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  • 1.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Electrode Mass Balancing as an Inexpensive and Simple Method to Increase the Capacitance of Electric Double-Layer Capacitors2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 9, s. 1-12, artikel-id e0163146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) have equal masses of the same active material in both electrodes. However, having equal electrode masses may prevent the EDLC to have the largest possible specific capacitance if the sizes of the hydrated anions and cations in the electrolyte differ because the electrodes and the electrolyte may not be completely utilized. Here we demonstrate how this issue can be resolved by mass balancing. If the electrode masses are adjusted according to the size of the ions, one can easily increase an EDLC's specific capacitance. To that end, we performed galvanostatic cycling to measure the capacitances of symmetric EDLCs with different electrode mass ratios using four aqueous electrolytes-Na2SO4, H2SO4, NaOH, and KOH (all with a concentration of 1 M)-and compared these to the theoretical optimal electrode mass ratio that we calculated using the sizes of the hydrated ions. Both the theoretical and experimental values revealed lower-than-1 optimal electrode ratios for all electrolytes except KOH. The largest increase in capacitance was obtained for EDLCs with NaOH as electrolyte. Specifically, we demonstrate an increase of the specific capacitance by 8.6% by adjusting the electrode mass ratio from 1 to 0.86. Our findings demonstrate that electrode mass balancing is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the capacitance of EDLCs. Furthermore, our results imply that one can reduce the amount of unused material in EDLCs and thus decrease their weight, volume and cost.

  • 2.
    Beaven, C. Martyn
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ekstrom, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    A Comparison of Blue Light and Caffeine Effects on Cognitive Function and Alertness in Humans2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 10, s. e76707-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of similar to 40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention.

  • 3.
    Beaven, Martyn
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Cook, Christian
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Physiological comparison of concentric and eccentric arm cycling in males and females2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. Art. no. e112079-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower body eccentric exercise is well known to elicit high levels of muscular force with relatively low cardiovascular and metabolic strain. As a result, eccentric exercise has been successfully utilised as an adaptive stressor to improve lower body muscle function in populations ranging from the frail and debilitated, to highly-trained individuals. Here we investigate the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and energy costs of upper body eccentric exercise in a healthy population. Seven men and seven women performed 4-min efforts of eccentric (ECC) or concentric (CON) arm cycling on a novel arm ergometer at workloads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of their peak workload as assessed in an incremental concentric trial. The heart rate, ventilation, cardiac output, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood lactate concentrations were all clearly greater in CON condition at all of the relative workloads (all p<0.003). Effect size calculations demonstrated that the magnitude of the differences in VO2 and work economy between the ECC and CON exercise ranged from very large to extremely large; however, in no case did mechanical efficiency (ηMECH) differ between the conditions (all p>0.05). In contrast, delta efficiency (ηΔ), as previously defined by Coyle and colleagues in 1992, demonstrated a sex difference (men>women; p<0.05). Sex differences were also apparent in arteriovenous oxygen difference and heart rate during CON. Here, we reinforce the high-force, low cost attributes of eccentric exercise which can be generalised to the muscles of the upper body. Upper body eccentric exercise is likely to form a useful adjunct in debilitative, rehabilitative, and adaptive clinical exercise programs; however, reports of a shift towards an oxidative phenotype should be taken into consideration by power athletes. We suggest delta efficiency as a sensitive measure of efficiency that allowed the identification of sex differences.

  • 4.
    Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    CNRS, UMR 8242, Lab Psychol Percept, Paris, France.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Linguist, Potsdam, Germany.
    Granjon, Lionel
    CNRS, UMR 8242, Lab Psychol Percept, Paris, France.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Washington Univ, John M Olin Sch Business, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikel-id e0156855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions.

  • 5.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Andres, Britta
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Large-Scale Production of Nanographite by Tube-Shear Exfoliation in Water2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id e0154686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of applications based on graphene, few-layer graphene, and nanographite is rapidly increasing. A large-scale process for production of these materials is critically needed to achieve cost-effective commercial products. Here, we present a novel process to mechanically exfoliate industrial quantities of nanographite from graphite in an aqueous environment with low energy consumption and at controlled shear conditions. This process, based on hydrodynamic tube shearing, produced nanometer-thick and micrometer-wide flakes of nanographite with a production rate exceeding 500 gh-1 with an energy consumption about 10 Whg-1. In addition, to facilitate large-area coating, we show that the nanographite can be mixed with nanofibrillated cellulose in the process to form highly conductive, robust and environmentally friendly composites. This composite has a sheet resistance below 1.75 Ω/sq and an electrical resistivity of 1.39×10-4 Ωm and may find use in several applications, from supercapacitors and batteries to printed electronics and solar cells. A batch of 100 liter was processed in less than 4 hours. The design of the process allow scaling to even larger volumes and the low energy consumption indicates a low-cost process.

