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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Supej, Matej
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University Cologne, Germany .
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Analysis of sprint cross-country skiing using a differential global navigation satellite system2010Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 110, nr 3, s. 585-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine skiing velocities, gear choice (G2-7) and cycle rates during a skating sprint time trial (STT) and their relationships to performance, as well as to examine relationships between aerobic power, body composition and maximal skiing velocity versus STT performance. Nine male elite cross-country skiers performed three tests on snow: (1) Maximum velocity test (Vmax) performed using G3 skating, (2) Vmax test performed using double poling (DP) technique and (3) a STT over 1,425 m. Additional measurements of VO2max during roller skiing and body composition using iDXA were made. Differential global navigation satellite system data were used for position and velocity and synchronized with video during STT. The STT encompassed a large velocity range (2.9-12.9 m s-1) and multiple transitions (21-34) between skiing gears. Skiing velocity in the uphill sections was related to gear selection between G2 and G3. STT performance was most strongly correlated to uphill time (r = 0.92, P < 0.05), the percentage use of G2 (r = -0.72, P < 0.05), and DP Vmax (r = -0.71, P < 0.05). The velocity decrease in the uphills from lap 1 to lap 2 was correlated with VO2max (r = -0.78, P < 0.05). Vmax in DP and G3 were related to percent of racing time using G3. In conclusion, the sprint skiing performance was mainly related to uphill performance, greater use of the G3 technique, and higher DP and G3 maximum velocities. Additionally, VO2max was related to the ability to maintain racing velocity in the uphills and lean body mass was related to starting velocity and DP maximal speed.

  • 2. Bucher Sandbakk, Silvana
    et al.
    Supej, Matej
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Downhill turn techniques and associated physical characteristics in cross-country skiers2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 708-716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three dominant techniques are used for downhill turning in cross-country skiing. In this study, kinematic, kinetic, and temporal characteristics of these techniques are described and related to skier strength and power. Twelve elite female cross-country skiers performed six consecutive turns of standardized geometry while being monitored by a Global Navigation Satellite System. Overall time was used as an indicator of performance. Skiing and turning parameters were determined from skier trajectories; the proportional use of each technique was determined from video analysis. Leg strength and power were determined by isometric squats and countermovement jumps on a force plate. Snow plowing, parallel skidding, and step turning were utilized for all turns. Faster skiers employed less snow plowing and more step turning, more rapid deceleration and earlier initiation of step turning at higher speed (r = 0.80–0.93; all P < 0.01). Better performance was significantly correlated to higher mean speed and shorter trajectory (r

    = 0.99/0.65; both P < 0.05) and to countermovement jump characteristics of peak force, time to peak force, and rate of force development (r  = -0.71/0.78/-0.83; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, faster skiers used step turning to a greater extent and exhibited higher maximal leg power, which enabled them to combine high speeds with shorter trajectories during turns.

  • 3.
    Ettema, Gertjan
    et al.
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Leirdal, Stig
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Efficiency at high work rates in world class skiers.2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Congress of European College of Sports Science, Oslo: Gamlebyen Grafiske AS , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Leirdal, Stig
    et al.
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ettema, Gertjan
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sub-maximal efficiency during roller ski skating2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Congress of European College of Sports Science / [ed] Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E., Oslo: Gamlebyen Grafiske AS , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Trening for bedre langrennsprestasjoner2008Ingår i: Skisport, ISSN 0333-3973, nr 9, s. 21-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Målsetningen med denne artikkelen er å belyse ulike faktorer som påvirker utholdenhetsprestasjonen, samt presentere treningsmetoder for å utvikle prestasjonen videre. Vi mener at en bedret forståelse for hvordan treningen spesifikt påvirker de ulike faktorene, øker forutsetningene for å legge opp treningen optimalt.

