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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Towards New Levels of Creating/Improving and Understanding Value in Swedish Municipalities: A Review of Research on Understanding and Creating Value in Municipal Quality Development by Qualitative Approaches (and Co-Creation)2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Quality management and Lean initiatives are currently widespread in the Swedish municipal sector. It is also made clear that all Lean initiatives should be initiated to benefit the customer and not for internal organizational reasons. However, the practices currently used for understanding value creation in the municipalities tend to focus heavily on the use of numerical, quantitative approaches. In sharp contrast, the growing field of, for example, design thinking argue that qualitative approaches are key when it comes to getting closer to the citizens, establishing new levels of understanding and thereby inspiring new and better solutions. In sum, it seems likely that municipalities are struggling with developing quality due to relying, in too one-sided on the use of quantitative rather than qualitative approaches to understand and spark new levels of value creation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with a review of research concerning qualitative approaches for understanding and co-creating value in municipal quality development.

     

    Methodology/Approach The paper is based on a literature review.

     

    Findings The paper provides an overview of previous research concerning practices for evaluating and understanding value creation in the context of a municipal quality development.

     

    Value of the paper

    This overview is of value for practitioners within the context, as well as researchers that wants to contribute within this area.

  • 2.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Vangbo, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Rangsten, Pelle
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Wet etching of single crystal quartz1998Inngår i: Workshop of Physical Chemistry of Wet Chemical Etching of Silicon, May 17-19, Holten, The Netherlands, 1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Capturing Value-based leadership in Practice:: Insights from developing and applying an AI-interview guide2017Inngår i: Challenges and Opportunities of Quality in the 4th Industrial Revolution: On quality and service sciences ICQSS 2017 / [ed] Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi and Dahlgaard, Jens J., 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    One of the most critical aspects for building quality and innovation in organizations is the role of values. Performance suffers when organizations fail to prioritize values. A challenge for many leaders is to understand deep-rooted values together with what they are and how they are developed. These deep-rooted values are reflected in the behaviors, language and signs occurring in the organization and can be seen as the organizations culture. When a culture is shaped, leadership is central and the managers in the organization are vital. Managers in an organization affect the predominating culture through their behaviors and approach to their co-workers. This make it interesting to try to find out underlying values held by managers striving for good leadership and performance. Underlying values can be unconscious and taken for granted, and thereby hard to ask about.  By using an interview guide inspired by Appreciative Inquiry (AI) (an approach based on generativity and positivity), underlying values and the leadership used by top managers can be discovered.

     

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results from the Appreciative Inquiry (AI) inspired interviews to explore the underlying values held by top manager and to identify soft aspects of leadership.

     

    Methodology/approach – Top managers were interviewed as a part of a research project with the aim to support the development of value-based leadership that integrates company values, organizational culture, customer needs and sustainable development. A structured interview guide, inspired by AI, was developed and used to pinpoint their motivation and vision of a good organization in order to understand the values the leaders had and to identify soft aspects of leadership.  The interviews were analyzed in workshops with the whole research group and structured and visualized through affinity chart.

     

    Findings – The results show underlying values held by top managers and identified soft aspects of leadership.

     

    Practical implications – The presented interview guide can be used to identify the top managers underlying values and the presented results from the interviews can be used to inspire other leaders to develop their leadership in their striving of good leadership and effective organizations.

  • 4.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Capturing value-based leadership in practice: Insights from developing and applying an AI-interview guide2018Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 422-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results from the appreciative inquiry (AI)-inspired interviews to explore the underlying values held by top managers and to identify soft aspects ofleadership.Design/methodology/approach – Top managers were interviewed as a part of a research project withthe aim to support the development of value-based leadership that integrates company values, organizationalculture, customer needs and sustainable development. A structured interview guide, inspired by AI, wasdeveloped and used to pinpoint their motivation and vision of a good organization to understand the valuesthat the managers had and to identify soft aspects of leadership. The interviews were analyzed in workshopswith the whole research teamand structured and visualized through affinity diagrams.Findings – The results showed the underlying values held by top managers and identified soft aspects ofleadership.Practical implications – The presented interview guide can be used to identify the top managers’underlying values, and the presented results from the interviews can be used to inspire other managers andleaders to develop their leadership in their striving of good leadership and effective organizations.Originality/value – The paper explains how to apply an AI-inspired interview guide in finding out valuebasedleadership and soft aspects of leadership for enhancing organizational culture.