  • 6.
    Buxton, Jessica L.
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Med, Sect Investigat Med, London, England.
    Das, Shikta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Kaakinen, Marika
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Alves, Alexessander Couto
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Environm & Hlth, MRC,Publ Hlth England,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Sebert, Sylvain
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Millwood, Iona Y.
    Univ Oxford, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England.
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    O'Reilly, Paul F.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, MRC, Social Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, London, England.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Children & Young People & Families, Oulu, Finland.
    Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Med, Sect Investigat Med, London, England.
    Multiple Measures of Adiposity Are Associated with Mean Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 19662014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. Art. no. e99133-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and adiposity have produced conflicting results, and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and telomere length throughout life remains unclear. We therefore tested association of adult LTL measured in 5,598 participants with: i) childhood growth measures (BMI and age at adiposity rebound (AR)); ii) change in BMI from childhood to adulthood and iii) adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body adiposity index (BAI). Childhood BMI at AR was positively associated with LTL at 31 years in women (P = 0.041). Adult BMI and WHR in both men (P = 0.025 and P = 0.049, respectively) and women (P = 0.029 and P = 0.008, respectively), and BAI in women (P = 0.021) were inversely associated with LTL at 31 years. An increase in standardised BMI between early childhood and adulthood was associated with shorter adult LTL in women (P = 0.008). We show that LTL is inversely associated with multiple measures of adiposity in both men and women. Additionally, BMI increase in women from childhood to adulthood is associated with shorter telomeres at age 31, potentially indicating accelerated biological ageing.

  • 7.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi. Mid Sweden University.
    Hosoya, Georg
    Free Univ Berlin, Dept Educ Sci & Psychol, Berlin, Germany..
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    Univ Geneva, Swiss Ctr Affect Sci, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id e0136675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naive listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars).

  • 8.
    Carrasco-Marginet, Marta
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Castizo-Olier, Jorge
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Iglesias, Xavier
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez, Ferran A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Chaverri, Diego
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Brotons, Daniel
    Government of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Irurtia, Alfredo
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for measuring the hydration status in young elite synchronized swimmers2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikel-id e0178819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables. Methods Forty-nine elite SS female swimmers of two age categories, comen (Co: 13.9 ± 0.9 years, n = 34) and junior (Jr: 16.3 ± 0.6 years, n = 15), performed a long, high intensity training session. Body mass (BM) and bioelectrical variables (R, resistance; Xc, reactance; PA, phase angle; and Z, impedance module) were assessed pre-and post-Training. BIVA was used to characterize 1) the distribution pattern of the bioelectrical vector (BIA vector) for both age groups, and 2) pre-To post-Training BIA vector migration. Bioelectrical variables were also correlated with BM change values. Results Most swimmers were mostly located outside the 75% and some beyond the 95% percentile of the bioelectrical tolerance ellipses of the general population. The BIA vector showed statistically significant differences in both Co (T2= 134.7, p = 0.0001) and Jr (T2 = 126.2, p &lt; 0.001). Both groups were also bioelectrically different (T2= 17.6, p &lt; 0.001). After the training session, a decrease in BM (p = 0.0001) and an increase in BIA variables (p = 0.01) was observed. BIVA also showed a significant pre-post vector migration both in Co (T(T2 = 82.1; p &lt; 0.001) and Jr (T2 = 41.8; p &lt; 0.001). No correlations were observed between BM changes and bioelectrical variables. Conclusions BIVA showed specific bioelectrical characteristics in young elite SS athletes. Considering the decrease in BM and the migration of the BIA vector, we conclude that the homeostatic hydration status of these young elite female swimmers was affected by the execution of intense training sessions. From a methodological perspective, BIVA appears to be sensitive enough to detect subtle hydration changes, but further research is needed to ensure its validity and reliability. Moreover, these findings highlight the importance of ensuring adequate fluid intake during training in young SS athletes.

  • 9.
    Collste, Olov
    et al.
    Departments of Clinical Sciences and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tornvall, Per
    Departments of Clinical Sciences and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Alam,l, Mahbubul
    Departments of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Frick, Mats
    Departments of Clinical Sciences and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    No Myocardial Vulnerability to Mental Stress in Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. Art. no. e93697-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Due to the frequent use of coronary angiography the awareness of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC) has increased although the exact pathophysiology of TSC is still largely unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of mental stress on myocardial function, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol (SC) in TSC patients. Design: This study is a case-control study and a sub-study of the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries (SMINC) study. Setting: Mental stress test was performed more than 6 months after the acute event in TSC patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) - derived time-phases of cardiac cycle were recorded to calculate myocardial performance index (MPI) to assess ventricular function before and during mental stress. Holter-ECG recording was made to estimate HRV before, during and after mental stress. SC was measured at baseline, before and 20 minutes after mental stress. Subjects: Twenty-two TSC patients and 22 sex-and age- matched controls were recruited from the SMINC-study and investigated with a mental stress test. All TSC patients had a previous normal cardiovascular magnetic resonance investigation. Results: There were no significant differences at rest or during mental stress for left and right ventricular MPI or other standard diastolic variables between TSC patients and controls. HRV did not differ between TSC patients and controls. There was a trend towards less increase in SC after mental stress in TSC patients compared to controls. Conclusion: Mental stress did not induce a significant difference in myocardial function or HRV response between TSC and controls. Moreover, no significant difference could be seen in SC response at baseline, during or after mental stress. This study indicates that myocardial vulnerability to mental stress does not persist in TSC patients.

