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  • 1.
    Abazi, Agon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindström, Robin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Effektiviseringsmöjligheter på Tunadals sågverk: med innesäljarprocessen i fokus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation was initiated because of the high workload of the sellers and, additionally, because the Tunadal sawmill has received low ratings in customer surveys. Thus,  two main approaches are adopted here,  the first being to investigate which of the three methods  of working, namely, market divided flow organization, function organizationand flow organization with collaboration, proves to be the most beneficial. The second is to investigate whether there is an available method to ease the daily work. A literature review has been made in order to determine more efficient ways for the sellers to work in the Tunadal sawmill. During the investigation, an in-depth investigation into the total quality management using a balanced scorecard as a management tool was conducted. To identify the current problems, interviews and workshops were conducted with the department members. A customer survey was sent to the customers in order to obtain some indication in relation to their opinions. The results showed that there are many unnecessary working operations such as control, duplication of work and problem solving. Communication between the various departments and individuals proved to sometimes be poor.  A major reason for the sellers’ problems regarding workload was due to the unavailability of goods on the discharge date. Many benefits are associated with the collaborative flow organization as this increases the holistic view and can assist in relation to communication. The function based method of working would, however, lead to greater isolation of the functions in the business. Very little work regarding identification of problems that occur in the processes exists and focus on working with improvements is limited. It would be advantageous to work with total quality management using the balanced scorecard as a management tool in the flow organization based on cooperation as this also promotes the holistic approach.

    Keywords:Efficiency improvement, total quality management, balanced

  • 2.
    Abdulridha, Aya
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Albu-Jaafer, Ali
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Problem identification for the delivery system for document and errand management in an IT company: A qualitative case study an IT firm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, many IT organizations have strived to implement system development to improve and streamline information management in an effort to streamline the entire organization. The first step in system development is to identify the problems experienced by the company. This study focuses on studying delivery systems at IT companies in order to identify problems and quality shortcomings in that system. The delivery system is used daily by employees at the fall company. It was noted that several problems have arisen when the system is not automated. Employees have different problems that they want to avoid. For example, employees must enter manually to change what has been generated by the system. This leads to waste times and increases the risk of failure. Research in the areas of system development and process development stresses the importance of developing or improving IT processes to achieve the required quality. The study has been conducted by observing and interviewing employees who work with the delivery system. The results of this study present three major problems that the system has today. These are installation guide, system usability and requirement specification. The Installation Wizard is a document that consists of all modules to be installed at the customer for the version to be released along with other necessary information about the deliveries or modules. This document is not generated by the system today but is manually created by the employees. This requires a lot of manual work and time to check and make sure they have got them all. Regarding the second issue, the current system lacks some features that make usability very complex and that takes time to learn how it works. Finally, the company has no clear requirement management process, which means that the company delivers a module or service that does not meet its requirements and expectations. The study also represents solutions to address these issues.  

  • 3.
    Abdulridha, Aya
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Karlberg, Louice
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Klassificering och lokalisering: En studie om klassificering och lokalisering av produkter hos Delta Terminal AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Delta Terminal AB rents a warehouse, the expenses of the warehouse are much higher than the income and therefore Delta Terminal Ab wants to relocate the warehouse to a different building that they own. The current warehouse is approximately 7900 𝑚2and the intended local is 6400𝑚2. Because of the differ-ence in size between the two warehouses, it is important that the products are placed so that the bearing surface is filled as much as possible without damag-ing the products. To reduce the driving distance in the warehouse the products are placed after a categorization technique called double ABC-analysis, where the delivery frequency is the main factor. To verify that the products fit in the warehouse calculations were made on the fill rate, a localization and product placement were also made based on the categorization. The information is taken from a literature review, scientific articles, previous studies, discussions with the staff at Delta Terminal AB and from each client who has a product in the warehouse. The study shows that the products Delta Terminal AB has in stock will not fit in the intended warehouse and that Delta Terminal AB needs at least 48 m2 to store leftover products.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Kim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Industrial Design.
    Skänk: Att skapa ett intressant utseende2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats skriver jag om hur man skapar en intressant och spännande kontrast mellan olika material och mönster i min examensmöbel. Jag beskriver även kortfattat hur jag kom fram till just detta, samt varför jag valde de metoder jag använde mig av.

     

    Jag valde mellan vanlig brun MDF-skiva, Valchromat (genomfärgad MDF-skiva) och en färg.

     

  • 5.
    Afrim, Philip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kartläggning och identifiering av flaskhalsar inom arbetsprocesser för bagagehantering: Kartlägga och analysera förutsättningarna för en effektivare bagagehanteringsprocess för avgående bagage på Landvetter flygplats med hjälp av VSM, ABC-Analys och processkartläggningar.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygplats logistik

  • 6.
    Ahlqvist, Theresé
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Hur ett tvärfunktionellt samarbete kan motverka stuprörsstrukturer: Kommunikationens roll i det organisatoriska gränssnittet mellan olika avdelningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stovepipes, or also called silos, appear in many different organizations and sectors and contribute to problems when employees or managers tend to look more to their own, or the individual departments, objectives rather than to the organizations. The purpose of this study was to identify different communicative factors that promote stovepipes in order to further identify the most critical factor to disarm. A case study has been done at a selected company, with a stovepipe structure, in order to achieve the purpose of the study. The case study has included interviews and observations to identify different problem areas which then have been compared with three communicative factors identified in previous studies. The factor that had the most connections to the problem areas have been considered the most critical factor. The result of the study indicates that “A lack of understanding each other's work” is the most critical factor in stovepipe structures and that it can be prevented by following five recommendations: bring up positive collaboration continually, raise problems with each other instead of with others, identify different communication paths in and between the departments, implement a long-term model for preventing stovepipes and set up workshops between the involved departments. The conclusion of the study is that stovepipes create several undesirable effects in the organization but that the efforts to counter these problems do not have to be complicated. Following five small steps into a better collaboration and communication can be enough to be on your way to a better organizational structure.