  • 5.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Collection of baseline data – expanding the scope2016Inngår i: EurOMA 2016 - Interactions, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For leaders to successfully meet the complexity of businesses today, many argue the need to design a performance measurement system that integrates hard data outcomes with soft measures found in organizational culture including values, norms, and behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to collecting baseline data that captures the soft dimensions of organizational culture with system thinking as a guiding theory. The results present an approach for measuring the soft dimensions of organizational culture with description of methods, the type of data and what level of organizational culture they measure.

  • 6.
    Hagman, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Richard, Åse
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Anodic bonding of materials with large difference in thermal expansion2000Inngår i: MME'00 (Micro Mechanics Europe), October 1-3, Uppsala, Sweden, 2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Hedlund, Christer
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Continuous Improvement of Leadership: Evaluation of peer-coaching experiments2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates continuous improvement of leadership with the aid of coaching and specifically peer-coaching as a model for leadership improvement. The paper is based on the idea of experimental learning both as a tool to motivate, educate and inspire leaders in two studied organizations. Learning-by-doing along with reflection has formed the basis for leadership improvement and leadership awareness in this study. The concept of Developing- by-doing have been used to help leaders design the foundation of an organizational specific coaching model. 

  • 8.
    Hedlund, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl-21997Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 686-691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The angular dependence of the etch rate in reactive ion etching (RIE) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems for polysilicon etching with SF6" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">SF6SF6 and Cl2" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Cl2Cl2 is determined using a recently developed direct measurement method. The latter utilizes specially patterned silicon groove structures consisting of 7–10 μm wide planar surfaces which form various angles with respect to the wafer normal. The structures are produced by highly anisotropic wet chemical etchingof Si through a gratinglike mask pattern aligned along specific crystallographic orientations of the wafer which results in the development of planar surfaces of various orientations. These surfaces are then coated with the materials to be studied—polysilicon in this case. The deposited polysilicon is then etched under a variety of conditions in a RIE and an ICP reactor and the etch rates determined by interferometric measurements. Since only standard Si wafers are used and the size of the pattern is only a few μm the method is fully IC production compatible, which means that one can measure the angular dependence of the etch rate directly in production etching systems. The results for RIE of polysilicon with SF6" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">SF6SF6 show that the process becomes more isotropic with increasing pressure. The angular dependence of the RIE and ICP polysilicon etchrates in Cl2" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Cl2Cl2 atmosphere were found to vary with the substrate bias. Specifically low substrate bias resulted in an under cosine distribution whereas bias higher than 240–250 V led to over cosine distributions.

  • 9.
    Hedlund, Christer
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Research On Toyota Kata? Proposing A Future Research Agenda For The Emerging Practice2016Inngår i: EurOMA Conference Proceedings: Interactions 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the bestselling book “Toyota Kata” was first published in 2009 the practices of the Toyota Kata has spread quickly among practitioners and consultants all over the world. However, the number of academic papers and studies concerning Toyota Kata occurs as remarkably sparse. Based on the apparent gap, this paper identifies and proposes a future research agenda on Toyota Kata based on a survey with Swedish Toyota Kata experts. As a result, 20 areas are highlighted and identified as the currently most desirable to understand and study more closely. Based on the areas, six themes are also identified and formulated. 