  • 10.
    Darlow, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Essex.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    University of Essex.
    Gherghiu, Ana
    University of Essex.
    Matthews, William
    University of Essex.
    Do changes in the pace of events affect one-off judgments of duration?2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. e59847-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Five experiments examined whether changes in the pace of external events influence people's judgments of duration. In Experiments 1a–1c, participants heard pieces of music whose tempo accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 2, participants completed a visuo-motor task in which the rate of stimulus presentation accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 3, participants completed a reading task in which facts appeared on-screen at accelerating, decelerating, or constant rates. In all experiments, the physical duration of the to-be-judged interval was the same across conditions. We found no significant effects of temporal structure on duration judgments in any of the experiments, either when participants knew that a time estimate would be required (prospective judgments) or when they did not (retrospective judgments). These results provide a starting point for the investigation of how temporal structure affects one-off judgments of duration like those typically made in natural settings.

  • 11.
    Elwér, S.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Harryson, L.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bolin, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Hammarström, A.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. Art. no. e53246-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health outcomes for women and men. © 2013 Elwér et al.

  • 12.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap. University of Gävle.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, Henrique
    EPIUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; University of Griffith, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany; Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, United States of America.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Lifetime abuse and somatic symtoms among older women and men in Europe2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 8, artikel-id e0220741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research suggests that survivors of interpersonal violence have an increasing experience of bodily symptoms. This study aims to scrutinise the association between lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men, considering demographics/socio-economic, social support and health variables.

    Methods

    A sample of 4,467 community-dwelling persons aged 60–84 years (57.3% women) living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Lifetime abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed on the basis of the UK study of elder abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, while somatic symptoms were assessed by the Giessen Complaint List short version.

    Results

    Women reported somatic symptoms more frequently than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lifetime exposure to psychological abuse was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms among both women and men, while experiencing lifetime sexual abuse was associated with somatic symptoms only among older women, after adjusting for other demographic and socio-economic variables. Country of residence, older age, and low socio-economic status were other independent factors contributing to a higher level of somatic symptoms.

    Conclusions

    The positive association between the experience of abuse during lifetime and the reporting of higher levels of somatic symptoms, in particular among older women, seems to suggest that such complaints in later life might also be related to the experience of mistreatment and not only to ageing and related diseases. Violence prevention throughout lifetime could help to prevent somatic symptoms in later life.

  • 13.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Joakim, Bäckström
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Andres, Britta
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Exfoliated MoS2 in Water without Additives2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 0154522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many solution processing methods of exfoliation of layered materials have been studied during the last few years; most of them are based on organic solvents or rely on surfactants andother funtionalization agents. Pure water should be an ideal solvent, however, it is generallybelieved, based on solubility theories that stable dispersions of water could not be achievedand systematic studies are lacking. Here we describe the use of water as a solvent and thestabilization process involved therein. We introduce an exfoliation method of molybdenumdisulfide (MoS2) in pure water at high concentration (i.e., 0.14±0.01 g L−1). This was achieved by thinning the bulk MoS2by mechanical exfoliation between sand papers and dis-persing it by liquid exfoliation through probe sonication in water. We observed thin MoS2nanosheets in water characterized by TEM, AFM and SEM images. The dimensions of thenanosheets were around 200 nm, the same range obtained in organic solvents. Electropho-retic mobility measurements indicated that electrical charges may be responsible for the sta-bilization of the dispersions. A probability decay equation was proposed to compare thestability of these dispersions with the ones reported in the literature. Water can be used as asolvent to disperse nanosheets and although the stability of the dispersions may not be ashigh as in organic solvents, the present method could be employed for a number of applications where the dispersions can be produced on site and organic solvents are not desirable.

  • 14.
    Hagström, Å.K.
    et al.
    Pheromone group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Liénard, M
    Pheromone group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Groot, A
    Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Löfstedt, C
    Pheromone group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. Art. no. e37230-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major component in combination with minor fatty aldehydes and alcohols. In this study we focus on four closely related species, Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, which use (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecanal, and (Z)-9-hexadecenal in different ratios in their pheromone blend. The components are produced from saturated fatty acid precursors by desaturation, β-oxidation, reduction and oxidation. Results: We analyzed the composition of fatty acyl pheromone precursors and correlated it to the pheromone composition. Next, we investigated whether the downstream fatty-acyl reduction step modulates the ratio of alcohol intermediates before the final oxidation step. By isolating and functionally characterizing the Fatty Acyl Reductase (pgFAR) from each species we found that the pgFARs were active on a broad set of C8 to C16 fatty acyl substrates including the key pheromone precursors, Z9-14, Z9-16 and Z11-16:acyls. When presenting the three precursors in equal ratios to yeast cultures expressing any of the four pgFARs, all reduced (Z)-9-tetradecenoate preferentially over (Z)-11-hexadecenoate, and the latter over (Z)-9-hexadecenoate. Finally, when manipulating the precursor ratios in vitro, we found that the pgFARs display small differences in the biochemical activity on various substrates. Conclusions: We conclude that a pgFAR with broad specificity is involved in heliothine moth pheromone biosynthesis, functioning as a semi-selective funnel that produces species-specific alcohol product ratios depending on the fatty-acyl precursor ratio in the pheromone gland. This study further supports the key role of these in pheromone biosynthesis and emphasizes the interplay between the pheromone fatty acyl precursors and the Lepidoptera specific pgFARs in shaping the pheromone composition. © 2012 Hagström et al.