  • 7.
    Ahlqvist, Theresé
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    "Är det alltid negativt att vara konservativ?": En problematisering av stämplingen av byggbranschen som konservativ2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the construction industry's lack of digitization, it is often explained that it is because of a conservative culture. The purpose of this study has been to problematize the labelling as conservative and to study a company in the industry to gain a deeper understanding of what other problems that may exist. Based on this, three research questions were identified which the study had as a goal to answer. These are: how the construction industry can be said to be conservative, how the conservatism is expressed, and what other barriers that exists that cannot be said to be derived from conservatism. The study has been conducted through a case study at Skanska Sverige AB with Region Hus Norr as a delimitation. Furthermore, it has been divided into two phases where semi-structural interviews and a document review have been used as the basis for a description of the current situation. The result shows that it is not a representative state of the construction industry to say that it is conservative, and during the case study no underlying expressions of conservatism was observed. On the other hand, there are several other areas that are considered as the reason for a slow development. The conclusions drawn is that the way the Swedish Public Procurement Act is conducted today is one of the reasons for this. An accelerated change process where some steps in the change management models are skipped is also seen as a reason. Furthermore, there are signs of that the current processes not always support efficient digitization, which indicates that the work in some cases only move from an analog to a digital state. Lastly, an indication of a stove pipe structure in the development area has been observed during the study, which can affect the efficiency and target improvement in a negative way.

  • 8.
    Ahlqvist, Theresé
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    "Är det alltid negativt att vara konservativ?": En problematisering av stämplingen av byggbranschen som konservativ2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the construction industry's lack of digitization, it is often explained that it is because of a conservative culture. The purpose of this study has been to problematize the labelling as conservative and to study a company in the industry to gain a deeper understanding of what other problems that may exist. Based on this, three research questions were identified which the study had as a goal to answer. These are: how the construction industry can be said to be conservative, how the conservatism is expressed, and what other barriers that exists that cannot be said to be derived from conservatism. The study has been conducted through a case study at Skanska Sverige AB with Region Hus Norr as a delimitation. Furthermore, it has been divided into two phases where semi-structural interviews and a document review have been used as the basis for a description of the current situation. The result shows that it is not a representative state of the construction industry to say that it is conservative, and during the case study no underlying expressions of conservatism was observed. On the other hand, there are several other areas that are considered as the reason for a slow development. The conclusions drawn is that the way the Swedish Public Procurement Act is conducted today is one of the reasons for this. An accelerated change process where some steps in the change management models are skipped is also seen as a reason. Furthermore, there are signs of that the current processes not always support efficient digitization, which indicates that the work in some cases only move from an analog to a digital state. Lastly, an indication of a stove pipe structure in the development area has been observed during the study, which can affect the efficiency and target improvement in a negative way.

  • 9.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Critical Factors for Human Computer Interaction of eHealth for Older Adult2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 the 5th International Conference on e-Society, e-Learning and e-Technologies, Vienna: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, Vol. 5, p. 58-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The percentage of older adults increases globally with an increased need for medical care. To support the idea of successful active aging, e-health seems to be an interesting concept. This study was conducted as a systematic literature study, with the aim to identify and discuss determinant factors in the Human computer interaction of eHealth for older adults. The important main research question to answer was: What are the critical challenges to address for an improved human computer interaction in technology enhanced health care systems for older adults? Findings show that there are several critical factors to consider, with trust, personal integrity, technological acceptance, e-health literacy and accessibility of ICT as the most determinant. If the found challenges are addressed, it might be possible to achieve the identified aim of independent living. The recommendation is a human computer interaction that is elderly centred, and involves the elderly users in the design process. However, no ICT enhanced system will be user-friendly enough to take away the need for social and technological support.

  • 10.
    Alawi, Hussein
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Guyo, Hassan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    En värdeflödesanalys av ett reservdelslager i en fluktuerande marknad.: En fallstudie med avseende att implementera Lean.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag inom stålindustrin tacklas nuförtiden med en fluktuerande och oförutsägbar marknad. Detta resulterar i försiktiga åtgärder och svårigheter med att planera och uppnå långsiktiga mål. Ovissheten leder till att beslut ibland baseras på felaktiga prognoser. I höjden av denna fluktuerande marknad behövs vanligtvis förstärkning i och med att efterfrågan ökar. Detta leder till att företag ställs inför svåra beslut, att anställa ytterligare personal och/eller utöka lagerhållning. Denna marknad kan så småningom vända och detta leder till varsel av personal samt kontraktion av depåer för att hålla en viss vinstnivå, som det tidigare har hänt. Ett av alternativen som återstår i dagsläget är effektivisering av orderhanteringsprocessen för att reducera ledtider och klara av ökande efterfrågan. Lean är en välkänd metod för att effektivera flöden i processer. Företagets reservdelslager arbetar inte med Lean i dagsläget. Syftet med denna fallstudie är att undersöka med värdeflödesanalys(VSM) och diskret händelse simulation vilka kritiska punkter och flaskhalsar som existerar i reservdelslagret och målet är att sedan eliminera de med Lean som arbetssätt. Första steget bestod av att kartlägga orderhanteringsprocessen med en processpromenad och sedan analysera de olika aktiviteterna. Detta möjliggjorde en identifiering av flaskhalsar och kritiska punkter. Resultatet presenterar ett nuläge av företaget med en cykeltid på 224 sekunder/artikel och en ledtid på 1549 sekunder/order. En order har även ett genomsnitt på 6 artiklar varav fem ligger på hyllor och en på lagerautomat. Flödet har illustrerats i ett spagettidiagram. I koppling med teorin har ett par förbättringsförslag föreslagits som exempelvis en omstrukturering av artiklar på hyllor utifrån pareto(ABC)-analys. Detta ska reducera ledtiden. Flaskhalsarna som har identifierats är osynkroniserade arbetsrutiner och ineffektiva lagerstrukturer. Därmed har ett antal effektivare framtida lägen med reducerade ledtider föreslagits. Slutsatsen är att Lean principer som ”Jidoka”(ständiga förbättringar) och Just in time(lägre ledtider i princip) kan implementeras med olika lösningar som VMI, IT och automatisering. Fortsatta studier kan utvärdera varje lösning med DES och även jämföra olika kostnader i förhållande till nytta.

