. There were differences between the methods in 2 HRV parameters, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal IBIs (SDNN) (P = 0.035) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to normal IBIs (RMSSD) (P = 0.034). Standard error of measurements was between 2.8-11.6% in ECG and between 2.6-11.8% in Polar, indicating rather high measurement error in 3 of the HRV parameters in both measurement methods. Close agreements and high correlation estimates in this pilot study indicated acceptable relative reliability in Polar RS800CX measuring time- and frequency-based HRV parameters in the group of dogs studied. However, the present pilot study revealed differences between Polar RS800CX and ECG in time-based standard deviation of normal-to-normal and square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to normal parameters, and that small amounts of erroneous IBI segments from Polar negatively impact on the validity and reliability properties of Polar RS800CX. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  • 11.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Lindmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Validity and reliability of Polar® RS800CX heart rate monitor, measuring heart rate in dogs during standing position and at trot on a treadmil2013Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 114-115, s. 1-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the present study was to assess criterion validity, and relative and absolute reliability of Polar® RS800CX heart rate monitor, compared to simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG) data, in measuring heart rate of dogs during standing position and at trot on a treadmill.

    Methods

    Heart beats from Polar® RS800CX and Cardiostore ECG were recorded simultaneously during seven continuous minutes in standing position and at trot, in 10 adult healthy dogs. Polar® data was statistically compared to ECG data for a variety of mean beats per minute (BPM), standard deviation and confidence interval. Criterion validity was calculated by Pearson product moment correlation method and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2.1). Relative and absolute reliability were calculated by ICC2.1, the Bland and Altman analysis and standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%).

    Results

    The correlation, criterion validity, between Polar® and ECG data in standing position was r = 0.99 (p < 0.0005) and at trot r = 0.97 (p < 0.0005). Polar® data was not significantly different from ECG data. Mean difference between ECG and uncorrected Polar® data was − 0.6 BPM in standing position and − 0.6 BPM at trot. Polar® was over- and underestimating ECG data. SEM and SEM% in standing were ± 2.6 BPM and 3.0%, at trot ± 3.8 BPM and 3.1%, indicating that measurement errors were low.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that the criterion validity and the instrument reliability were excellent in Polar® RS800CX heart rate measuring system. The equipment seemed to be valid and reliable in measuring BPM in the dogs studied during submaximal cardiovascular conditions such as in standing position and at trot on a treadmill.

  • 12.
    Fjæstad, Björn
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Dricker fiskar vatten?: 156 frågor och svar från Forskning & Framsteg2007Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dricker fiskar vatten? Har stora människor större celler? Varför nyser man inte när man sover? Virvlar vatten åt olika håll på norra och södra halvklotet? Varför finns det så många väderkvarnar i Nederländerna? Tänker man sämre på engelska? Varför korvar sig telefonsladden?

    Dricker fiskar vatten? är en djup brunn av kunskap att ösa ur för den vetgirige – men också mycket underhållande och rolig att läsa. I den här boken ryms allt från det mest vardagliga till djupt existentiella spörsmål. Här finns just de frågor som du inte visste att du alltid undrat över.

    Och hur var det nu med fiskarna? Dricker de vatten? Det överraskande svaret finns i boken. Världen omkring oss är sällan så enkel att det duger med bara ett ja eller ett nej.

  • 13.
    Fraver, Shawn
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Ringvall, Anna
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Refining volume estimates of down woody debris2007Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 37, nr 13, s. 627-633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Down woody debris (DWD) plays a vital role in forest ecosystem structure and function. Although volume is likely the most common metric used to characterize DWD, an evaluation of the formulae used for volume estimation on individual DWD pieces has received little attention. We determined actual volume of 155 diverse DWD pieces (types, species, lengths, and diameters) by detailed field measurements. By comparing the actual and calculated volumes from six commonly used formulae, we assessed their bias, precision, and accuracy. Based on observed DWD forms, we developed a new formula, namely the “conic-paraboloid”, which was included in the assessment. Among the formulae that require length and two end diameter measurements, the conic-paraboloid had the lowest bias, highest precision, and hence greatest accuracy. Newton’s and the centroid formulae had higher accuracy yet require more field measurements. Smalian’s, conical frustum, and average-of-ends formulae had poor performance relative to the others. Accuracy of all formulae decreased with increasing piece length. Thus, partitioning pieces into two, three, and four sections for additional measurement improved accuracy. As decay advances, pieces become progressively more elliptical in cross section. Using the cross-sectional area derived from only the long axis of the ellipse leads to substantial volume overestimates for well-decayed DWD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 14.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Integrated assessment for sustainable rural development in the Mid Sweden mountain region2015Ingår i: Proceedings of SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL AREAS IN PRACTICE (SURAP) 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable rural development have partly different challenges compared to urban areas, both in types of challenges and in solutions possible to implement. Ongoing work at Mid Sweden University addresses such issues in the Mid Sweden mountain region (county of Jämtland) through integrated assessment.