  • 10.
    Hedlund, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Strandman, Carola
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    A method for the determination of the angular dependence during dry etching1995Inngår i: The American Vacuum Society, 42nd National Symposium, Minneapolis, USA, Oct, 1995Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Hedlund, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Strandman, Carola
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    A Method for the Determination of the Angular Dependence during Dry Etching1996Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 3239-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Process simulation is going to play an ever increasing role in the development, process optimization, and production of integrated circuit devices, yielding shorter development times and reduced costs as compared to traditional development methods. One of the most notorious problems one faces in topography simulations in particular is the determination of the erosion/growth rates of materials exposed to a variety of complex physicochemical processes. The latter evolve continually to satisfy the needs of the ever advancing microelectronic industry, while our understanding about these processes is often incomplete and insufficient for their description. Existing theoreticalmodels, which are often semiempirical, include a set of fitting parameters which are generally unknown and their determination in most cases involves guesswork. Another much more pragmatical approach to the problem is to measure these etch/growth rates directly in situ in the production equipment and feed the data into a topography simulator. In this article we present a simple and general method for measuring the angular dependence of the etch rate of a variety of materials using specially patterned silicon wafers. With anisotropic wet etching of silicon wafers it is possible to create structures defined by specific crystallographic planes, thus producing a variety of planar orientations on one and the same wafer. The structures can be oxidized and coated with the material of interest and processed under standard operating conditions. The method will be presented together with angular dependence data from typical dry etching processes. The results will be used as an input to the topographysimulation program DINESE.

  • 12.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Using the employee satisfaction survey as a tool for building organizational culture2016Inngår i: EurOMA Conference Proceedings: Interactions, 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong relationship between employee satisfaction and organizational results and using an employee surveys effectively could support quality improvements and organizational culture. The purpose of this paper is to present an employee satisfaction survey designed to change organizational culture and co-worker behaviors. Included in the analysis are results from that survey focusing on culture and leadership. The results show that asking a different kind of questions in an employee satisfaction survey and analyzing the results in more detail could give an organization a management tool to be used both to monitor and to build organizational culture.

  • 13.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Truly changing the culture – learnings from a value-based top leader2017Inngår i: 20th QMOD conference: Challenges and Opportunities of Quality in the 4th Industrial Revolution / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard Park, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both TQM and Lean are said to rest on a number of values that in turn are said to be the building blocks of the organizational culture needed to successfully apply TQM or Lean in an organization. The reason why applying Lean or TQM fail is frequently explained by the lack of focusing on values and culture and instead too big focus on tools and methods. In this context, leadership is often mentioned as one if the main keys to change the organizational culture as the leaders in organizations are the bearer of values. There is also a strong connection between values held and behaviors shown by the leaders and the co-workers in the organization. So the question arises; how come it´s so hard to make the change in leadership behaviors and by that the organizational culture? At the same time, there are leaders succeeding with consciously changing the culture and the values held by the co-workers. What can we learn from such a leaders that have succeeded in changing an exciting culture in an organization?

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present the values held by and the ways of working used by a top leader (COO) with the aim to change the organizational culture.

    Methodology/approach – The Chief Operating Officer (COO) of a successful Lean company was interviewed in order to identify the managers´ values as well as ways of working. A developed interview guide was used to get an understanding of the values the leader had and to identify “other” softer aspects of his leadership. The results from the study was analyzed by the researchers, first by each researcher individually, then in workshops as a group.

    Findings – The results show that the COO appears to have an understanding about the connection between values and behaviors something shown by the close connection between the identified ways of working and values. The result also shows ways of working to achieve a cultural change, were the use of ROFO can be seen as a driving force for this. The COO displays a leadership and a value-base much in line with Lean leadership and value-base.Practical implications – The presented results can be used by leaders in different types of organization in their work with developing the culture and leadership.

  • 14.
    Jonsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Köhler, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Stenmark, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Oxygen Plasma Wafer Bonding Evaluated by the Weibull Fracture Probability Method2001Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 364-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the oxygen plasma bonding process for fusion bonded silicon wafers has been characterized by a new approach. The mechanical reliability of bonded microstructures was determined using burst tests and Weibull statistic analyses. The fracture characteristic of the bonded system is considered to depend on the stress distribution, the defect distribution and the fracture surface energy at the bond. Using Weibull theory, it is possible to extract the Weibull modulus m and the mean fracture uniform tensile stress per unit length, σfc, from the measured data. These quantities make it possible to compare the joint defect distribution and the fracture surface energy at the bonded interface for the processing conditions under observation. These experiments also demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish between these quantities under certain conditions.