  • 11.
    Albu-jaafer, Ali
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Undersökning om kringtjänster i en kombiterminal2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transport that uses multiple modes of transportation called Intermodal transport. Due of the advantages of intermodal transport offers, the market for intermodal transport has become increasingly important. The benefits can be both environmentally and economically. This terminal is the destination where intermodal transport takes place. The purpose of a terminal is to combine two different modes of transport. This can lower the total cost of transportation and reduce environmental pollution. To get a successful intermodal terminals there are a few factors that should be considered. One of these factors is the primary services and incidental services terminus offer.

     

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ancillary services that can be applied to an intermodal terminal in order to increase revenues and attractiveness of the facility. To answer the research questions I interviewed four different operators in intermodal terminals in Sweden. In addition there are also two interviews were carried out with the existing operator in Sundsvall intermodal terminal and the operator of the new intermodal terminal. The purpose of these two interviews was to see what the operators have the opportunity or plan and how it works in Sundsvall existing intermodal terminal in the present day. Literature studies that I used in this study have been covered by previous surveys, reports and books. The purpose of literary studies was to identify intermodal terminals and the new services that can be used on the terminal.

     

    The results of this study gave a very good picture of these ancillary services that can be applied in Sundsvall new intermodal terminal to increase the terminal's revenues and attractiveness. Examples of these services, repair factories of trailers and containers, refueling station in connection with the intermodal terminal, cross-docking, by scrolling with the electric locomotives. Besides these services, there are other factors that should be taken into consideration in order to increase revenues and attractiveness of intermodal terminal. These are the technologies that are used in intermodal terminal, IT support, security and location of the intermodal terminal.

  • 12.
    Alkberg, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Samarbete i distribuerade team: En analys av möjligheter och metoder för att arbeta distribuerat inom Sandvik IT med stöd av Kanban2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies face the fact that the work must be adapted to the globalization so competitiveness can be maintained. One way to do it is to work geographically distributed and reach competence personnel and more customers while 24/7-work becomes possible. But to effectively work distributed over space and time, a consciousness about the limitations that this entails and how to overcome them are necessary. Sandvik IT is facing changes and the trend is toward more geographically distributed teams. The purpose of this study was therefore focused on the key factors for distributed work and how Kanban can contribute to effective distributed work. How Sandvik IT's supporting group, Service Development Office (SDO) should support the distributed work has also been evaluated. The basic theory is a compilation of literary works such as books and above all scientific articles. From the theory four key areas of distributed work was identified; working methods and coordination, communication, leadership and team spirit. A fifth point was also added, which was about the teamstart. Based on these five areas the interview - and survey questions was formed. SDO selected three teams with informants, and the team leaders/coordinators were interviewed and other staff received the survey. The results were then compared with the initial theory and via analysis 16 key factors for distributed work (at Sandvik IT) could be found. E.g. leader's consciousness, a well-established work method, shared knowledge and social interaction. The factors were also categorized into: Set-up, teams start and finally maintenance and development. To a large extent the key factors and the needs could be met by Kanban, but the recommendation is that SDO complements with (in particular) an education for team leaders/coordinators. It came to be seen as a prerequisite for the distributed work. The survey's response rate and the interviews outcome were good and the result was coherent. Hence the report can be seen as a report with high validity and reliability in an inter-organizational view.

  • 13.
    Allison, Robert S.
    et al.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE AB (Acreo).
    Chandler, Damon M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Colett, Hannah R.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Corriveau, Philip J.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Daly, Scott
    Dolby Laboratories Inc., Sunnyvale, California, United States.
    Goel, James
    Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., Display Video Processing Group, Markham, Canada.
    Long, Juliana Y.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Wilcox, Laurie M.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Yaacob, Yusizwan M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Yang, Shun-nan
    Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, United States.
    Zhang, Yi
    Xi’an Jiaotong University, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an, China.
    Perspectives on the definition of visually lossless quality for mobile and large format displays2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1-23, article id 053035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in imaging and display engineering have given rise to new and improved image and videoapplications that aim to maximize visual quality under given resource constraints (e.g., power, bandwidth).Because the human visual system is an imperfect sensor, the images/videos can be represented in a mathematicallylossy fashion but with enough fidelity that the losses are visually imperceptible—commonly termed“visually lossless.” Although a great deal of research has focused on gaining a better understanding ofthe limits of human vision when viewing natural images/video, a universally or even largely accepted definitionof visually lossless remains elusive. Differences in testing methodologies, research objectives, and targetapplications have led to multiple ad-hoc definitions that are often difficult to compare to or otherwise employ inother settings. We present a compendium of technical experiments relating to both vision science and visualquality testing that together explore the research and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality,as well as review recent scientific advances. Together, the studies presented in this paper suggest that a singledefinition of visually lossless quality might not be appropriate; rather, a better goal would be to establish varyinglevels of visually lossless quality that can be quantified in terms of the testing paradigm.