     

    The global development has now come to a critical state where humanity act as a new geological force and it is obvious that there are numerous of environmental problems which arise from the present geosphere-biosphere-anthroposphere interactions which urgently need to be addressed. Even though Jämtland is a sparsely populated area with large forests, a lot of hydro power, and only one major city, it is still not obvious how to reach long term sustainability. We can e.g. easily identify tradeoffs between increased biofuel harvesting and development of tourism based on experience of nature.

     

    Regional sustainability can be addressed with an ecological systems model based on carbon and energy balances. The model is supplemented with investigations of ecosystem services in the region, intended to capture additional dimensions of sustainable development. A regional model can serve as a support tool for regional decisions aiming for sustainable regional development.

  • 15.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Palm, Matilda
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Englund, Oskar
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Sustainability criteria for land use activities in the carbon market2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Hypothesizing the Shifting Mosaic of Attitudes through time: A Dynamic Framework for Sustainable Tourism Development on a ‘Mediterranean Isle’2008Ingår i: Tourism , Recreation and Sustainability: Linking Culture and the Environment, Wallingford, Ox. UK: CABI Publishing, 2008, 2, s. 50-75Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold. It briefly reminds the reader of the major obstacles to implementing sustainable solutions in touristic environments. A principal impediment is that sustainability is a term fraught with ‘imprecision’ (Wall, 1997, p.33), since it holds varying meanings for different stakeholders (see also McCool and Stankey, 1999; Sauter and Leisen, 1999; Kousis, 2001). While researchers are well aware of this obstacle, the majority of existing studies examine these differences in attitudes from a cross-sectional standpoint. That is, investigations of the differing attitudes of players involved directly or indirectly in tourism’s development (e.g., developers, local government bureaucrats and politicians, national policy makers, tour operators, environmental protection groups, and local residents) tend to focus on a particular place at a single point in time. Johnson and Snepenger (2006) argue the reason for this fixation on cross-sectional studies is predictable since “it is pragmatically easier to acquire information at one point in time” but also because most researchers are under pressure to turn out publications within a short timeframe and do not have the luxury to commit themselves to lengthy studies (222).

    Unfortunately, however, the prevalence of such research inhibits our ability to understand the manner in which attitudes towards tourism of each set of stakeholders in a single locality are likely to change over time. In other words, while one group of players may be extremely accepting towards tourism compared to another at an early stage of the sector’s development, the respective perceptions of these two groups based on their experiences will most likely shift through time. In some cases perhaps the varying perceptions will become increasingly convergent, while in others differences in opinion may be enhanced. Given that it is crucial in any destination to include as many stakeholders as possible in the plan-making process to generate effective policy, it is apparent that adopting a longitudinal approach, examining changes over time would prove helpful for prescribing a general agenda for sustainable tourism development.

    Thus, the chapter reiterates the need for a conceptual framework that recognizes the effect that spatial/geographic and temporal/historic contingencies may have in influencing the attitudes of various stakeholders towards sustainability. A primary aim is to demonstrate the value of adopting a longitudinal model such as Butler’s (1980) widely used tourist-area life cycle to investigate the perspectives of different actors towards balanced-oriented growth at each stage of destination’s development.  In order to illustrate the use of such a conceptual framework for examining the shifting perceptions of stakeholders over time, the chapter draws on the experiences of island destinations in the Mediterranean.

