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  • 1.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Magnusson Hanson, L. L.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Ahola, K.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Batty, G. D.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Borritz, M.
    Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, H.
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany.
    Chastang, J. -F
    Epidemiology in Occupational Health and Ergonomics (ESTER) Team, Angers, France.
    De Graaf, R.
    Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, VS Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Dragano, N.
    University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Hamer, M.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Jokela, M.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, A.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Leineweber, C.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Niedhammer, I.
    Epidemiology in Occupational Health and Ergonomics (ESTER) Team, Angers, France.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, M.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Oksanen, T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, J.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Plaisier, I.
    Netherlands Institute for Social Research, Hague, Netherlands.
    Salo, P.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, S.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ten Have, M.
    Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, VS Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Theorell, T.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Toppinen-Tanner, S.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, J.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Väänänen, A.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, P. J. M.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Westerlund, H.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Fransson, E. I.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Heikkilä, K.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, M.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, R.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data2017Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, nr 8, s. 1342-1356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression. Method We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol. Results We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94-1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.32). Conclusions Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.

  • 2.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    McEwan, T E
    Monash University, Australia.
    Violence among female stalkers2012Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 545-555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Female stalkers account for 10-25% of all stalking cases, yet little is known about risk factors for female stalking violence. This study identifies risk factors for female stalking violence and contrasts these with risk factors for male stalking violence.MethodSeventy-one female and 479 male stalkers presenting to police in Sweden and a specialist stalking clinic in Australia were investigated. Univariate comparisons of behaviour by gender, and comparisons between violent and non-violent female stalkers, were undertaken. Logistic regression was then used to develop a predictive model for stalking violence based on demographic, offence and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Rates of violence were not significantly different between genders (31% of males and 23% of females). For both men and women, violence was associated with a combination of a prior intimate relationship with the victim, threats and approach behaviour. This model produced receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with area under the curve (AUC)=0.80 for female stalkers and AUC=0.78 for male stalkers. The most notable gender difference was significantly higher rates of personality disorder among women. High rates of psychotic disorder were found in both genders. Stalking violence was directly related to psychotic symptoms for a small number of women. CONCLUSIONS: Similar risk factors generally predict stalking violence between genders, providing initial support for a similar approach to risk assessment for all stalkers. The most notable gender difference was the prevalence of personality and psychotic disorders among female stalkers, supporting an argument for routine psychiatric assessment of women charged with stalking.

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