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  • 1.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    A prosodic bias, not an advantage, in bilinguals' interpretation of emotional prosody2019Ingår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 416-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A bilingual advantage has been found in prosody understanding in pre-school children. To understand this advantage better, we asked 73 children (6-8 years) to identify the emotional valence of spoken words, based on either semantics or emotional prosody (which were either consistent or discrepant with each other). Bilingual experience ranged from no to equal exposure to and use of two languages. Both age and bilingual experience predicted accurate identification of prosody, particularly for trials where the semantics were discrepant with the targeted prosody. Bilingual experience, but not age, predicted a prosodic bias, meaning that participants had more difficulty ignoring the irrelevant discrepant prosody when the task was to identify the semantics of the word. The decline of a semantic bias was predicted by age and bilingual experience together. Our results suggest that previous findings on the bilingual advantage in prosody processing may in fact be driven by a prosodic bias.

  • 2.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete. Stockholms Universitet.
    Bilinguals’ use of semantic and prosodic cues for emotion inference in speech2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a study by Champoux-Larsson and Dylman (2018) showed that the bilingual advantage previously found in the use of emotional prosodic cues in children to infer a speaker’s emotional state (e.g., Yow & Markman, 2011) was driven by a bias towards prosody. Namely, the higher level of bilingualism the participants in ChampouxLarsson and Dylman (2018) had, the more they had difficulty ignoring prosodic emotional cues in spoken words even when they were asked to focus on the semantics of the words. While Misono et al. (1997) found that monolingual adults rely on both semantic and prosodic cues to determine emotion in speech equally, it is not known yet whether this also is true for bilingual adults. In other words, it is unclear whether the prosodic bias found in bilingual children withstands even in adulthood for bilinguals. Thus, we present a study where adults with varying levels of bilingualism were asked to determine the emotional valence of utterances based on the participant’s general impression (i.e., without specifying which cue to use), based on the utterance’s emotional prosody or based on its semantic content. The spoken words’ semantics was positive, negative or neutral and the words were uttered with either a congruent emotional prosody or with an incongruent emotional prosody. Data is currently being prepared for analysis and results will be available within the coming weeks.

  • 3.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Different measurements of bilingualism and their effect on performance on a Simon task.2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The use of emotional paralinguistic cues in monolingual and bilingual children2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Until the age of around 7-8 years old, children primarily rely on the lexical content of an utterance rather than on paralinguistic cues (e.g., emotional prosody) to identify a speaker’s emotional state. This bias gradually disappears by the age of 9. From then on, children start using paralinguistic cues to identify their interlocutor’s emotional state, even when the lexical content and paralinguistic cues are incongruent. This skill is important to understand sarcasm and detect lies for instance. Bilinguals must focus on the language used by their interlocutor to determine which language to use, while this is not necessary for monolinguals. This difference could have an effect on how and when the bias disappears for bilinguals. As bilinguals need to be more attentive to the speaker, the bias could disappear earlier. However, as bilinguals need to attend to the language used by the interlocutor to a larger extent, this could hinder emotional prosody processing and delay development. To this end, we designed a study where we asked monolinguals and bilinguals between 6-9 years to identify the emotional valence of spoken words. The words were positive, negative or neutral and were expressed in a happy, angry or neutral tone of voice. The task was to identify either the emotional valence of the word content or the valence of the prosody. Preliminary results show an expected effect of congruence, with more accurate responses to congruent compared to incongruent trials. Further, monolinguals performed better on the lexical content task compared to the emotional prosody task. Although biliguals' overall performance was not better than their monolingual peers, bilingual children seemed to performed equally well on both the lexical content and emotional prosody tasks. Our preliminary results suggest that bilingualism during childhood may affect the course of development of the lexical bias.

  • 5.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The use of emotional paralinguistic cues in monolingual, unbalanced bilingual and balanced bilingual children2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Between the ages of 4 and 6 years old, children primarily rely on the lexical content of an utterance rather than on paralinguistic cues to identify a speaker’s emotional state. This bias gradually disappears around the age of 7 or 8. From then on, children start using paralinguistic cues in order to identify their interlocutor’s emotional state, even when the lexical content and paralinguistic cues are incongruent. This skill is essential for understanding sarcasm and detecting lies.

    Bilingual speakers need to focus on the language used by their interlocutor in order to determine which language to use, while this choice is considerably easier for monolinguals who only have one language. This could have an effect on how and when the bias disappears for bilinguals. As bilinguals need to be more attentive to the speaker, it is possible that the bias disappears earlier. However, as bilinguals need to allocate more attentional resources to attend to the language itself, this could leave them with fewer resources to process paralinguistic emotional cues.

    In order to investigate this, we asked monolingual and bilingual children between the age of 6 and 8 years to identify the emotional valence of spoken words. The words were positive, negative or neutral and were expressed in a happy, angry or neutral tone of voice. In some blocks, the task was to identify the emotional valence of the word content, and in others, the valence of the prosody, or tone of voice. Bilingual participants were divided according to the level of balance between their two languages (i.e., balanced versus unbalanced exposure) as balancedness has shown to affect task performance. Our preliminary results show that the groups may perform differently in some conditions, suggesting that exposure to one versus several languages may influence the development of emotion identification using paralinguistic cues.