  • 14.
    Almqvist, Sanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Uppbyggnad av kvalitetsledningssystem i utbildningsverksamhet: En kvalitativ studie på Barn- och utbildningsförvaltningeni Flens kommun2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktuell forskning visar att svenska skolresultat är nedåtgående, där bristande systematiskt kvalitetsarbete pekas ut som en möjlig anledning till att eleverna inte når de grundläggande målen. Flens kommun var en av de kommuner som uppmanats av Skolverket att utveckla sitt systematiska kvalitetsarbete och vidare initierade kommunen uppbyggnaden av ett kvalitetsledningssystem. Studiens syfte var att erhålla en djupare förståelse för medarbetarna i Flens kommuns upplevelser av uppbyggnaden. Studien sökte genom ett kvalitativt perspektiv, svar på frågor kring vad ett kvalitetsledningssystem kan definieras som, vilka moment som är betydelsefulla samt vilka deltagare som upplevs betydelsefulla vid uppbyggandet. Resultaten från de båda sammanställdes i fyra kategorier: Anpassning till kontext, Stabil process, Management och Allas delaktighet. I slutsatsen framkom att ett kvalitetsledningssystem ska vara ett stöd i det dagliga arbetet, ett system som leder mot kvalitet, där alla görs delaktiga. Som stöd i kvalitetsarbetet föreslogs befintliga modeller och teorier.

  • 15.
    Alsmo, Ludvig
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bärlund, Jonathan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Nyttomaximering vid eleffektbrist på lokalnätet: En objektprioritering i en simuleringsansatts2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to study the Styrel concept as an approach to identify electricity users and prioritize them in the event of a power shortage on a power grid. The study has examined and investigated how the priorities of different electricity users go to, how the benefits of manual disconnection change according to the decision makers' different priorities and how interaction between different local networks affects total utility. The features of a community on a local area, also called objects, are divided into eight priority classes depending on the function of the objects. The area for this study has been decision management. The study has been conducted using results from previous studies and theories on decision analysis as the basis for constructing a simulator that simulates how the power of a power failure changes for a local area dependent on the extent of the electricity supply (capacity). The study's findings have shown that prioritization of electricity supply line with higher priority classes should be prioritized than an electricity supply line with lower priority classes. This is also the result of previous studies. On the other hand, the study has shown that the fixed asset for an electricity supply line with lower priority objects is higher than an electricity supply line with higher priority objects, but with less benefit, priority should be given to the electricity supply line of higher priority objects. This study has thus resulted in the fact that electricity supply lines should be prioritized after the benefit if a decision maker is aware of the extent of the deficiency. Current collaboration between local networks showed that this could be dependent on the factors: distance, risk profile of decision makers and change of benefit through collaboration.  

  • 16.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Effektiv lagerstyrning med AHP och tvådimensionell artikelklassificering: En fallstudie på Permobil AB, Timrå2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Costs related to inventory are usually a significant amount of the company’s total assets. Despite this, companies in general don’t pay a lot of interest in it, even if the benefits from effective inventory are obvious when it comes to less tied up capital, increased customer satisfaction and better working environment.

    Permobil AB, Timrå is in an intense period when it comes to revenue and growth. The production unit is aiming for an increased output of 30 % in the next two years. To make this possible the company has to improve their way to distribute and handle material,The purpose of the study is to provide useful information and concrete proposals for action, so that the company can build a strategy for an effective and sustainable solution when it comes to inventory management.

    Alternative methods for making forecasts are suggested, in order to reach a more nuanced perception of different articles, and how they should be managed. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used in order to give specially selected persons the chance to decide criteria for how the article should be valued. The criteria they agreed about were annual volume value, lead time, frequency rate and purchase price. The other method that was proposed was a two-dimensional model where annual volume value and frequency was the criteria that specified in which class an article should be placed. Both methods resulted in significant changes in comparison to the current solution.

    For the spare part inventory different forecast methods were tested and compared with the current solution. It turned out that the current forecast method performed worse than both moving average and exponential smoothing with trend. The small sample of ten random articles is not big enough to reject the current solution, but still the result is a reason enough, for the company to control the quality of the forecasts.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Affärsmodellsutveckling: Hur företag hanterar utmaningar på en förändrad marknad2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A market change comes with challenges for the organisations which operate on that market, since they must adjust to the new market conditions, a new competitive situation and such. The purpose of this study was to examine which challenges organisations experience when they develop their business models. This was performed by doing a literature review as well as interviews with representatives from the electric market in Sweden. The result from the literature review showed that multiple concepts can be connected to form an encompassing view with the change as the catalyst. Four aspects regarding challenges could be developed based on previous research: (1) he organisation is not used to change management; (2) the organisation is used to change management; (3) management does not know how to start working with BMI; and (4) management knows how to start working with BMI. The result from the interviews showed that the literature was reflected in reality, since the informants described several concepts from the literature. The informants’ organisations could be placed in the aspects which had been developed and based on previous research suggestions of how to handle these challenges could be developed, some of which the informants had already applied (but not fully, yet).