  • 15.
    Hegge, Ann Magdalen
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Ctr Elite Sports Res, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Myhre, Kenneth
    North Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, NorwayNorth Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, Norway.
    Welde, Boye
    North Troendelag Univ Coll, Dept Sports & Phys Educ, Levanger, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Ctr Elite Sports Res, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Are Gender Differences in Upper-Body Power Generated by Elite Cross-Country Skiers Augmented by Increasing the Intensity of Exercise?2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0127509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all P<0.001). During the ergometer tests the work performed per cycle by the men was 97%, 102% and 91% greater, respectively, and the men elevated their cycle rate to a greater extent at higher intensities (both P<0.01). Furthermore, men had a 61% higher VO(2)peak, 58% higher 1RM, relatively larger upper-body mass (61% vs 56%) and reported considerably more upper-body strength and endurance training (all P<0.05). In conclusion, gender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower-and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  • 16.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    INSERM, U1018, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Villejuif, France.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Ctr Maritime Hlth & Safety, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Casini, Annalisa
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Univ Duisburg Essen, W German Heart Ctr Essen, Dept Cardiol, Essen, Germany.
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    INSERM, U1018, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Villejuif, France.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Joensuu, Matti
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Kittel, France
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Wroclaw Fac, Warsaw Sch Social Sci & Humanities, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marmot, Michael G.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Occupat & Environm Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Med Sociol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vaananen, Ari
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    INSERM, U1018, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Villejuif, France.
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamer, Mark
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    INSERM, U1018, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Villejuif, France.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Kivimaeki, Mika
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, artikel-id e35463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  • 17.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Ctr Maritime Hlth & Safety, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Casini, Annalisa
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Univ Duisburg Essen, West German Heart Ctr Essen, Dept Cardiol, Essen, Germany.
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Joensuu, Matti
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Kittel, France
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Wroclaw Fac, Warsaw Sch Social Sci & Humanities, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marmot, Michael G.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Occupat & Environm Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Med Sociol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vaananen, Ari
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamer, Mark
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job Strain and Alcohol Intake: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 140 000 Men and Women2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. Art. no. e40101-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1-14, men: 1-21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15-20, men: 22-27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: > 20, men: > 27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.

  • 18.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ahola, Kirsi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Borritz, Marianne
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany .
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland .
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland .
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland .
    Theorell, Tores
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Väananen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland .
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Job Strain and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of 95 000 Men and Women2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. e88711-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Many clinicians, patients and patient advocacy groups believe stress to have a causal role in inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, this is not corroborated by clear epidemiological research evidence. We investigated the association between work-related stress and incident Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis using individual-level data from 95 000 European adults. Methods: We conducted individual-participant data meta-analyses in a set of pooled data from 11 prospective European studies. All studies are a part of the IPD-Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses. Results: Of the 95 379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women developed Crohn's disease and 414 developed ulcerative colitis during follow-up. Job strain at baseline was not associated with incident Crohn's disease (multivariable-adjusted random effects hazard ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.43) or ulcerative colitis (hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.48). There was negligible heterogeneity among the study-specific associations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, is not a major risk factor for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.

  • 19.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Electrical Sintering of Silver Nanoparticle Ink Studied by In-Situ TEM Probing2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. Art. no. e17209-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic nanoparticle inks are used for printed electronics, but to reach acceptable conductivity the structures need to be sintered, usually using a furnace. Recently, sintering by direct resistive heating has been demonstrated. For a microscopic understanding of this Joule heating sintering method, we studied the entire process in real time inside a transmission electron microscope equipped with a movable electrical probe. We found an onset of Joule heating induced sintering and coalescence of nanoparticles at power levels of 0.1-10 mW/mu m(3). In addition, a carbonization of the organic shells that stabilize the nanoparticles were found, with a conductivity of 4 10(5) Sm-1

  • 20.
    Kazior, Zuzanna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Willis, Sarah J.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Moberg, Marcus
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Apro, William
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Calbet, Jose A. L.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id e0149082Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports concerning the effect of endurance exercise on the anabolic response to strength training have been contradictory. This study re-investigated this issue, focusing on training effects on indicators of protein synthesis and degradation. Two groups of male subjects performed 7 weeks of resistance exercise alone (R; n = 7) or in combination with preceding endurance exercise, including both continuous and interval cycling (ER; n = 9). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the training period. Similar increases in leg-press 1 repetition maximum (30%; P< 0.05) were observed in both groups, whereas maximal oxygen uptake was elevated (8%; P< 0.05) only in the ER group. The ER training enlarged the areas of both type I and type II fibers, whereas the R protocol increased only the type II fibers. The mean fiber area increased by 28% (P< 0.05) in the ER group, whereas no significant increase was observed in the R group. Moreover, expression of Akt and mTOR protein was enhanced in the ER group, whereas only the level of mTOR was elevated following R training. Training-induced alterations in the levels of both Akt and mTOR protein were correlated to changes in type I fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P< 0.05), as well as mean fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P< 0.05), reflecting the important role played by these proteins in connection with muscle hypertrophy. Both training regimes reduced the level of MAFbx protein (P< 0.05) and tended to elevate that of MuRF-1. The present findings indicate that the larger hypertrophy observed in the ER group is due more to pronounced stimulation of anabolic rather than inhibition of catabolic processes.