  • 17.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The creation of leisure utopias: A new era in city building2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18. Johansson, Therese
    et al.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Ericson, Lars
    Beetle attraction to sporocarps and mycelia of wood-decaying fungi in old-growth spruce forests of northern Sweden2006Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 237, s. 335-341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many saproxylic beetles do not feed on wood directly but on fungi colonizing the wood. The volume of decaying wood has decreased drastically in Scandinavian managed forest landscapes in recent years, so improved knowledge on the interactions between beetles and wood-decaying fungi is important for the long-term persistence of these trophic partners. Sporocarps of polypores are known to emit volatiles attracting both fungivorous and predatory beetles, but it is unknown whether some beetles are also attracted to odours from the mycelia. The aim of this experiment was to test the attraction of beetles to volatiles from the sporocarps and mycelia of wood-decaying fungi. In a randomized block design, six substrate types: Fomitopsis pinicola sporocarp, F. pinicola mycelium-infected wood, Fomitopsis rosea sporocarp, F. rosea mycelium-infected wood, Phellinus chrysoloma sporocarp and Phlebia centrifuga mycelium-infected wood were attached separately to specially designed window traps in four old-growth spruce forests in northern Sweden. Empty traps and traps with sterilised wood were used as controls. We found no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of saproxylic beetles between the control and sterilised wood and the fungal substrates. However, two abundant species showed significant preferences for one substrate type. The bark beetle Dryocoetes autographus preferred F. rosea mycelium-infected wood and the rove beetle Lordithon lunulatus preferred fruiting bodies of F. pinicola. The results indicate that some species do discriminate between volatiles emitted by different polypore species and also between volatiles emitted by the sporocarps and mycelia from the same species. Our data indicate a hitherto unknown interdependence between D. autographus and F. rosea. We conclude that present knowledge on interactions between beetles and wood-decaying fungi is limited and further studies are needed to enhance our ability to design appropriate conservation strategies in the forest landscape.

  • 19.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Hur används landskapet?: Att bevara biologisk mångfald i det brukade skogslandskapet2003Ingår i: Kungliga Skogs- och Lantbruksakademiens Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5350, Vol. 142, nr 1, s. 91-94Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Jönsson, Mari
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Fraver, Shawn
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Dynesius, M.
    Umeå University.
    Rydgård, M.
    The County Administration of Västra Götaland.
    Esseen, P.-A.
    Umeå University.
    Eighteen years of tree mortality and structural change in an experimentally fragmented Norway spruce forest2007Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 242, nr 2-3, s. 306-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term experimental forest fragmentation studies remain uncommon, despite their critical role in the advancement of ecological theory and conservation planning. In 1986 five circular forest fragments (1/16-1 ha) were exposed through clearcutting within an old-growth Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest in northern Sweden. Initial responses to fragmentation (1986-1991) showed very high tree mortality and structural degradation of the fragments. In the present study we re-inventoried these fragments to evaluate tree mortality patterns and structural changes occurring over a longer time period (1991-2004). The fragments can readily be viewed as harvest retention patches or 'woodland key habitats' (i.e., set-aside patches of high conservation value), allowing us to make inferences about the effectiveness of these novel conservation tools. Tree mortality rates dropped markedly (to 1.2-3.9%/year) compared to the initial responses, yet remained elevated over those of control plots in the nearby unfragmented forest (0.7%). Mortality increased with tree diameter, resulting in smaller-diameter, more homogenous stands. Mortality also generally increased with decreasing fragment size and was dependent of tree location within fragments. Standing death (45% of dead trees, 1991-2004) replaced uprootings (71%, 1986-1991) as the dominant mode of mortality. Numbers of dying and standing dead trees increased during the second sampling period, further adding to structural change and reduced stand density. Elevated tree mortality resulted in uncharacteristically high volumes of coarse woody debris. Results clearly show that adverse edge-related changes to forest structure and function persist up to two decades after fragmentation. Fragments of this size largely fail as remnants intended to maintain forest interior conditions and late-successional forest structure. However, when embedded within a harvested landscape, they: (1) provide abundant coarse woody debris and snags for deadwood-dependent species that risk extirpation in the surrounding matrix and (2) retain important structures for the developing stands.

