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  • 1.
    Hofmann, K. B.
    et al.
    Otto Bock Healthcare Products GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Ohlsson, M. L.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Höök, M.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Danvind, J.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Kersting, U. G.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Aalborgs Universitet.
    The influence of sitting posture on mechanics and metabolic energy requirements during sit-skiing: a case report2016Ingår i: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 213-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several different sitting postures are used in Paralympic cross-country sit-skiing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sitting posture on physiological and mechanical variables during steady-state double-poling sit-skiing, as well as to determine how seat design can be improved for athletes without sufficient trunk control. Employing a novel, custom-designed seat, three trunk positions were tested while performing double-poling with submaximal oxygen consumption on an ergometer. Cycle kinematics, pole forces, and oxygen consumption were monitored. The athlete performed best, with longer cycle length and less pronounced metabolic responses, when kneeling with the trunk resting on a frontal support. For this case, a forward leaning trunk with knees below the hip joint was interpreted as most optimal, as it showed lower oxygen consumption and related parameters of performance during cross-country sit-skiing. Further investigations should examine whether such improvement is dependent on the level of the athlete’s handicap, as well as whether it is also seen on snow.

  • 2.
    Höök, Martina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Jensen, Kurt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah J
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Changes in maximal double poling performance during and after mderate altitude training in elite cross-country skiers2013Ingår i: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, s. 95-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Jensen, Kurt
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Höök, Martina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    How work economy changes during a summer season with roller skiing training and its influence on performance2012Ingår i: Science and Skiing V / [ed] Erich Mueller, Stefan Lindinger, Thomas Stöggl, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2012, s. 523-529Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Jensen, Kurt
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Höök, Martina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    How work efficiency changes during a summer season with roller skiing training and its influence on performace2010Ingår i: Proceedings for the fifth international conference on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Salzburg: Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2010, s. 75-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Jensen, Kurt
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Höök, Martina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross-country skiers2014Ingår i: Science & Skiing VI / [ed] Erich Muller, Josef Kroll, Stefan Lindinger, Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2014, s. 414-420Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Jensen, Kurt
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Höök, Martina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah J
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers2013Ingår i: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, s. 115-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during altitude exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance changes during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers.

    METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the classic technique  at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20 days at 1500m altitude (ALT1 and ALT2), and 10 days after altitude at sea level (NORM2). The test protocol was a standardized progressive submaximal session of 4 min exercise with 1 min rest between each stage, followed by a 6-10 min progressive “all out” exercise with an increase in first speed and then grade every minute. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured continuously during submaximal and maximal exercise. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during the 1 min rest between submax stages and 2 min after the max test. Power at each submax and max stage were calculated from roller ski friction and body weight against gravity [1]. Each stage power was further used for calculations of power at VO2max, (WVO2max), work efficiency at submaximal loads (GE) and for the estimation of O2 cost at maximal work load (used to calculate accumulated O2 deficit (MOD)) [2].

    RESULTS: At NORM1, the skiers’ body mass was 71.9±10.7kg and VO2max 214±12ml/min/kg0.73. The GE varied between 17.9-19.5% during the 3-5 submaximal loads, with no difference between conditions (P>0.05). Also, blood lactate accumulation after submaximal exercise loads showed no difference between conditions (P<0.05). At ALT1, the VO2max and the WVO2max decreased 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively (P<0.05), however there were no differences between ALT1 and ALT2 or from NORM1 and NORM2 (P>0.05). In contrast, the average power output (322±87W) during the “all out” test increased 3.4±2.7% 10 days after the altitude training (P<0.05). Average MOD varied between 57-79 mlO2·kg-1 over the training period, but with no change between conditions (P>0.05). The coefficient of variation (CV%) for the changes in MOD between NORM1 and 2 was 40%.

    DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that performance (VO2max, WVO2max) deteriorates by 8-9% in a group of elite skiers training at a moderate altitude corresponding to 1500m. No increase in any of the physiological parameters related to performance included in the study was seen after moderate altitude training, except for the maximal power which increased 3.4%. The response after moderate altitude training seems to be related more to anaerobic than aerobic factors. However, this was not confirmed by the MOD in this group of highly trained skiers. The large CV for change in MOD reflects the individual responses to this training.

    CONCLUSION: Small changes of 2-3% in performance in highly trained in elite skiers after moderate altitude training seems not to be related to any single parameter. One should not ignore individual differences in adaptation.

     

    REFERENCES

    1.         Ainegren, M. et al Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, 2008: p. 393-400.

    2.         Medbo, J.I.et al J.Appl.Physiol., 1988. 64: p. 50-60.

  • 7.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Lodin-Sundström, Angelica
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Engan, Harald K.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Höök, Martina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Patrician, Alexander
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Degerström, E
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Effects of altitude acclimatization on spleen volume and contraction during submaximal and maximal work in lowlanders2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Bishop, Phil
    University of Alabama, AL, USA.
    Höök, Martina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Physiological and biomechanical response to rifle carriage in elite biathletes2013Ingår i: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, s. 81-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Bishop, Phillip
    Department of Exercise Science and Kinesiology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States .
    Höök, Martina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes2015Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 617-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Methods: Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5- incline) and V1 techniques (8-) at 8 and 6 kmIhj1, respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), 10.7 T 0.8 and 7.7 T 0.9 kmIhj1, respectively). VO2, ventilation (VE), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Results: Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows:VO2, +2.5%;VE, +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P G 0.001; HR, +1.7%; and BLa, +15.1%; both P G 0.05. Biomechanically, carrying a rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P G 0.05). With the exception of elevated pole forces when V2 skating at racing velocity, there were no differences between the peak and impulse of pole force. The difference inVE between R and NR was greater for the women than that for men (P G 0.05), and the difference in BLa also tended to be larger for the women (P G 0.1). Conclusions: Carrying a rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

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