  • 21.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Glover, Vivette
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Inst Reprod & Dev Biol, London, England.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Univ Oulu, Inst Clin Med, Oulu, Finland.
    Taanila, Anja
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Clin Child Psychiat, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Placental Size Is Associated with Mental Health in Children and Adolescents2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. Art. no. e40534-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of the placenta in fetal programming has been recognized as a highly significant, yet often neglected area of study. We investigated placental size in relation to psychopathology, in particular attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, in children at 8 years of age, and later as adolescents at 16 years. Methodology/Principal Findings: Prospective data were obtained from The Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC) 1986. Placental weight, surface area and birth weight were measured according to standard procedures, within 30 minutes after birth. ADHD symptoms, probable psychiatric disturbance, antisocial disorder and neurotic disorder were assessed at 8 years (n = 8101), and ADHD symptoms were assessed again at 16 years (n = 6607), by teachers and parents respectively. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between placental size and mental health outcomes, and controlled for gestational age, birth weight, socio-demographic factors and medical factors, during gestation. There were significant positive associations between placental size (weight, surface area and placental-to-birth-weight ratio) and mental health problems in boys at 8 and 16 years of age. Increased placental weight was linked with overall probable psychiatric disturbance (at 8y, OR = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.04-1.25]), antisocial behavior (at 8 y, OR = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.03-1.27]) and ADHD symptoms (inattention-hyperactivity at 16y, OR = 1.19 [95% CI = 1.02-1.38]). No significant associations were detected among girls. Conclusions/Significance: Compensatory placental growth may occur in response to prenatal insults. Such overgrowth may affect fetal development, including brain development, and ultimately contribute to psychopathology.

  • 22.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Glover, Vivette
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Inst Reprod & Dev Biol, London, England.
    Taanila, Anja
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Univ Oulu, Clin Child Psychiat, Inst Clin Med, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Prenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment and Later Mental Health in Children and Adolescents2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. Art. no. e81394-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Animal studies demonstrate a clear link between prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC) and altered offspring brain development. We aim to examine whether prenatal GC exposure programs long-term mental health in humans. Methods: Using propensity-score-matching, children prenatally exposed to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC), n=37, and controls, n=185, were balanced on important confounders related to sGC treatment - gestational age and pre-pregnancy BMI. We also used mixed-effects modeling to analyse the entire cohort - matching each sGC case, n=37, to all possible controls, n=6079, on gestational age and sex. We obtained data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 at four waves - pregnancy, birth, 8 and 16 years. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes came from medical records. Mental health was assessed at 8 years by teachers with the Rutter B2 scale, and at 16 years by parents with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) scale and adolescents by the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale. Results: Prenatal sGC treatment was consistently associated with adverse mental health in childhood and adolescence, as shown by both the propensity-score method and mixed-effects model. Using the propensity-score-matched subsample, linear multiple regression showed prenatal sGC was significantly linked with general psychiatric disturbance (B=8.34 [95% CI: .23-16.45]) and inattention (B=.97 [95% CI:. 16-1.80]) at 8 years after control for relevant confounders. Similar findings were obtained at 16 years, but did not reach statistical significance. Mediation by birthweight/placental weight was not detected. Conclusions: This study is the first to prospectively investigate the long-term associations between prenatal exposure to sGC treatment and mental health in children and adolescents. We report an association between prenatal exposure to sGC and child mental health, supportive of the idea that sGC has a programming effect on the fetal brain.

  • 23.
    Khan, Anokhi Ali
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Sebert, Sylvain
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Kaakinen, Marika
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Cauchi, Stephane
    Univ Lille 2, Inst Pasteur, Inst Biol Lille, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Unites Mixte Rech 8199, F-59800 Lille, France.
    Froguel, Philippe
    Univ Lille 2, Inst Pasteur, Inst Biol Lille, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Unites Mixte Rech 8199, F-59800 Lille, France.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Univ Oulu, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynecol, Oulu, Finland.
    Pouta, Anneli
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    The Interplay of Variants Near LEKR and CCNL1 and Social Stress in Relation to Birth Size2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. Art. no. e38216-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 5369). Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years), low maternal education (<11 years), and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95% CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95% CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95% CI -0.15, -0.02) and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95% CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95% CI -0.20, -0.05). The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1) magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. Conclusions/Significance: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more vulnerable to environmental influences. Our study indicates the need for further research to understand the mechanisms by which genes impact individual vulnerability to environmental insults.