  • 21.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    et al.
    KCL Science and Consulting.
    Lindström, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    FPInnovations.
    Strength of wet fiber networks-Strength scaling2009Ingår i: Papermaking Research Symposium 2009, Kuopio: University of Kuopio , 2009, s. 35-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Mapping of sawmill supply chains2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Skoglund, WilhelmMittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Development2016Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Lindström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KCL Science and Consulting.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    FPInnovations.
    New insights in paper forming from particle-level process simulations2009Ingår i: Papermaking Research Symposium 2009, Kuopio, Finland: University of Kuopio , 2009, s. 38-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    By virtue of the recent developments in simulation techniques for fibre suspensions flows, it is now possible to directly simulate forming of the paper sheet at a particle level under realistic flow conditions. This opens up a window of opportunity to better understand the microscale development of the paper structure, and to attribute particular features of the structure to different drainage elements.The simulations are based on a particle-level fibre suspension model, in which fibres are represented by chains of cylindrical fibre segments. The fibre model includes curled shapes and the torsion and bending of the fibres. It also captures the two-way interactions between the fibres and the fluid phase. The fluid motion is integrated from the Navier--Stokes equations.To illustrate the usage of the simulation tool, a sample parametric study of the effects of different fibre furnishes on the paper structure and wet strength is presented. Such an investigation could almost as easily have been performed with experiments. Simulations, however, have some advantages: First, the cost is almost nothing as compared to pilot trials. Secondly, the parameters of the simulations can be controlled one at a time, whereas in pilot trials, changing one process parameter will affect the others. Thirdly, every detail of the evolving paper structure is accessible at every instant in the simulations. That is, the forming process needs no longer be considered a "black box". Simulations also have some drawbacks. For instance, it is not possible to include the smallest particles, due to their vast number, while maintaining sufficiently large flow geometry. Therefore, simulations must target paper grades of low fines contents.In this communication, the pros and cons of particle-level simulations are discussed, and put into the context of previous forming and dewatering models in the literature. The development of the paper microstructure predicted in the simulations shows that thickening is the dominant forming mechanism, while filtration only occurs in the most dilute end of the typical range of consistencies used in the industry. This predicted behaviour is compared with the conventional view of dewatering, which holds filtration as the dominant forming mechanism.

     

  • 25.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hofer, Peter
    GEO Partner AG.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nordin, Annika
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Taverna, Ruedi
    GEO Partner AG.
    Werner, Frank
    Werner Environment & Development.
    Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation2014Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 557-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  • 26.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Kant, S
    Tropical deforestation: A multinomial logistic model and some country-specific policy priorities2005Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three problems - one-way effect hypothesis, data, and estimation problems - in the existing econometric models of global deforestation are addressed, robustness of the results is tested, and country-specific policy prescriptions, for five countries, are suggested. A theoretical deforestation model is proposed by incorporating two-way effects of all explanatory variables, and hypothesizing that the net effect of a variable may vary across regions. Deforestation is used as qualitative variable to address the data problem. Multinomial logistic model is used to deal with estimation problems, and the results of multinomial logistic are found to be more informative and robust compared to the results of binary logistic and ordinary least square (OLS) methods. Growth in population, forest areas, agriculture, and road construction are the main causes of deforestation in high deforesting countries, but debt service growth, in addition to agriculture and road construction, are the main causes in medium deforesting countries.

  • 27. Månsson, Per
    et al.
    Eriksson, Carina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Sjödin, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Antifeedants against Hylobius abietis pine weevils: An active compound in extract of bark of Tilia cordata linden2005Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 989-1001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linden (Tilia cordata) bark contains antifeedants effective against the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis. Soxhlet extraction of inner and outer bark resulted in an extract which showed antifeedant activity in a micro-feeding assay. The extract was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel using gradient elution with solvents of increasing polarity. The content of the fractions obtained was monitored by thin layer- and gas chromatography. Fractions of similar chemical composition were merged. Two of the 17 fractions showed antifeedant activity in the micro feeding assay. Nonanoic acid was identified in both of these fractions. Subsequent testing in the micro feeding assay showed that nonanoic acid possessed strong antifeedant activity against H. abietis adults.

  • 28.
    Norström, Sara H
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Vestin, Jenny LK
    Swedish geotechnical institute.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Lundström, Ulla S
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Influences of dissolved organic carbon on stream water chemistry in two forested catchments in central Sweden2010Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 101, nr 1-3, s. 229-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream water chemistry in two headwater streams draining two small, adjacent catchments in Bispgården, central Sweden was studied during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons. The two catchments closely resemble each other in regard to size, shape and drainage density, with the major difference found in the area of wetland lining the streambeds. The emphasis of the study was to investigate the stream water chemistry of these closely resembling catchments, regarding the quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its influence on the concentrations of di- and trivalent cations. The streams showed significant differences in the content and size distribution of DOC and in the distribution of cations between the different size fractions. For both streams the high flow events induced by precipitation influenced the chemistry of the streams through increase of organic matter and its associated cations. Fanbergsbäcken, with relatively low pH and high DOC concentration, had a greater amount of high molecular mass (HMM) DOC to which approximately 75% of Al and Fe and about 50% of Ca and Mg were associated. Gråbergsbäcken, with a higher pH and lower DOC level, had approximately 65% of Al, 40% of Fe and 30% of Ca and Mg associated to its HMM DOC fraction. Sixteen different low molecular mass organic acids were found in the stream water, of which oxalic and lactic acid were present in the highest concentrations.