    The fracture probability for different annealing temperatures has been evaluated and found to agree with previous results from surface energy measurements. It is shown that the bond fracture probability increases with annealing times in the range of 10-100 h. The saturated bond strength value is considerably enhanced by oxygen plasma activation prior to bonding. In this study, plasma activations at room temperature and 300 °C compare to chemical activations in hot nitric acid annealed at 120 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The tendency to form voids at elevated temperatures, e.g. 300 °C, is increased by the oxygen plasma treatment.

    If the surface energy is considered to be homogeneous over the bonded interface, the Weibull modulus m is an indirect measure of the defect distribution, low m values indicate a wide spectrum of defect types, whereas a high m value narrows the defect distribution responsible for fracture. The Weibull modulus m is shown to be valuable for evaluation of the bonded interface. It is demonstrated that a more scattered defect distribution emerges for in situ bonded wafers as compared to ex situ, and annealing at 300 °C for 90 h as compared to room-temperature storage. However, the defect distribution becomes increasingly more narrow with storage time. These variations may be due to either changes in microcracks or void configuration or inhomogeneities in the fracture surface energy over the bond interface.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Köhler, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Stenmark, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Oxygen plasma wafer bonding evaluated by the weibull fracture probability method2000Inngår i: Proc of the Eleventh Micromechanics Europe Workshop, Oct, Uppsala, Sweden, 2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Jonsson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Engelmark, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Du, Jing
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Smith, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Patterning of Reactively Sputteres Tantalum Pentoxide, a High Epsilon Material, by Plasma Etching1998Inngår i: The American Vacuum Society 45th National Symposium in Baltimore, 1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Jonsson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Barklund, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Controlled topography production - True 3D simulation and experiment1995Inngår i: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 46, s. 971-975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A true 3D computer program, named DINESE, has been developed to simulate the evolution of real 3D structures during erosion and deposition. It is based on the generalized Huygens reconstruction formalism of surface evolution and can predict the evolution of any surface of the form z = f(x,y) resulting from any erosion or deposition process. True 3D computer simulations of a number of cases are presented and compared with experiment. The powers of the simulation method are further demonstrated by a series of sequential predictive simulations resulting in a desired topography which is then verified experimentally under the same sequence of conditions. Specifically, the evolution of different Si3N4 structures during ion beam etching with Ar ions under different erosion conditions has been studied both numerically and experimentally.

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Compositional variations of sputter deposited Ti/W barrier layers on substrates with pronounced surface topography1999Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 348, nr 1-2, s. 227-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sputter deposited Ti/W barrier layers have been found to be Ti deficient with respect to the target composition, which is attributed to the preferential resputtering of Ti from the deposited films by energetic neutrals or ions from the discharge. On the o

  • 19.
    Jonsson, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Larsson, T
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Characterization and optimization of a dry etching process for silicon nitride spacer formation1997Inngår i: The 44th international symposium of the American Vacuum Society, San José, USA, 1997Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20. Jonsson, Lars
    et al.
    Westlinder, Jörgen
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Engelmark, Fredrik
    Hedlund, Christer
    Du, Jing
    Smith, Ulf
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Patterning of tantalum pentoxide, a high epsilon material, by inductively coupled plasma etching2000Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, ISSN 2166-2746, E-ISSN 2166-2754, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 1906-1910Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated capacitors can easily cover a major part of the total chip area which may seriously affect the cost to produce the chip. By using a high epsilon material as the dielectric material, in the capacitor, the size can be reduced significantly. One very promising candidate is tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5)" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">(Ta2O5)(Ta2O5)which has a dielectric constant of about 25. This should be compared to silicon nitride which has a dielectric constant of 8. In order to make integrated capacitors the tantalum pentoxide must be patterned. Results of a study on etching of tantalum pentoxide, silicon dioxide, and polysilicon with a high density plasma, using an inductively coupled plasma source, are presented and compared to results obtained by means of reactive ion etching. The gas used, CHF3," role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">CHF3,CHF3, implies a polymerizing chemistry and the deposition of a fluorocarbon layer is shown to play an important role in the etch process. The fluorocarbon deposition onto the substrate surface is not only affected by the temperature of the substrate itself but also by the temperature of all surfaces that are exposed to the plasma. The process parameters with the strongest influence on the process have been found to be pressure and substrate bias voltage.