  • 24.
    Liedtke, H. Christoph
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Åbjörnsson, Kajsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Harraca, Vincent
    Lund Univ, Dept Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Knudsen, Jette
    Lund Univ, Dept Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Wallin, Erika
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Ryne, Camilla
    Lund Univ, Dept Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. e18156-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae) and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the biotests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  • 25.
    Lönnell, Niklas
    et al.
    Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Sundberg, Sebastian
    Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Fate of the Missing Spores - Patterns of Realized Dispersal beyond the Closest Vicinity of a Sporulating Moss2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. e41987-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that many species with small diaspores can disperse far during extended temporal scales (many years). However, studies on short temporal scales usually only cover short distances (in, e.g., bryophytes up to 15 m). By using a novel experimental design, studying the realized dispersal, we extend this range by almost two orders of magnitude. We recorded establishment of the fast-growing moss Discelium nudum on introduced suitable substrates, placed around a translocated, sporulating mother colony. Around 2,000 pots with acidic clay were placed at different distances between 5 m and 600 m, in four directions, on a raised bog, with increased pot numbers with distance. The experiment was set up in April-May and the realized dispersal (number of colonized pots) was recorded in September. Close to the mother colony (up to 10 m), the mean colonization rates (ratio of colonized pots) exceeded 50%. At distances between 10 and 50 m colonization dropped sharply, but beyond 50 m the mean colonization rates stabilized and hardly changed (1-3%). The estimated density of spores causing establishments at the further distances (2-6 spores/m(2)) was realistic when compared to the estimated spore output from the central colonies. Our study supports calculations from earlier studies, limited to short distances, that a majority of the spores disperse beyond the nearest vicinity of a source. The even colonization pattern at further distances raises interesting questions about under what conditions spores are transported and deposited. However, it is clear that regular establishment is likely at the km-scale for this and many other species with similar spore output and dispersal mechanism.

  • 26.
    Marsland, Finn
    et al.
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Mackintosh, Colin
    APPSEN Pty Ltd, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Anson, Judith
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Waddington, Gordon
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Lyons, Keith
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Chapman, Dale
    Univ Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Full course macro-kinematic analysis of a 10 km classical cross-country skiing competition2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id e0182262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study micro-sensors were employed to analyse macro-kinematic parameters during a classical cross-country skiing competition (10 km, 2-lap). Data were collected from eight male participants during the Australian championship competition wearing a single microsensor unit (MinimaxX (TM), S4) positioned on their upper back. Algorithms and visual classification were used to identify skiing sub-techniques and calculate velocities, cycle lengths (CL) and cycle rates (CR) over the entire course. Double poling (DP) was the predominant cyclical sub-technique utilised (43 +/- 5% of total distance), followed by diagonal stride (DS, 16 +/- 4%) and kick double poling (KDP, 5 +/- 4%), with the non-propulsive Tuck technique accounting for 24 +/- 4% of the course. Large within-athlete variances in CL and CR occurred, particularly for DS (CV% = 25 +/- 2% and CV% = 15 +/- 2%, respectively). For all sub-techniques the mean CR on both laps and for the slower and faster skiers were similar, while there was a trend for the mean velocities in all sub-techniques by the faster athletes to be higher. Overall velocity and mean DP-CL were significantly higher on Lap 1, with no significant change in KDP-CL or DS-CL between laps. Distinct individual velocity thresholds for transitions between sub-techniques were observed. Clearly, valuable insights into cross-country skiing performance can be gained through continuous macro-kinematic monitoring during competition.

  • 27.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    Centre of Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Chiatti, Carlos
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Centre of Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health Science, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries: Social support and elder abuse in Europe2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. e54856-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment.

    Methods

    The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden).

    Results

    Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse.

    Conclusions

    High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  • 28.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Ctr Socioecon Res Ageing, Ancona, Italy.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Sci Direct, Ancona, Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    INRCA Ancona, Italian Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Aging, Ctr Socioecon Res Ageing, Ancona, Italy.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Univ Granada, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Granada, Spain.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Univ Emden, Dept Publ Hlth, Emden, Germany.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Dept Hlth Management, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Sociol, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Univ Porto, Sch Med, Dept Hyg & Epidemiol, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Univ Gavle, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Gavle, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Abuse of Older Men in Seven European Countries: a Multilevel Approach in the Framework of an Ecological Model2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-28, artikel-id e0146425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundSeveral studies on elder abuse indicate that a large number of victims are women, but others report that men in later life are also significantly abused, especially when they show symptoms of disability and poor health, and require help for their daily activities as a result. This study focused on the prevalence of different types of abuse experienced by men and on a comparison of male victims and non-victims concerning demographic/socio-economic characteristics, lifestyle/health variables, social support and quality of life. Additionally, the study identified factors associated with different types of abuse experienced by men and characteristics associated with the victims.MethodsThe cross-sectional data concerning abuse in the past 12 months were collected by means of interviews and self-response during January-July 2009, from a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged between 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden). We used a multilevel approach, within the framework of an Ecological Model, to explore the phenomenon of abuse against males as the complex result of factors from multiple levels: individual, relational, community and societal.ResultsMultivariate analyses showed that older men educated to higher levels, blue-collar workers and men living in a rented accommodation were more often victims than those educated to lower levels, low-rank white-collar workers and home owners, respectively. In addition, high scores for factors such as somatic and anxiety symptoms seemed linked with an increased probability of being abused. Conversely, factors such as increased age, worries about daily expenses (financial strain) and greater social support seemed linked with a decreased probability of being abused.ConclusionsMale elder abuse is under-recognized, under-detected and under-reported, mainly due to the vulnerability of older men and to social/cultural norms supporting traditional male characteristics of stoicism and strength. Further specific research on the topic is necessary in the light of the present findings. Such research should focus, in particular, on societal/community aspects, as well as individual and family ones, as allowed by the framework of the Ecological Model, which in turn could represent a useful method also for developing prevention strategies for elder abuse.