  • 29.
    Näsberg, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kvinnors upplevelser och behov av stöd vid hysterektomi: en litteraturstudie2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Hysterektomi är ett kirurgiskt ingrepp där man opererar bort livmodern på kvinnor där en genital rubbning uppkommit. Syftet med detta arbete var att ge en klarare bild om hur kvinnor upplever detta ingrepp samt hur vårdpersonalen skall bemöta och kunna ge kvinnan stöd om så skulle behövas. Syftet med studien var att genom en litteraturstudie belysa kvinnors upplevelser av hysterektomi samt behov av stöd. En systematisk litteraturstudie gjordes där tretton vetenskapliga studier har inkluderats. Resultatet presenteras i två huvudkategorier, kvinnors upplevelser vid hysterektomi samt kvinnors behov av stöd. Båda kategorierna innefattade underkategorier vilka var livskvalitet, sexualitet, stöd samt information. Resultatet visade på att större delen av kvinnorna som genomgått hysterektomi var nöjda med ingreppet, då ett stort handikapp de dragits med en lång tid lättade eller försvann helt. Kvinnorna saknade information om tiden efter operationen. Information har en stor betydelse av hur kvinnorna upplever hysterektomi. Sammanfattningsvis är det viktigt att sjukvårdspersonal har den kunskapen att ge rätt information vid rätt tillfälle. För att hjälpa de kvinnor som skall genomgå hysterektomi bör vårdpersonalen även kunna vara ett stöd, så att sjukhusvistelsen blir en god upplevelse för dessa kvinnor.

  • 30.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Carbon Balance Implications Of Forest Biomass Production Potential2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests in boreal and temperate forest-ecosystems have an important function since they sequester atmospheric carbon by uptake of carbon-dioxide in photosynthesis, and transfer and store carbon in the forest ecosystem. Forest material can be used for bio-fuel purposes and substitute fossil fuels, and supply wood products, which can replace carbon- and energy-intensive materials. Therefore it is vital to consider the role of forests regarding today´s aim to mitigate climate change. This thesis assess (i) how climate change affects future forest carbon balance, (ii) the importance of different strategies for forest management systems, and biomass production for the carbon balance, (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance in a lifecycle perspective, and (iv) how the Swedish carbon balance is affected from the standpoint of both the actual use of forest raw material within Sweden and what Swedish forestry exports. The analysis was made mainly in a long-term perspective (60-300 year) to illustrate the importance of temporal and also the spatial perspective, as the analysis includes stand level, landscape level, and national level. In this thesis, forestry was considered a system. All activities, from forest regeneration to end use of forest products, were entities of this system. In the evaluation, made from a systems perspective, we used life-cycle analysis to estimate carbon stock in different system flows. Different forest management systems and forest production were integrated in the analyses. Different forest management scenarios were designed for the Swedish forest management in combination with the effect of future climate change; (i) intensive forest practice aiming at increased growth, (ii) increased forest set-aside areas, changes in forest management systems for biomass production, and (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance (construction material, bioenergy and other domestic use). The results showed that future climate changes and intensive forest management with increased production could increase the biomass production and the potential use of forest raw material. This has a positive effect on carbon storage for the forest carbon stock, litter production and carbon storage in the ground etc. and help mitigating carbon-dioxide. Increased forest set-aside areas can increase the short-term carbon stock in forest ecosystems, but will reduce the total long-term carbon balance. The net carbon balance for clear-cut forestry did not differ significantly from continuous-cover forestry, but was rather a question of level of growth. Most important, in the long term, was according to our analysis, how forest raw material is used. Present Swedish forestry and use of forest raw material, both within Sweden and abroad, reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and mitigate climate change. The positive effect for the total carbon balance and climate benefit take place mostly abroad, due to the Swedish high level of export of wood products and the higher substitution effects achieved outside Swedish borders. One strategy is to increase production, harvest and change the use of Swedish forest raw material to replace more carbon intensive material, which can contribute to significant emission reduction. Carbon-dioxide mitigation, as a result of present Swedish forestry, was shown to be almost of the same level as the total yearly emission of greenhouse gases. The total carbon benefit would increase if the biomass production and felling increased and if Swedish wood products replaced carbon intensive materials.This thesis shows also that, by changing forest management, increase the growth and the use of forest raw material and export of forest material we can contribute to even larger climate benefits. In a long-term perspective, the substitution effects and replacement of carbon- and energy-intensive materials are of greater significance than carbon storage effects in forests. A more production oriented forestry needs to make balances and increase the prerequisite for biological diversity, improve recreation possibilities, and protect sensitive land areas and watersheds.Climate benefits, from Swedish forestry, are highly dependent on policy decision-making and how that can steer the direction for the Swedish forestry.