  • 21.
    Köhler, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Simu, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bejhed, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialkemi.
    Kratz, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Nguyen, Hugo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bruhn, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Lindberg, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Stenmark, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    A hybrid cold gas microthruster system for spacecraft2001Inngår i: Digest of Papers for the 11th Int Conf on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators - Transducers '01 and Eurosensors XV, Munich, Germany, June 10-14, 2001, s. 886-889Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Köhler, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Strandman, Carola
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Silicon fusion bond interfaces resilient to wet anisotropic etchants2000Inngår i: Micromechanics Europe 2000, Uppsala, 2000, s. 142-145Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Köhler, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Strandman, Carola
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Silicon fusion bond interfaces resilient to wet anisotropic etchants2001Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 11, s. 359-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The bond interface in silicon microsystems is sensitive to the subjection to wet anisotropic etchants. Fusion bond interfaces of bonded wafers resilient to potassium hydroxide or tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide etching are obtained using wafers of oxidized silicon bonded to oxidized silicon, where the bond oxide is removed by trifluoromethane plasma etching. Other investigated bond configurations initiate severe damages during etching.

  • 24.
    Köhler, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Strandman, Carola
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Etching through Si-Si direct bonded interfaces1997Inngår i: MME´97, 1997Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Lilja, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Palm, Klas
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    What Quality Management can Learn from Designers about Being Qualitative2018Inngår i: Proceedings for Pin-C 2018, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Management (QM) initiatives and practices generally stress the importance of “focus on customers” and to “base decisions on facts”. However, in Western World QM practice it appears as if facts often become equivalent to numbers - “we need facts” becomes “we need to see it quantified in numbers” and “measuring is knowing”. In sharp contrast, the growing field of Design Thinking (DT) conclude that qualitative approaches are key when it comes to get closer to the citizens or customers, establish new levels of understanding, and thereby inspire new and better solutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore what quality management can learn from designers, and design thinking practice, about using more qualitative approaches for learning and in developing knowledge.

  • 26.
    Lilja, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Snyder, Kristen
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Metaphors We Manage and Develop Quality by: Screening and Elaborating on the Metaphors of Quality Management2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Metaphors are a powerful and human way of understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another. In Quality Management (QM) several metaphors are used to describe and bring to life the often abstract QM concepts and systems in clearer terms. These metaphors are undoubtedly of great importance for how QM is understood, communicated and practiced. They can also be assumed to have a significant impact on the perceived attractiveness of, and engagement in, QM systems. However, the metaphors of QM have seldom been systematically screened or put in focus, neither the topic of a critical discussion. The purpose of this paper is hence to contribute with a screening of the metaphors currently used, within QM literature and in practice among QM leaders, and then elaborate on their potential for improvement and development.

    Methodology/Approach: The paper is based on a literature review combined with interviews of QM leaders.

    Findings: The paper highlights that the current QM metaphors provide intuitive associations to properties such as stability, shelter, and structure but not to the important dynamic properties of QM, such as learning, or to the critical role of people in QM. It also provides suggestions for further improvements and development.

    Value of the Paper: The paper highlights the area of metaphors within QM as an important area for future research. It also provides insights concerning the successful use and selection of metaphors in future QM practice.

  • 27.
    Pasquariello, Donato
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Damages in oxygen plasma bonding1999Inngår i: The 5th Int Symp Semicind Wafer Bond, 196th Electrochem Soc Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii Abstract no 1001, 1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Pasquariello, Donato
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Oxidation and induced damages in oxygen plasma in situ wafer bonding2000Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 147, nr 7, s. 2699-2703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our in situ, oxygen plasma‐activated wafer bonding process. By keeping one wafer on the anode and the other on the cathode, we have an asymmetric plasma load on the wafers, making our bonding process interesting for low‐temperature applications where damage or defect‐sensitive active layers are bonded to less sensitive carrier wafers. As a step in optimizing the discharge parameters for plasma bonding applications, the effect of the self‐bias voltage on surface energy, oxidation rates, and damage is investigated. An optimum in surface energy was found at moderate self‐bias voltages, both at room temperature bonding and after low‐temperature annealing at 200°C. This is explained by the fact that at these voltages there is a minimum oxide thickness, which promotes the diffusion of water from the bond interface, and also by the fact that at these voltages we have the best surface cleaning conditions. Also, the surface oxide generated by the oxygen plasma seems to be reactive. With our in situ oxygen‐plasma‐activated wafer bonding process there was a major increase in surface energy for wafers bonded at moderate self‐bias volt‐ages compared to conventional wafer bonding performed in ambient air.