  • 29.
    Musa, Najihah
    et al.
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Andersson, Klas
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden .
    Burman, Joseph
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden .
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Paltto, Heidi
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Westerberg, Lars
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Winde, Inis
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden .
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden .
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Milberg, Per
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. e66149-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  • 30. Nieberding, Caroline. M.
    et al.
    de Vos, Helena
    Schneider, Maria V.
    Lassance, Jean-Marc
    Estramil, Natalia
    Andersson, Jimmy
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Bång, Joakim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Löfstedt, Christer
    Brakefield, Paul M.
    The Male Sex pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis2008Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, nr 7, s. e2751-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP) in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z)-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH), hexadecanal (16:Ald) and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol), and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP.

    Conclusions/Significance: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant to future research. Such a comparison will in turn contribute to understanding the evolution of sex pheromone production and reception in butterflies.

  • 31.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Tampere, Finland .
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Tampere, Finland .
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Casini, Annalisa
    School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium .
    Clays, Els
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Erbel, Raimund
    Department of Cardiology, West-German Heart Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany .
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany .
    Kittel, France
    School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany .
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Marmot, Michael G.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Theorell, Tores
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Tampere, Finland .
    Job Strain and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 47,000 Men and Women2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. e67323-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain - heart disease association. Methodology and Principal Findings: We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08-1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26-1.41), and to be obese (1.12; 1.04-1.20). The association between job strain and elevated Framingham risk score (1.13; 1.03-1.25) was attributable to the higher prevalence of diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity among those reporting job strain. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis of work-related stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors, job strain was linked to adverse lifestyle and diabetes. No association was observed between job strain, clinic blood pressure or blood lipids.

  • 32.
    Olsen, Martin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Surface modifications by field induced diffusion2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. Art. no. e30106-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att lägga på en spänningspuls mellan spetsen på ett sveptunnelmikroskop och substratet under den kan man modifiera substratets ytan. I denna artikel har vi tittat närmare på elektrisk fältinducerad ytdiffusion samt också van der Waals inducerad diffusion. Dessa två mekanismer kan skapa en liten kulle på substratet under mikroskopspetsen. Dipolmomentet för en ytadsorberad atom, adatom, på substratets yta är summan av det ytinducerade dipolmomentet (vilket är oberoende av pålaggd spänning) och det elektriskt inducerade dipolmomentet vilket beror på styrkan och polariteten hos det pålaggda elekriska fältet. Det elektriska fältet är analytiskt modellerat som fältet av en punktladdning över en oändlig platt elektriskt ledande yta (substratet). Från detta beräknar vi kraften vilken leder till att adatomerna börjar vandra. Den beräknade kraften är liten, typiskt av storleken pN, men tack vare att adatomerna hoppar omring på substratet på grund av den termiska rörelsen hos kristallen de sitter på kan även en liten nettokraft leda till en drift av adatomer på ytan. På detta sätt erhåller vi en ny formel för en polaritetsberoende tröskelspänning för bildning av en kulle under mikroskopspetsen för positiv spets. Vi erhåller även en formel för radien på kullen. Ur modellen kan vi beräkna ett tröskelfält på 2 V/nm för att en kulle ska bildas. Om fältet är svagare bildas ingen kulle. Vi finner vidare att van der Waalskraften mellan en adatom och spetsen måste tas med i beräkningen för spets-substratavstånd mindre än 1.5 nm för experimentellt vanligen använda spänningar.

  • 33.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap. Smart Lighting ERC, Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroy, NY, United States.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Negative Impact on Growth and Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the Presence of the Estrogen 17alpha-Ethynylestradiol2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. e109289-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17alpha-Ethynylestradiol (EE2). Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 microM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci) with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3-. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water.

  • 34.
    Soares, Sandra
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Lindström, Björn
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Öhman, Arne
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The hidden snake in the grass: superior detection of snakes in challenging attentional conditions2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. Art. no. 0114724-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory(SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as ''evolutionary fear-relevant''. Across four experiments (N5205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  • 35.
    Sperlich, B.
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany .
    Born, D. -P
    Department of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany .
    Kaskinoro, K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, K. K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Squeezing the Muscle: Compression Clothing and Muscle Metabolism during Recovery from High Intensity Exercise2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. Art. no. 60923-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF) and m. quadriceps femoris (QF) 1) during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2) while wearing a compression short applying ~37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P = 0.79) and BF (P = 0.90) did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01) and non-compressed QF (P<0.001) but not in compressed (P = 0.41) and non-compressed BF (P = 0.05; effect size = 2.74). During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01) but not in BF (P = 0.26) compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P = 0.79; recovery P = 0.68) and non-compressed leg (baseline P = 0.64; recovery P = 0.06). During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01) with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P = 0.02). These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ~37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF. © 2013 Sperlich et al.