  • 6.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bilingualism and social flexibility2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Bilinguals' social flexibility2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Empirical investigation of the relationship between social flexibility and bilingualismManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Identification of facial expressions of emotion in bilingual children with different exposures to their languages2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the emotional development of bilingual children by measuring balanced and unbalanced 4-year-old bilinguals’ performance on an identification of emotional facial expressions task. A total of 84 children were divided into three groups: balanced bilinguals, unbalanced bilinguals, and monolinguals. Participants completed a computerized task where photographs of faces displaying anger, happiness, sadness, and fear were presented. The groups generally performed in line with previous research, but slightly differently from each other. For all three groups, the results showed that anger and happiness were more accurately identified, while sadness and fear were still difficult to identify for children at this age. However, there were interesting trends suggesting that balanced bilinguals made more refined judgments than the two other groups. Overall, this study supports the idea that the development of bilingual children is similar to their monolingual peers when it comes to learning to identify facial expressions of emotions, but that proportion of exposure to the bilingual child’s languages may lead to slightly different developmental courses.

  • 10.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Identification of facial expressions of emotion by 4-year-old children from different linguistic environments2019Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1208-1219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated the identification of facial expressions of emotion, a socio-emotional task that has not previously been examined in children from different linguistic environments. Eighty-four 4-year-olds growing up in one of three linguistic environments (monolingual, dominant bilingual, balanced bilingual) performed a task where they identified facial expressions (happiness, anger, sadness, fear). Accuracy was analysed with a mixed-design analysis of variance using group (monolinguals, dominant bilinguals and balanced bilinguals) and emotion (happy, angry, sad and scared) as between- and within-group variables, respectively. Our results showed a main effect of emotion, but there was no main effect of group. This suggests that 4-year-olds’ linguistic environment does not affect performance on an identification of facial expressions task. This study was the first to investigate the identification of facial expressions of emotion in children coming from different linguistic environments. As the socio-emotional development of bilinguals is not yet well understood, especially regarding the visual perception of emotions, this study is amongst the first to contribute to this area of research. Our results are therefore of significance as a building block for additional studies that should explore the visual perception of emotions in other types of tasks and populations.

  • 11.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Esteves, Francisco Gomes
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Identification of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Balanced and Unbalanced 4-year-old Bilinguals2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Darlow, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Essex.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    University of Essex.
    Gherghiu, Ana
    University of Essex.
    Matthews, William
    University of Essex.
    Do changes in the pace of events affect one-off judgments of duration?2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. e59847-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Five experiments examined whether changes in the pace of external events influence people's judgments of duration. In Experiments 1a–1c, participants heard pieces of music whose tempo accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 2, participants completed a visuo-motor task in which the rate of stimulus presentation accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 3, participants completed a reading task in which facts appeared on-screen at accelerating, decelerating, or constant rates. In all experiments, the physical duration of the to-be-judged interval was the same across conditions. We found no significant effects of temporal structure on duration judgments in any of the experiments, either when participants knew that a time estimate would be required (prospective judgments) or when they did not (retrospective judgments). These results provide a starting point for the investigation of how temporal structure affects one-off judgments of duration like those typically made in natural settings.

  • 13.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Lärdomar från Japan: Paralleller från japanska läsprocesser till centrala läsmekanismer2016Ingår i: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Barry, Christorpher
    University of Essex, Colchester, UK.
    When having two names facilitates lexical selection: Similar results in the picture-word task from translation distractors in bilinguals and synonym distractors in monolinguals2018Ingår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 171, nr February 2018, s. 151-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report five experiments using the picture-word task to examine lexical selection by comparing the effects of translation distractors in bilinguals and synonym distractors in monolinguals. Three groups of bilinguals named objects in their L1 or L2, and English monolinguals named objects using common names (e.g., DOG = “dog”) or, in a novel manipulation, using synonymous alternative names (e.g., DOG = “hound”, GLASSES = “spectacles”). All studies produced strikingly similar results. When bilinguals named in L1, there was a small facilitation effect from translation distractors, but larger facilitation when they named in L2. When monolinguals produced common names, there was no reliable effect from synonym distractors, but facilitation when they produced alternative names. (There were also strong identity facilitation effects in all naming conditions.) We discuss the relevance of these results for the debate concerning the role of competition in lexical selection and propose that for speech production there are direct facilitatory connections between the lexical representations of translations in bilinguals (and between synonyms in monolinguals). The effects of synonyms in monolinguals appear to “simulate” the effects found for translations in bilinguals, which suggest that there are commonalities in monolingual and bilingual lexical selection.