  • 31.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Forest biomass production potential and its implications for carbon balance2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated methodological approach is used to analyse the forest biomass production potential in the Middle Norrland region of Sweden, and its use to reduce carbon emissions. Forest biomass production, forest management, biomass harvest, and forest product use are analyzed in a system perspective considering the entire resource flow chains. The system-wide carbon flows as well as avoided carbon emissions are quantified for the activities of forest biomass production, harvest, use and substitution of non-biomass materials and fossil fuels. Five different forest management scenarios and two biomass use alternatives are developed and used in the analysis. The analysis is divided into four main parts. In the first part, plant biomass production is estimated using principles of plant-physiological processes and soil-water dynamics. Biomass production is compared under different forest management scenarios, some of which include the expected effects of climate change based on IPCC B2 scenario. In the second part, forest harvest potentials are estimated based on plant biomass production data and Swedish national forest inventory data for different forest management alternatives. In the third part, soil carbon stock changes are estimated for different litter input levels from standing biomass and forest residues left in the forest during the harvest operations. The fourth and final part is the estimation of carbon emissions reduction due to the substitution of fossil fuels and carbon-intensive materials by the use of forest biomass. Forest operational activities such as regeneration, pre-commercial thinning, commercial thinning, fertilisation, and harvesting are included in the analysis. The total carbon balance is calculated by summing up the carbon stock changes in the standing biomass, carbon stock changes in the forest soil, forest product carbon stock changes, and the substitution effects. Fossil carbon emissions from forest operational activities are calculated and deducted to calculate the net total carbon balance.The results show that the climate change effect most likely will increase forest biomass production over the next 100 years compared to a situation with unchanged climate. As an effect of increased biomass production, there is a possibility to increase the harvest of usable biomass. The annual forest biomass production and harvest can be further increased by the application of more intensive forestry practices compared to practices currently in use. Deciduous trees are likely to increase their biomass production because of climate change effects whereas spruce biomass is likely to increase because of implementation of intensive forestry practices.IIIntensive forestry practices such as application of pre-commercial thinning, balanced fertilisation, and introduction of fast growing species to replace slow growing pine stands can increase the standing biomass carbon stock. Soil carbon stock increase is higher when only stem-wood biomass is used, compared to whole-tree biomass use. The increase of carbon stocks in wood products depends largely on the magnitude of harvest and the use of the harvested biomass. The biomass substitution benefits are the largest contributor to the total carbon balance, particularly for the intensive forest management scenario when whole-tree biomass is used and substitutes coal fuel and non-wood construction materials. The results show that the climate change effect could provide up to 104 Tg carbon emissions reduction, and intensive forestry practices may further provide up to 132 Tg carbon emissions reduction during the next 100 years in the area studied.This study shows that production forestry can be managed to balance biomass growth and harvest in the long run, so that the forest will maintain its capacity to increase standing biomass carbon and provide continuous harvests. Increasing standing biomass in Swedish managed forest may not be the most effective strategy to mitigate climate change. Storing wood products in building materials delays the carbon emissions into the atmosphere, and the wood material in the buildings can be used as biofuel at the end of a building life-cycle to substitute fossil fuels.These findings show that the forest biomass production potential in the studied area increases with climate change and with the application of intensive forestry practices. Intensive forestry practice has the potential for continuous increased biomass production which, if used to substitute fossil fuels and materials, could contribute significantly to net carbon emissions reductions and help mitigate climate change.