  • 18.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bizimana, Mike
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digitalisering och kundnytta: En undersökning om digitaliserings effekt på ett företag och dess kunder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, businesses and organizations are facing increasing challenges to change and adapt to a digitizing world. In order to stay relevant in the market, businesses need to work constantly on developing and improving the efficiency of its various processes. This study is designed as a case study at MittSverige Vatten & Avfall which is a municipal corporation in Sundsvall municipality. Its goal is to be a leader in its sector by the year 2021. The study’s objective was to investigate if the digitization of information gathering could bring benefit to a company and its customers. The investigation has focused on the digitization of information gathering from the customer's water meter. The study's objective has been to identify and analyze how digitization impacts business processes and its financial condition with help from value stream mapping and a customer survey. The study was conducted with the support of written and web based literary sources. A survey as well as interviews was conducted. An investment analysis has been conducted to study and evaluate the benefits that the investment brings the customer and MittSverige Vatten & Avfall regarding cost. The study proved that the digitization of water meters would mean an improvement for both MittSverige Vatten & Avfall and its customers.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Lucas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Berglin, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Problematiken med estimering i projekt inom agil systemutveckling: Analys och undersökning av agil systemutveckling hos SDC2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, IT-Companies often have a hard time estimating changed requirements. This leads to that the clients’ confidence is negatively affected and is one of the main reasons why this has to be improved. The goal with this study was to find out what the most common problems regarding this issue are in IT-companies that works with agile software development. By analyzing one IT-company through a SWOT- and pareto-analysis the most common problems have been ascertained. The SWOT analysis have been created through interviews with selected employees to get a better understanding of the problems that the IT-company is facing. Furthermore was the pareto-analysis based on a survey that was sent out to many different employees to prioritize the problems. The reason why the survey was sent to different employees was to get a more objective input. The study showed that there was many different problems that needed attention. The most important problems was that the communication towards the client regarding requirements needed to be improved, better communication internally between different departments needed to be established, a method to quickly adapt and estimate change in requirements needed to be implemented and finally a method regarding witch key employees whom need to attend the planning of the program backlog. These problems have then been studied through interviews with other IT-companies and through a literature study. The conclusions that where drawn was that the client needs to be involved and updated through the whole project. Constant monitoring and communication regarding changed requirements needs to be processed and mediated. High standards needs to be set early towards the client in order to obtain as clear an image of the requirements as possible. Many different parties need to attend to the planning process for the program backlog before the start of the project. The client needs to be aware of that changed requirements will arise and that this will lead to that the first estimation may not necessarily be absolute. As long as the client is held up to date as well as participant through the whole project and problems are detected and mediated early, change in requirements should not be a huge problem. This is after all the purpose of being agile.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Ismail, Abdiqafar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Ruttoptimering: En jämförelse mellan mänsklig erfarenhet och optimeringsprogram2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Route optimization aims to optimize routes for vehicles withregards to resource usage. Especially when the vehicle needsto visit multiple customers on the route, a route optimizationtool is beneficiary. The purpose of this study is to comparehuman experience with a route optimization program. This isdone by comparing how a truck driver makes his routes to theroute a GIS-tool has calculated and then see which of theroutes was shorter, measured in kilometers. The data for thisstudy was gathered from a big shipping company. In order toachieve the purpose of this study 10 routes were analysed bya GIS program called ArcGIS. The algorithm used by ArcGISin route optimization is tabu search, this type of program wasused because it is based on heuristic methods that is muchfaster than exact methods. Expert systems are based onknowledge from experts that have been accumulated duringmany years of experience. Providing recommendations basedon probability reasoning instead of absolute answer. Thesekind of systems is often used in GIS programs to improveresults and calculation time. The aim of this study wasanalyze if a optimization program finds a better route than theexpert. This study shows an improvement of 60% of theanalyzed routes. To verify the results of this study anhypothesis test was made which gave a level of significanceby more than 85 %. The routes were optimized to a certainextent even before the study was done due to the driveralready being familiar with the routes in question. Because ofthis the results of this study were lower compared to othersimilar studies. Another reason may be that the coordinatesgiven to us did not always correspond perfectly with actuallocation of the stops.

  • 21.
    Arlestedt, Rebecka
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Lindh, Melenie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Enterprise Mobility: Defining and evaluating business digitalization2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technology has developed rapidly in the recent years and considerably changed the way organizations work. Mobility can bring great benefits to the organizations of which they are at, by e.g. improving employee satisfaction and increase efficiency and productivity. Despite this the development of mobile solutions have grown much faster for individuals than for organizations, with a plethora of devices and applications. The slow enterprise adoption is partly due to the fact that companies need to take information security risks into account at the same time as IT systems need to be rebuilt and customized to accommodate the new mobile way of working. Employees, unlike most other technologies, largely drive mobile strategies at organizations. Organizations are not developing in a fast enough pace and many scientist are describing a research gap in organizations adoption of mobility. This study aims to examine how research in the area has been presented and how enterprise mobility is viewed and utilized. The study has been implemented through qualitative research with a interpretative and exploratory approach. A case study was conducted at two organizations, demonstrating the possibilities and obstacles of enterprise mobility, and also strengthened the existing definition of the field. Additionally the case study illustrated discrepancies in IT solutions and the adoption of enterprise mobility within two different industries. Both researchers and organizations have shown a great interest in exploring this area additionally. Further studies can be extended to include the effects of how companies have adapted to enterprise mobility.

  • 22.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    et al.
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT.
    Cheng, Eva
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart, Australia.
    Möller, Sebastian
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Antons, Jan-Niklas
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Review on using physiology in quality of experience2016In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2016, HVEI 2016, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016, p. 197-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of Quality of Experience (QoE), one challenge is to design test methodologies in order to evaluate the perceived quality of multimedia content delivered through technical sys-tems. Traditionally, this evaluation is done using subjective opinion tests. However, sometimes it is difficult for observers to communicate the experienced quality through the given scale. Fur-thermore. those tests do not give insights into how the user is reacting on an internal physiological level. To overcome these issues, one approach is to use physiological measures, in order to derive a direct non-verbal response of the recipient. In this paper, we review studies that have been performed in the domain of QoE using physiological measures and we look into current activities in standardization bodies. We present challenges this research faces. and give an overview on what researchers should be aware of when they want to start working in this research area.

  • 23.
    Aroka, Annabel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hur använder man digitalisering för att uppnå hållbarhet?: En fallstudie om hur arbetet med digitalisering tillämpas på nationell och lokal nivå i ambition att uppnå hållbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, Sweden's ambition is to be the best in the world to use the possibilities of digitization, while at the same time aiming to be a leader in the work for sustainable development and Agenda 2030. The study aims to study whether there is a clear connection between how the theory of how one should work with digitization to achieve sustainability applies in the practical work at national and local level. Furthermore, one can use the result to identify how one should use digitization and plan for a more sustainable society.

    The aim of the study is to be able to see what differences and / or similarities there are at the different strategic levels, where the study is limited to comparing Sundsvall's municipality with the rest of Sweden.

    The parameters examined are supported by the theory that William Mitchell has written in his book "e-topia", which describes the connection between digitization and sustainability and answers the question of how to achieve sustainability with the help of digitization.