  • 6.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    et al.
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Tren optimalt: Legg puslespillet riktig!2009Ingår i: Fysioterapeuten, ISSN 0016-3384, E-ISSN 0807-9277, nr 6, s. 18-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [no]

    Idrettsutøvere, mosjonister og pasienter trener mye med fysioterapeuter som sentrale støttespillere. Hensikten med denne fagkronikken er å gi en nyansert tilnærming til trening som metode. Trening forstås som en veksling mellom spesifikk Artikkelens eksempel er fra utholdenhetsstrening. Følgende faktorer presenteres og diskuteres opp mot å forbedre prestasjonsevnen: 1) Prestasjonsbegrensende faktorer som grunnlag for prioriteringsområder. 2) Innholdet i treningsopplegget. 3) Praktisk gjennomføring av treningen basert på individuelle egenskaper og livsstil. Artikkelen bruker analogien om å legge et puslespill, et spill med flere biter fra de tre nevnte faktorene som innvirker på å forbedre prestasjon. Eksempler på plan for løsninger er fire praktiske treningsprogrammer for en toppidrettsutøver og en mosjonist. Det vil si, en ukeplan og en dagsplan for hver av dem. I sum er oppgaven til fysioterapeuten og treningsopplegget å bidra til å klargjøre prioriteringene og arbeidsoppgavene for utøvere og pasienter. Opplegget baseres på vitenskaplige prinsipper, mens gjennomføringen er selve kunsten. aktivitetsbelastning og hvile av de funksjonene i kroppen som skal tilpasse seg og oppnå forbedret funksjon over tid. Spesifikk betyr at treningen rettes direkte mot de faktorene som begrenser prestasjonen eller funksjonen.

  • 7.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    et al.
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Welde, Boeye
    North-trondelag University College, Department of Sports and Physical Education, Levanger, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Endurance training and sprint performance in elite junior cross-country skiers2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Congress of European College of Sports Science / [ed] Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E., Oslo: Gamlebyen Grafiske AS , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    et al.
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Leirdal, Stig
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ettema, Gertjan
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Metabolic Rate and Gross Efficiency at High Work Rates in World Class and National Level Sprint Skiers2010Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 109, nr 3, s. 473-481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) at moderate and high work rates, and the relationships to gross kinematics and physical characteristics in elite cross-country skiers. Eight world class (WC) and eight national level (NL) male sprint cross-country skiers performed three 5-min stages using the skating G3 technique, whilst roller skiing on a treadmill. GE was calculated by dividing work rate by MR. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against gravity and frictional rolling forces. Metabolic rate was calculated using gas exchange and blood lactate values. Gross kinematics, i.e. cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR), were measured by video analysis. Furthermore, the skiers were tested for time to exhaustion (TTE), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and maximal speed (Vmax) on the treadmill, and maximal strength in the laboratory. Individual performance level in sprint skating was determined by FIS points. WC skiers did not differ in aerobic MR, but showed lower anaerobic MR and higher GE than NL skiers at a given speed (all P < 0.05). Moreover, WC skiers skated with longer CL and had higher Vmax and TTE (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study shows that WC skiers are more efficient than NL skiers, and it is proposed that this might be due to a better technique and to technique-specific power.

  • 9.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    et al.
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Leirdal, Stig
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ettema, Gertjan
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    The Physiology of World Class Sprint Skiers2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. e9-e16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the physiological characteristics of eight world class (WC) and eight national class (NC) Norwegian sprint cross-country skiers. To measure physiological response and treadmill performance, the skiers performed a submaximal test, a peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) test, and a peak treadmill speed (Vpeak) test in the skating G3 technique. Moreover, the skiers were tested for G3 acceleration outdoors on asphalt and maximal strength in the lab. The standard of sprint skating performance level on snow was determined by FIS points, and the training distribution was quantified. WC skiers showed 8%higher VO2peak and twice as long VO2 plateau time at the VO2peak test, and higher gross efficiency (GE) at the submaximal test (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, WC skiers showed 8%higher Vpeak (P < 0.05), but did not differ from NC skiers in acceleration and maximal strength. WC skiers performed more low and moderate-intensity endurance training and speed training (both P < 0.05). The current results indicate that aerobic capacity, efficiency and high speed capacity differentiate WC and NC sprint skiers and are strong determinants of sprint performance.

  • 10.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    et al.
    Human Movement Science Programme (NTNU), Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Leirdal, Stig
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ettema, Gertjan
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    The physiology of world class sprint skiers2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Congress of European College of Sports Science / [ed] Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E., Oslo: Gamlebyen Grafiske AS , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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