  • 32.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Johan, Bergh
    SLU.
    Nordin, A.
    Fahlvik, N.
    Lundmark, Thomas
    SLU.
    Carbon balance comparison of continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Potential effects of intensive forestry on biomass production and total carbon balance in north-central Sweden2012Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 106-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify the potential effects of intensive forest management activities on forest production in north-central Sweden over the next 100 years, and calculate the potential climate change mitigation feedback effect due to the resulting increased carbon stock and increased use of forest products. We analyze and compare four different forest management scenarios (Reference, Environment, Production, and Maximum), all of which include the expected effects of climate change based on SRES B2 scenario. Forest management practices are intensified in Production scenario, and further intensified in Maximum scenario. Four different models, BIOMASS, HUGIN, Q-model, and Substitution model, were used to quantify net primary production, forest production and harvest potential, soil carbon, and biomass substitution of fossil fuels and non-wood materials, respectively. After integrating the models, our results show that intensive forestry may increase forest production by up to 26% and annual harvest by up to 19%, compared to the Reference scenario. The greatest single effect on the carbon balance is from using increased biomass production to substitute for fossil fuels and energy intensive materials. Carbon stocks in living tree biomass, forest soil and wood products also increase. In total, a net carbon emission reduction of up to 132 Tg (for Maximum scenario) is possible during the next 100 years due to intensive forest management in two Swedish counties, Jämtland and Västernorrland. 

  • 34.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Bergh, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of climate change on biomass production and substitution in north-central Sweden2011Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 4340-4355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the effects of climate change on forest production in north-central Sweden, as well as the potential climate changemitigation feedback effects of the resulting increased carbon stock and forest product use. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C over the next 100 years may increase annual forest production by 33% and potential annual harvest by 32%, compared to a reference case without climate change. This increased biomass production, if used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials, can result in a significant net carbon emission reduction. We find that carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and wood products also increase, but this effect is less significant than biomass substitution. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 104 Tg of carbon can occur over 100 years, depending on harvest level and reference fossil fuel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 35.
    Rauchfuss, J
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Ziegler, S
    Department of Geography Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855, USA.
    Reconstructing canopy-disturbance history and recruitment patterns to inform management decisions at the lost 40 in the Chippewa national forest, northern Minnesota2011Ingår i: Geographical Bulletin - Gamma Theta Upsilon, ISSN 0731-3292, Vol. 52, s. 3-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Old-growth eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) dominate the forest canopy but not the understory of the Lost 40 Scientific and Natural Area in northern Minnesota. Our objectives were to (1) analyze stand structure and species composition, (2) examine the tree-ring record to determine the frequency and magnitude of canopy disturbances, (3) characterize recruitment patterns to provide information for a science-based management plan, and (4) compare the canopy-disturbance history of the Lost 40 to the average decadal rate of disturbance in similar forests. Average canopy disturbance from 1880-1999 was 2.6-8.2 percent per decade for three 0.1-ha plots. The average disturbance rate of 5.9 percent is similar to decadal rates in other temperate forests of the northeastern United States. Managing the Lost 40 to regenerate pine would require intense effort because the species composition, age structure, disturbance regime, high stand density, possibility of disease, and potential future climate do not promote natural recruitment of pines in this setting. © 2011 by Gamma Theta Upsilon.

  • 36.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Det agrara Sverige [DVD-Elektronisk resurs]1999Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37. Samuelsson, Göran
    I godsets skugga?: Frälsebonden på Ängsö : familj och arbete 1700-18802004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of the 18th century, around 95 percent of Sweden’s working population were engaged in some form of agricultural activity. They were mainly peasants who were administratively divided into three separate categories, skatte, krono and frälse farmers. The categories also reflected the form of taxation to which the land they tilled was subject. Land (type) was defined according to its tax rating, and the farmer who tilled the land was named according to its category.

     

    This dissertation deals with the problem concerning whether these differences in the tax coding of land, and thereby its general status, affected the everyday conditions of individual peasants. Was family life affected? Is it possible to identify differences in peasant’s interests and efforts to increase and improve the land they cultivated? Could a farmer’s relationship to his land influence his possibilities to generate wealth? This study is focussed on the customary tenants (frälsebönder - landbor), whose everyday conditions will be examined in detail and, in selected parts, be compared with those of the free tenants (skattebönder).

     

    The results of the study show that the frälse farmers in Ängsö parish lived in large households. Almost all farm households in Ängsö have, during their lifetime formed part of an extended family. An analysis of the size of households in Ängsö gave a figure, which is considerably higher than figures that have been shown previously for other areas in eastern Sweden. The extended family was the rule rather than the exception in Ängsö during the entire period covered by this study. The frälse farmers in Ängsö had also larger households than skatte farmers in the parish of Tortuna.

     

    It is obvious that the inhabitants of Ängsö implemented family planning. The interval between births indicates that there was conscious family planning in order to limit the number of births and determine the interval between them. The people of Ängsö tended during the entire research period to age and die close to their family.

     

    The results also demonstrate that living conditions must have changed over the years, and not for the better. Rural women in Ängsö appear to have lived a better life during the 18th century despite giving birth to considerably more children. Their life expectancy decreased during the 19th century by approximately 4.5 years.