     

    The report is based on a qualitative method, in which the result is gathered from two interviews and two policy documents, respectively, in order to be compared and discussed in the report's concluding discussion and conclusion part. The result shows that it is the human transformation that is of significant importance both at national and local level, but that there is no clear link to the sustainability work in the national digitization strategy. Instead of focusing on what abilities that are required to be able to use digital techniques or technologies, one should instead focus on how digitalization contributes to the sustainability work in order to eliminate unnecessary processes or steps.

     

  • 24.
    Auzel, Francois
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Balda, R.
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao, Spain.
    Fernadez, J.
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao, Spain.
    Homogeneous line width of rare-earth-doped glasses for levels in a Stark level ladder: A new simple rule2007In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 122, no 1-2, p. 453-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrating on higher Stark states in multiplet ladders of lanthanide-doped glasses, we show that at 10 K, the homogeneous widths along Stark ladders vary quasi-linearly with the energy position in the ladder.

    Assuming that the mechanisms creating the homogeneous widths are first-order processes, either direct processes or two-phonon nonradiative transitions, the observed behavior is simply explained by the fact that energy separations between Stark levels for usual glasses are less, i.e., not far from kT(D), the Debye energy. This in turn provides quasi-equal phonon transition probabilities between individual Stark states. A simple theoretical relationship is derived and compared with experiments.

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Manfred
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Johansson, Amandus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Effektiviseringsmöjligheter avseende fyllnadsgrad: En jämförande analys mellan nuläge och optimerat resultat2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to provide information on efficiency opportunities on SCA's northbound cassettes. It has been made by examining the capacity utilization rate on the northbound cassettes on SCA's vessels for a period of two weeks. The cargo loaded in the ports of Rotterdam and Sheerness consists of external cargo of varying shape. The cargo is shipped northbound to Holmsund and Sundsvall. Measurements have been made on the cargo to the final destinations Sundsvall, Holmsund and Finland. The measurements have been used in a mathematical optimization model created to optimize the loading of the cassettes. The model is based on placing boxes in a grid where the boxes that are placed representing the cargo and the grids representing the cassettes. The aim of the model is to reduce the number of cassettes and thereby increase the capacity utilization rate. The study resulted in an increase in capacity utilization rate for both area and volume to all destinations. The overall improvement for all cassettes examined resulted in an increase in the area capacity utilization rate by 9.02 percentage points and 5.72 percentage points for the volume capacity utilization rate. It also resulted in a decrease of 22 cassettes in total on the four voyages that were examined which indicate that there are opportunities to improve the capacity utilization rate. The study also shows that the model can be used as a basis for similar problems.

  • 26.
    Bergquist, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Tinnitus och ljudöverkänslighet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tinnitus och ljudöverkänslighet är två vanliga hörselproblem. Men vad är det som ligger bakom problemen? Vad finns det för hjälp till någon som är drabbad? Jag ville lära mig mer om detta ämne dels för att jag lider av både tinnitus och ljudöverkänslighet själv sen flera år tillbaka men också för att jag är lärare. Jag kan visa och berätta för mina elever på kulturskolan vad som händer om man inte använder öronproppar när man repar. Jag ville också få fram hjälp och tips till de som lider av dessa problem. Därför skickade jag ut en enkät för att få reda på olika personers tips. Men jag fick tyvärr inget svar.. Då provade jag en självhjälpsbok och ett tips som jag tyckte var extra bra står med under resultatdelen. Jag är nöjd med mitt resultat trots att det blev väldigt annorlunda emot vad jag tänkt mig.

  • 27.
    Bergström, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The reflectance of steels and non-ferrous alloys: 2nd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics 20062006In: PICALO 2006 - 2nd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Laser and Optics - Conference Proceedings, 2006, p. 140-145Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of reflectance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the reflectance data presently available consider only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys which are actually being processed. This paper presents the results of reflectance measurements carried out on as-received engineering grade metals including: hot and cold rolled mild steel, zinc coated mild steel, stainless steel, aluminium alloys, copper and brass. The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 nm and 527 nm). The results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help to improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models.

  • 28.
    Bertilsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bodin, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Processutveckling: En fallstudie om VSM kombinerat med diskret händelsestyrd simulering kan effektivisera lastningsprocessen hos en logistikverksamhets hamnterminal2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att upprätthålla sin konkurrenskraft krävs det idag att ett fokus läggs på att ständigt förbättra sina processer inom organisationen. Detta faller sig logiskt, men att ta fram underlag för vilka förbättringsåtgärder som bör implementeras till processen kan vara svårt. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur value stream mapping (VSM) tillsammans med diskret händelsestyrd simulering (DES) kan användas inom lastningsprocesser hos hamnliggande logistikverksamheter för att kartlägga processen, identifiera flaskhalsar samt att undersöka det teoretiska utfallet vid implementation av potentiella förbättringsåtgärder. Svaret på detta genererades via en fallstudie på SCA Logistics där en lastningsprocess analyserades från ett av deras lager som start till slutet av processen när produkten är lastad på ett fartyg. Först skapades en VSM samt en DES-modell av nuläget. Nulägets VSM bidrog till en översikt över den aktuella processen och till att validera DES-modellen. Därefter med Lean-principer som grundpelare och med hjälp av intervjuer kunde tre förbättringsåtgärder identifieras. Dessa förbättringsåtgärder applicerades till DES-modellen en i taget för att undersöka hur de påverkar systemet. De två framstående förbättringsåtgärderna testades även ihop. Resultatet visade på att processen blev mer effektiv, i form av kortare ledtid, och två nya VSM togs fram för att bidra med ytterligare visualiserande information. Åtgärderna har andra spärrar i praktiken som inte visas via varken DES eller VSM såsom höga kostnader eller hinder i lagerförhållanden. Undersökningen ledde till den slutsatsen att VSM kan användas som komplement till DES för att bidra med ett teoretiskt underlag för huruvida en förbättringsåtgärd bör implementeras. Som rekommendation bör även en kostnadsnyttoanalys genomföras för att undersöka huruvida nyttan uppväger för kostnaden.