  • 36. Unelius, C. R.
    et al.
    Schiebe, Christian
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Bohman, B.
    Andersson, M. N.
    Schlyter, F.
    Non-host volatile blend optimization for forest protection against the european spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Villani, Antonella
    et al.
    Univ Aquila, Dept Math, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.
    Frigessi, Arnoldo
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Biostat, Oslo, Norway.
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Sociol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordvik, Monica K.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Biostat, Oslo, Norway.
    A Characterization of Internet Dating Network Structures among Nordic Men Who Have Sex with Men2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. Art. no. e39717-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Internet has become an important venue for seeking sexual partners and may facilitate transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Methods: We examined a 64-day data log of flirt messages expressing sexual interest among MSM within the Qruiser. com community. We used logistic regression to analyze characteristics of MSM sending and receiving flirt messages and negative binomial regression to examine individual activity and popularity. The structural properties, including the core structure of the flirt network, were analyzed. Results: The MSM population consisted of approximately 40% homosexuals and 37% bisexuals, while the remaining 23% included men who identified as heterosexual but searched for sex with men and "experimental". MSM were more likely to send flirt messages if they were homosexual and aged 40+ years; young people aged, 30 years were more likely to receive a flirt. Possession of a webcam was strongly associated with both sending flirt messages and being a flirt target. The distributions of flirts sent (max k(out) = 2162) and received (max k(in) = 84) were highly heterogeneous. Members in central cores were more likely homosexuals, singles, and aged 31-40 years. The probability of a matched flirt (flirt returned from target) increased from 1% in the outer core to 18% in the central core (core size = 4). Discussion: The flirt network showed high degree heterogeneity similar to the structural properties of real sexual contact networks with a single central core. Further studies are needed to explore use of webcam for Internet dating.

  • 38.
    Welde, Boye
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Mathisen, Gunnar E.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Supej, Matej
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Winther, Andreas K.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    The pacing strategy and technique of male cross-country skiers with different levels of performance during a 15-km classical race2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikel-id e0187111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0), intermediate (3.5) and uphill sections (7.1) of the first and final laps. All skiers adopted a positive pacing strategy, skiing more slowly (11.8%) with shorter cycles (11.7%) on the final than first lap (both p&lt;0.001; pη2 = 0.93 and 0.87, respectively). The fast skiers were 7.0% faster overall (p&lt;0.001, d = 4.20), and 6.1% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.32) and 7.0% (p&lt;0.001, d = 3.68) faster on the first and final laps, respectively, compared to slower skiers. On all sections of both laps, the fast skiers exhibited 9.5% more rapid (pη2 = 0.74) and 8.9% (pη2 = 0.48) longer cycles (both p&lt;0.001). On intermediate terrain, the fast skiers employed primarily double poling (DP, 38.9% on the first lap) and double poling with a kick (DPKICK, 50% on the final lap). In contrast, the slow skiers utilized for the most part DP alone (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) or in combination with other techniques (lap 1: 33.3%, lap 3: 38.9%) and decreased their usage of DPKICK from 27.8% on the first to 16.7% on the final lap. Skiing velocity on flat and intermediate terrain proved to be the best predictor of race performance (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, during a 15-km classical XC skiing race, velocity and cycle length decreased from the first to the final lap, most extensively on flat terrain and least uphill. Moreover, on the intermediate sections the fast and slow skiers chose to use different techniques.

  • 39.
    Willander, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap. Psykologiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet.
    The semantic representation of event information depends on the cue-modality: An instance of meaning based retrieval.2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, nr 10, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Simple Fabrication of Gold Nanobelts and Patterns2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. Art. no. e30469-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold nanobelts are of interest in several areas; however, there are only few methods available to produce these belts. We report here on a simple evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method to produce porous gold nanobelts with dimensions that scale across nanometer (thickness ~80 nm) and micrometer (width ~20 μm), to decimeter (length ~0.15 m). The gold nanobelts are well packed on the beaker wall and can be easily made to float on the surface of the solution for depositing onto other substrates. Microscopy showed that gold nanobelts had a different structure on the two sides of the belt; the density of gold nanowires on one side was greater than on the other side. Electrical measurements showed that these nanobelts were sensitive to compressive or tensile forces, indicating a potential use as a strain sensor. The patterned nanobelts were further used as a template to grow ZnO nanowires for potential use in applications such as piezo-electronics. © 2012 Zhang et al.

  • 41.
    Zinner, Christoph
    et al.
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany.;Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Swedish Winter Sports Res Ctr, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Hauser, Anna
    Swiss Fed Inst Sport, Sect Elite Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland..
    Born, Dennis-Peter
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Wehrlin, Jon P.
    Swiss Fed Inst Sport, Sect Elite Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland..
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikel-id e0140616Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3 +/- 4.1 yrs; 179.2 +/- 4.5 cm; 74.2 +/- 3.4 kg) performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No) and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165). In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00) in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05). Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51). Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93). In the case of HoHo the athletes' P-mean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05), whereas P-mean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in P-mean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes inmuscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00) used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

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