     

    The study shows that fertility all the time was higher in the skatte parish Tortuna compared to the frälse parish Ängsö. There is a structural difference between skatte and frälse farmers concerning fertility levels. In this respect Ängsö and Tortuna parishes (skatte) in eastern Sweden differ from the district in western Sweden where frälse farmers were the most fertile group. The difference between Ängsö and Tortuna became increasingly evident after 1760 and culminated during the years 1790-1820.

     

    My findings indicate that frälse as well as skatte farmers were largely engaged in land clearing. The farmers themselves were initiating and responsible for practically all land clearance. Frälse farmers and crofters seem to have been as active in clearing land as skatte farmers with freehold rights.

     

    The frälse farmer, who also often took over his ancestors’ farm, did not pay a large sum of money when he took over. The reason was of course that he did not own the property. This is, presumably, the main reason why the value of the frälse farmer’s personal estate often was higher than the skatte farmers at all periods except for the last one.

     

    This thesis show, without any doubt, that the large group of Swedish farmers, which were called frälse farmers, did not manage their farms less well than the skatte farmers. Up to the time of their exit from Swedish agrarian history the frälse farmers were just as interested in efficiently managing and improving their farms and in creating growth and wealth as their skatte farmer colleagues were.

     

  • 38.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, 35195, Sweden.
    Time-dependent radiative forcing effects of forest fertilization and biomass substitution2012Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 109, nr 1-3, s. 203-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyse the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to and removals from the atmosphere (net emissions). We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO 2, N 2O and CH 4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in substitution benefits and carbon stock. The radiative forcing of the 2 stands is identical for the first 15 years, followed by 2 years during which the fertilized stand produces slightly more radiative forcing. After year 18 the instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing are consistently lower for the fertilized forest system. Both stands result in long-term negative radiative forcing, or cooling of the earth system. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. This suggests that forest fertilization and biomass substitution are effective options for climate change mitigation, as climate change is a long term issue. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 39.
    Schiebe, Christian
    et al.
    SLU.
    Blaženec, M.
    Jakuš, R.
    Unelius, C. R.
    Schlyter, F.
    Semiochemical diversity diverts bark beetle attacks from Norway spruce edges2011Ingår i: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 135, nr 10, s. 726-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Schiebe, Christian
    et al.
    SLU.
    Hammerbacher, A.
    Birgersson, G.
    Witzell, J.
    Brodelius, P. E.
    Gershenzon, J.
    Hansson, B. S.
    Krokene, P.
    Schlyter, F.
    Inducibility of chemical defenses in Norway spruce bark is correlated with unsuccessful mass attacks by the spruce bark beetle2012Ingår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 170, nr 1, s. 183-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41. Unelius, C. R.
    et al.
    Schiebe, Christian
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Bohman, B.
    Andersson, M. N.
    Schlyter, F.
    Non-host volatile blend optimization for forest protection against the european spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Xiong, Shaojun
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Landscape Ecol Grp, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Johansson, Mats E
    Umea Univ, Landscape Ecol Grp, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umea Univ, Landscape Ecol Grp, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea.
    Responses of riparian plants to accumulation of silt and plant litter: the importance of plant traits2001Ingår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, s. 481-490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-yr field experiment was used to determine the response of riparian plants to accumulation of litter or silt in a river flood-plain meadow in northern Sweden. Such disturbances occur regularly in free-flowing rivers but are likely to change as a result of global changes in land use or climate. We anticipated that plants with different traits would differ in their response to litter and silt accumulation. We quantified plant response as relative change in above-ground biomass, and regressed it on either litter mass or silt depth, and on plant traits such as lateral spread, plant height, relative growth rate, seed mass and seed persistence in soil. The relative changes in riparian plant biomass following litter or silt accumulation were negatively related to litter mass and silt depth, and positively related to most examined plant traits Such as seed mass. seed persistence and lateral spread. The vegetation recovery in the second season was largely determined by plant traits; litter or silt accumulation had no significant effect. Litter accumulation selected for large-seeded species, but silt accumulation selected for species with strong ability of lateral spread. Seed persistence was a useful variable in predicting species recovery from both litter and silt accumulation. Plant height was negatively related to plant recovery, but relative growth rate was not significantly related to relative change in plant biomass after silt or litter accumulation. Our results imply that plant traits are important variables to consider for predicting the responses of riparian vegetation to deposition of organic and inorganic matter.

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