  • 29.
    Billberg, Theresia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Vad händer med Ljuddesign?2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Om ljuddesign för scenkonsten skall fortsätta utvecklas och de ljuddesigners som verkar i Sverige ska få samma legitima status som resterande yrkesepitet i branschen, bör vi lyfta frågan: Vad är ljuddesign och varför är den viktig? Denna studie har för avsikt att belysa det värde som ljuddesign inbringar inom scenkonsten. Denna rapport behandlar Examensarbetet: Vad händer med ljuddesign? En empirisk studie i hur ljuddesign kan användas som ett bra verktyg för att förstärka och fördjupa en skådespelares gestaltningsprocess. Studien innefattar även skapandet av sex ljudande verk som varit utgångspunkt för studien och jag har med dessa sökt svar på hur de påverkat skådespelare och en provpubliks tolkning och känslomässiga reaktioner vid uppförandet av en och samma text. Kan ljudet ändra textens innebörd? Resultatet av studien visar hur ljudet förstärker inlevelsen hos både skådespelare och publik, samt hur vi med hjälp av ljuddesign kan styra mening och innehåll i en text. Slutsatsen efter denna studie är att ljuddesign kan ändra hur vi tolkar en text och att det väcker engagemang och nyfikenhet. Ljudet är ett direkt medium som har stor del i hur upplevelsen av ett uppförande på scenen uppfattas och tolkas.

  • 30.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Perspectives on Demand Side Management1996Book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This work treats recommendations based on energy systems engineering. The focus is on what can be learned by different methods about the roles that demand-side energy efficiency should play in the energy system. In the first part of the thesis, two case studies of local energy planning demonstrate the role of demand-side energy efficiency: energy systems engineering suggests a design in which energy efficiency improvements are aligned with the whole technical energy system. One result of the case studies is that the energy consumers invest in fewer energy efficiency measures than recommended by the methodologies applied. This indicates that there are important aspects of demand-side energy efficiency that are ignored by the methodologies used. In this work, the cause of the difference between the recommended and observed investments is addressed by an investigation of the customer's transaction cost for the energy efficiency investment. The second part is an application of the viable system model and focuses on the role of energy efficiency activities at a public energy utility. A case study demonstrates that most energy efficiency activities were run to support energy sales and, hence, were totally entwined with the traditional business. This role observed is compared with that suggested by the demand-side management methodology. The comparison shows that demand-side management is not capable of handling important aspects of interrelations between energy efficiency activities and energy sales. The work provides a language for further discussion of the role of energy efficiency activities at energy utilities.

  • 31.
    Bosse, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications – Heinrich Hertz Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Research Intstitutes of Sweden AB.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Martini, Maria G.
    Kingston University, London, UK.
    Ramzan, Naeem
    University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    CSIRO Data61, Kensington, Australia.
    A common framework for the evaluation of psychophysiological visual quality assessment2019In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of perceived quality based on psychophysiological methods recently gained attraction as it potentially overcomes certain flaws of psychophysical approaches. Although studies report promising results, it is not possible to arrive at decisive and comparable conclusions that recommend the use of one or another method for a specific application or research question. The video quality expert group started a project on psychophysiological quality assessment to study these novel approaches and to develop a test plan that enables more systematic research. This test plan comprises of a specifically designed set of quality annotated video sequences, suggestions for psychophysiological methods to be studied in quality assessment, and recommendations for the documentation and publications of test results. The test plan is presented in this article.

  • 32.
    Botero, Carlos
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Roos, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Åsvik, Kenneth
    Uddeholms AB.
    Şelte, A
    Uddeholms AB.
    Ramsperger, Markus
    Arcam AB.
    Additive Manufacturing of a cold work steel using Electron Beam Melting2019In: Proceedings of Conference:  Tooling 2019, 2019, Vol. MayConference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE AB Acreo.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    Deggendorf Institute of Technology (DIT), University of Applied Sciences, Deggendorf.
    Statistical quality of experience analysis: on planning the sample size and statistical significance testing2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 053013-1-053013-11, article id 053013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an experimenter can balance errors in subjective video quality tests betweenthe statistical power of finding an effect if it is there and not claiming that an effect is there if the effect is not there,i.e., balancing Type I and Type II errors. The risk of committing Type I errors increases with the number ofcomparisons that are performed in statistical tests. We will show that when controlling for this and at thesame time keeping the power of the experiment at a reasonably high level, it is unlikely that the number oftest subjects that are normally used and recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),i.e., 15 is sufficient but the number used by the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG), i.e., 24 is more likelyto be sufficient. Examples will also be given for the influence of Type I error on the statistical significance ofcomparing objective metrics by correlation. We also present a comparison between parametric and nonparametricstatistics. The comparison targets the question whether we would reach different conclusions on the statisticaldifference between the video quality ratings of different video clips in a subjective test, based on thecomparison between the student T-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test. We found that there was hardly a differencewhen few comparisons are compensated for, i.e., then almost the same conclusions are reached. Whenthe number of comparisons is increased, then larger and larger differences between the two methods arerevealed. In these cases, the parametric T-test gives clearly more significant cases, than the nonparametrictest, which makes it more important to investigate whether the assumptions are met for performing a certaintest.

  • 34.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden AB.
    Dima, Elijs
    Andersson, Mattias
    Sjöström, Mårten
    quresh, tahir
    HIAB.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Quality of Experience of hand controller latency in a Virtual Reality simulator2019In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2019 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt and Jeffrey Mulligan, 2019, Springfield, VA, United States, 2019, article id 3068450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. A QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task performance. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards to delays in the crane control interface. A formal subjective study has been performed where we have added controlled delays to the hand controller (joystick) signals. The added delays ranged from 0 ms to 800 ms. We found no significant effects of delays on the task performance on any scales up to 200 ms. A significant negative effect was found for 800 ms added delay. The Symptoms reported in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was significantly higher for all the symptom groups, but a majority of the participants reported only slight symptoms. Two out of thirty test persons stopped the test before finishing due to their symptoms.