  • 29.
    Pasquariello, Donato
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Materialvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Materialvetenskap.
    Greek, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Gupta, Ram
    Uppsala universitet, Materialvetenskap.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Materialvetenskap.
    InP based Micro Opto Electro Mechanics1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Pasquariello, Donato
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Lindeberg, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Surface energy as a function of self-bias voltage in oxygen plasma wafer bonding2000Inngår i: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. A82, s. 239-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A limitation in the use of wafer bonding has been the necessity for high-temperature annealing after contacting the wafers at room temperature. In this paper, we try to find the highest surface energy as a function of self-bias voltage in oxygen plasma-activated wafer bonding, in order to achieve a low-temperature bonding process. The bonding was performed in situ the vacuum chamber. It was found that oxygen plasma has a smoothing effect on the surface roughness, rather independent of the plasma self-bias. However, a moderate self-bias voltage proved to give the highest surface energy for the bonded wafers, both at room-temperature and after annealing at 200°C. We believe that this is due to the fact that a moderate self-bias is the most efficient in removing surface contaminants, like water and hydrocarbons. It was also found that even after annealing at higher temperatures, 480°C and 720°C, the plasma-bonded wafers showed higher surface energy values than wafers bonded in ambient air. This investigation was focused on low-effect plasmas, <200 W, keeping the induced plasma damages at a minimum.

  • 31.
    Rangsten, Pelle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Backlund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Etch rates of crystallographic planes in Z-cut quartz - experiments and simulation1998Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The anisotropic etching behaviour of monocrystalline quartz is studied both experimentally and with computer simulations. The etch rate minima were identified as the crystal planes mrs and . Various shapes and initial structures, both concave and convex, have been produced by etching quartz wafers in an HF:F solution. These have been subsequently analysed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Etch rates of both slow- and fast-etching crystal planes have been measured. The data thus obtained were fed into topography evolution software and a number of experimental profiles were compared with the simulated ones. To verify the work, a 3.5 m thick membrane was manufactured in a two-step double-sided etching process. This illustrates the usefulness of the data obtained, as well as the power of the simulations.

  • 32.
    Rangsten, Pelle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    An experimental study and simulation of anisotropic wet etching of quartz1996Inngår i: MME´96, Oct 21-22, Barcelona, Spain, 1996Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Rosén, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Membrane covered electrically isolated through-wafer via hole2000Inngår i: Workshop Digest MME'00, Uppsala, Sweden, 2000, s. B4-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Rosén, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Membrane Covered Electrically Isolated Through-Wafer Via Holes2001Inngår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 344-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrically isolated through-wafer via hole, covered by a membrane, has been realized by standard integrated circuits processes together with deep silicon etching. The deep silicon etching was performed by the Bosch silicon etch process in a Plasma-Therm etch system. The via structures were made in double-sided polished 300 µm thick silicon wafers and had widths down to 20 µm, which correspond to an aspect ratio of 15. The fact that the via structures are electrically isolated makes them a suitable start-point to realize interconnections through a wafer. Furthermore, the application field of the via structure is broadened by the flexibility in the design of the structure, which makes it possible to apply an almost arbitrary membrane material onto the via structure at the end of the process.