  • 15.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    When your heart is in your mouth: the effect of second language use on negative emotions2019Ingår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 1284-1290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on bilingualism and emotions has shown stronger emotional responses in the native language (L1) compared to a foreign language. We investigated the potential of purposeful second language (L2) use as a means of decreasing the experience of psychological distress. Native Swedish speakers read and answered questions about negative and neutral texts in their L1 (Swedish) and their L2 (English) and were asked to rate their level of distress before or after the questions. The texts and associated questions were either written in the same (within-language), or different languages (cross-language). We found that within-language trials when the text was written in participants’ native language (Swedish–Swedish) resulted in an increase of distress, whilst cross-language trials (Swedish–English) resulted in a decrease of distress. This implies that purposeful second language use can diminish levels of distress experienced following a negative event encoded in one's first language.

  • 16.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    It's (not) all Greek to me: Boundaries of the foreign language effect2020Ingår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 96, artikel-id 104148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report three experiments investigating the boundaries of the Foreign Language effect in decision making (examining both risk aversion and moral dilemmas), when the foreign language is culturally influential, or when there is high linguistic similarity between the native language and the foreign language. Specifically, we found no Foreign Language effect in the Asian disease problem (Experiment 1a) or the footbridge moral dilemma (Experiment 2a) in Swedish-English bilinguals, but did find a Foreign Language effect for both these tasks in Swedish-French bilinguals (Experiments 1b and 2b). Additionally, we found no Foreign Language effect for moral dilemmas when the language pair was linguistically similar by testing Swedish-Norwegian and Norwegian-Swedish bilinguals (Experiment 3). These results indicate possible boundaries to the Foreign Language effect in decision making and propose that factors such as cultural influence and linguistic similarity diminish the Foreign Language effect.

  • 17.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    No foreign language effect in decision making for culturally influential second languages2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report two experiments investigating the foreign language effect (FLe) for culturally influential languages. Across two experimental paradigms, we found no FLe for Swedish participants when using their second language English. This highlights the limitations of the FLe and suggests that it may not be as robust as previously thought.

  • 18.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Champoux-Larsson, Marie-France
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Gender differences in the generation of emotional words in children and adults2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have traditionally shown that there are differences between the number of words that men and women produce, where females generally produce more words than males. The same has been found for emotional words. However, it is unclear when during development, and why those differences arise. In order to understand this issue better, we replicated a study by Neshat Doost et al. (1999) on a Swedish population. Not only did we study emotional word generation in children (n = 127, age range 8-10 years) as in the original study by Neshat Doost et al. (1999), but we also tested an adult population (n = 183, mean age = 27.7 years) in order to compare different stages in life. Participants generated words based on ten categories, two of which were neutral, and eight of which were emotional categories, covering various aspects of happiness, sadness, and fear. Our results show similar gender differences in the targeted age groups. For the younger population, females produced more words than males in all emotional categories, but there was no difference in the neutral category. Similarly, in the adult population, women generated more words than men in most emotional categories, but no differences were found in the neutral categories. Overall, our results show no gender differences in word generation of neutral words for both the younger and the adult participants, but when it comes to the emotional categories, the female participants generated significantly more words than their male peers. This trend is observable even in children as young as 8-10 years, and persists into adulthood. Our results suggest that gender differences in amount of words generated is specific to, or at least more prominent for emotional words.

  • 19.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Kikutani, Mariko
    Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.
    The role of semantic processing in reading Japanese orthographies: an investigation using a script-switch paradigm2018Ingår i: Reading and writing, ISSN 0922-4777, E-ISSN 1573-0905, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 503-531Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Japanese reading has generally indicated that processing of the logographic script Kanji primarily involves whole-word lexical processing and follows a semantics-to-phonology route, while the two phonological scripts Hiragana and Katakana (collectively called Kana) are processed via a sub-lexical route, and more in a phonology-to-semantics manner. Therefore, switching between the two scripts often involves switching between two reading processes, which results in a delayed response for the second script (a script switch cost). In the present study, participants responded to pairs of words that were written either in the same orthography (within-script), or in two different Japanese orthographies (cross-script), switching either between Kanji and Hiragana, or between Katakana and Hiragana. They were asked to read the words aloud (Experiments 1 and 3) and to make a semantic decision about them (Experiments 2 and 4). In contrast to initial predictions, a clear switch cost was observed when participants switched between the two Kana scripts, while script switch costs were less consistent when participants switched between Kanji and Hiragana. This indicates that there are distinct processes involved in reading of the two types of Kana, where Hiragana reading appears to bear some similarities to Kanji processing. This suggests that the role of semantic processing in Hiragana (but not Katakana) reading is more prominent than previously thought and thus, Hiragana is not likely to be processed strictly phonologically. 

  • 20.
    Matthews, William
    et al.
    University of Essex.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The language of magnitude comparison2014Ingår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 143, nr 2, s. 510-520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When 2 objects differ in magnitude, their relation can be described with a "smaller" comparative (e.g., less, shorter, lower) or a "larger" comparative (e.g., more, taller, higher). We show that, across multiple dimensions and tasks, English speakers preferentially use the latter. In sentence completion tasks, this higher use of larger comparatives (HULC) effect is more pronounced when the larger item is presented on the left (for simultaneous presentation) or second (for sequential presentation). The HULC effect is not diminished by making the 2 items more similar, but it is somewhat lessened when both objects are of low magnitude. These results illuminate the processes underlying the judgment and representation of relative magnitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

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