  • 35. Schaepkens, M
    et al.
    Oehrlein, G S
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Selective SiO2-to-Si3N4 etching in inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas: Angular dependence of SiO2 and Si3N4 etching rates1998Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. A16, nr 6, s. 3281-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36. Schaepkens, M
    et al.
    Standaert, T E F M
    Reuger, N R
    Oehrlein, G S
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Cook, J M
    Selective SiOs to Si3N4 etching in inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas1998Inngår i: The 25th national symposium UNY-VAC, Albany NY, 1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37. Shamrai, K P
    et al.
    Virko, V F
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Pavlenko, V P
    Taranov, V B
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Discharge disruptions in a helicon plasma source1997Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 2864-2874Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study experimentally and theoretically stable regimes and dischargedisruptions in a helicon plasma source. At fixed input power and gas pressure, stable operation of the source is possible below some critical value of magnetic field Bcr." role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Bcr.Bcr. The plasma density increases with the magnetic field and reaches a maximum value nmax" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">nmaxnmax at Bcr;" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Bcr;Bcr; after which the discharge disruption occurs. Both Bcr" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">BcrBcr and nmax" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">nmaxnmax increase almost linearly with the input power and the rate of increase is increasing with the pressure. Matching of the plasma load to the rf power source improves when approaching the disruption point, and becomes perfect at the critical field. The theory of discharge disruptions assumes the power absorption in a helicon source to arise from the linear conversion of helicon waves into electrostatic waves at the plasma edge. The calculated dependence of the absorbed power on the plasma density turns out to be nonmonotonic with minima at antiresonances of the electrostatic waveexcitation. This explains qualitatively principal peculiarities of dischargedisruptions. The calculated plasma impedance is in agreement with experimental value within a factor of 2.

  • 38.
    Snyder, Kristen
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Storytelling: a co-creative process to support value-based leadership2017Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, nr 3/4, s. 484-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to identify constraints and possibilities to develop a value-based leadership in manufacturing using storytelling as a co-creative method and process.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A multi-site case study was conducted in which storytelling was used as a data collection tool and co-creative process to explore dimensions in the company’s cultures that could provide a deeper understanding about the constraints and possibilities that exist for developing value-based leadership in manufacturing.

    Findings

    Storytelling has a positive impact on leadership and communication highlighting important aspects of the organizational culture to support sustainable development and innovation.

    Originality/value

    This study demonstrates how storytelling can be used by leaders in manufacturing to build cultures of innovation and sustainability. And identifies constrains and possibilities for developing value-based leadership.

  • 39.
    Snyder, Kristen
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Storytelling as a co-creative process to build cultures of quality, innovation and sustainability2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Thornell, Greger
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Ericson, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Ohrmalm, J
    Schweitz, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Portnoff, G
    Residual stress in sputtered gold films on quartz measured by the cantilever beam deflection technique1999Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, ISSN 0885-3010, E-ISSN 1525-8955, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 981-992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With resonator applications in mind, the residual stress in sputtered gold electrodes on quartz has been investigated with respect to varioiis deposition rates (2, 10, and 50 A/s), pressures (1.0 and 3 0- mbar), deposition temperatures (80OC and room temperature (RT)), film thicknesses (approx. 400 to 800 A), and substrate smoothnesses (lapped and polished), u:;ing the cantilever beam deflection method. Samples were monitored for 4 weeks at room temperature followed by 13 weeks of annealing at 85OC. The initial stress (ranging from -180 to -60 MPa) was compressive for all samples but turned tensile (a few megapascals) in some of the samples after annealing. A significant decrease in initial compressive stress appeared with samples coated at an elevated temperature. From samples preparecd at lower pressure and differing only in film thickness and substrate roughness, an increased compressive stress was found in thicker films and on rougher surfaces. The stress relaxation has been fitted to an exponential expression, and an attempt to relate the stress to a frequency shift (typically a few parts per million for ordinary, 100-pm thick AT blanks) has been made. With the help of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the film morphology was investigated and related to the deposition parameters and aging. Judging from the increase in compressive stress and grain refinement with increased deposition rate and decreased pressure the atomic peening mechanism is the most likely reascm for the induced stress. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to rule our the inclusion oj- argon (below or around 0.5%) as an explanation. From the vague, but clearly discernible, trend toward faster RT stress relaxation with higher initial stress, together with the liner film morphology, the relief mechaniism is believed to he stress-promoted grain boundary diffusion.

  • 41.
    Vallin, Örjan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Einefors, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Direct bonded quartz resonators2001Inngår i: Proc. of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, Seattle, USA, June 6-8, 2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Westlinder, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Engelmark, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Analysis and Simulation of Mask Erosion During Etching1999Inngår i: American Vacuum Society 46th National Symposium, Seattle, USA, 1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 42 of 42
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