  • 35.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sedano, Iñigo
    Tecnalia Research & Innovation, Bilbao, Spain.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Barkowsky, Markus
    IRCCyN, Nantes; France.
    Kihl, Maria
    Lund University.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Le Callet, Patrick
    IRCCyN, Nantes; France.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aurelius, Andreas
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    2D no-reference video quality model development and 3D video transmission quality2012In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM-2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will target two different topics in video quality assessment. First, we discuss 2D no-reference video quality model development. Further, we discuss how to find suitable quality for 3D video transmission. No-reference metrics are the only practical option for monitoring of 2D video quality in live networks. In order to decrease the development time, it might be possible to use full-reference metrics for this purpose. In this work, we have evaluated six full-reference objective metrics in three different databases. We show statistically that VQM performs the best. Further, we use these results to develop a lightweight no-reference model. We have also investigated users' experience of stereoscopic 3D video quality by performing the rating of two subjective assessment datasets, targeting in one dataset efficient transmission in the transmission error free case and error concealment in the other. Among other results, it was shown that, based on the same level of quality of experience, spatial down-sampling may lead to better bitrate efficiency while temporal down-sampling will be worse. When network impairments occur, traditional error 2D concealment methods need to be reinvestigated as they were outperformed switching to 2D presentation.

  • 36.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Wang, Kun
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Tavakoli, Samira
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Symptoms analysis of 3D TV viewing based on Simulator Sickness Questionnaires2017In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereoscopic 3D TV viewing puts different visual demands on the viewer compared to 2D TV viewing. Previous research has reported on viewers' fatigue and discomfort and other negative effects. This study is to investigate further how severe and what symptoms may arise from somewhat longish 3D TV viewing.

    The MPEG 3DV project is working on the next-generation video encoding standard and in this process, MPEG issued a call for proposal of encoding algorithms. To evaluate these algorithms a large scale subjective test was performed involving Laboratories all over the world[1, 2]. For the participating Labs, it was optional to administer a slightly modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before and after the test. One of the SSQ data sets described in this article is coming from this study. The SSQ data from the MPEG test is the largest data set in this study and also contains the longest viewing times. Along with the SSQ data from the MPEG test, we have also collected questionnaire data in three other 3D TV studies. We did two on the same 3D TV (passive film pattern retarder) as in the MPEG test, and one was using a projector system. As comparison SSQ data from a 2D video quality experiment is also presented. 

    This investigation shows a statistically significant increase in symptoms after viewing 3D TV primarily related to the visual or Oculomotor system. Surprisingly, 3D video viewing using projectors did not show this effect.

  • 37.
    Carlsson, August
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Åqvist, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lean´s påverkan på arbetsmiljön: En kvalitativ studie över effekterna på arbetsmiljö och hälsa vid införande av Lean2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many organizations that choose to introduce Lean production in their operations, as these are the concepts that have made the greatest progress in terms of efficiency programs. Since Lean focuses on maximizing customer benefit and minimizing waste of resources in an organisation's business processes, it is often forgotten that the introduction also affects the staff. The purpose of the study is to investigate what effects on the working environment and health that employees in the private sector experience after an introduction of Lean production as a strategy within their organization. The aim of the study has been to answer how a Lean introduction affects the working environment and health. The study is based on Almondy's latest improvement work on the shrinkage process. With the help of an interview study and a general literature study, we have examined what effects a Lean introduction has on the work environment and health. The interview study was conducted at Almondy AB, which is a food producer based in Gothenburg. Searching the literature is done in article databases with keywords linked to the area. By means of a comparative analysis method, the result has been analyzed. There are studies that show that the effects vary depending on the point of view they have had and in which industry the survey was conducted. This means that the effects get a large spread and therefore it is difficult to give a general picture of the effects. The results of the interview study show a positive effect on the work environment as they describe that the physical moments in the process have decreased. The results of the literature study show that more studies are needed to be able to demonstrate the general effects that Lean has on the working environment. But the literature study suggests that there are both negative and positive effects on the work environment and health when introducing Lean. The conclusion suggests that Almondy has had a positive impact on their physical work environment since there has been a decrease in deviation reports. If someone wants to study further in the field, Lean production should be investigated in several industries and examine all aspects of a Lean introduction linked work environment and health.

     

  • 38.
    Chalak, Arian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Effekter av lokalkännedom för larmbetjäning på SOS Alarm Sverige AB: En studie om övergången till nationell mottagning av 112 anrop och dess inverkan på samtalstiden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SOS Alarm has had an increasingly number of urgent calls to the number 112. With that come high demands on errand handling within the company. To measure and follow the effects of national reception of urgent 112 calls is therefore an important priority for 2016. The Purpose of this study is to investigate if the call time is longer with a national operator with relationship to a local operator. That is achievable by studying the mean value of the call time for local and national reception of calls. The goal is by statistical analysis and hypothesis testing study if the operator’s localization and distance to the caller effects call time. The result shows that there is a statistical significant difference between mean value of call time for national and local reception, with national reception being longer. The lognormal distribution is non-linear, therefore the difference between the call times before the transformation is not being analyzed. The conclusion of this study is that that local knowledge has a significant influence on call time, where mean call time is longer for national reception. Provided that there is no difference in call time between the call types, it is further discussed in closing discussions.

  • 39.
    Christopher, Axelsson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Fernando, Sanchez
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Benefits of cost engineering enabled by value stream mappings: Learnings from a die casting value chain with multiple suppliers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has always been an advantage to reduce and know the supplier´s manufacturing costs when a customer negotiates with the supplier. Now more than ever, when the competition is getting harder, it is necessary to use lean to remove all non-adding value to the final product and reduce all possible costs. This paper is about the benefits of cost engineering enabled by value stream mapping that die casting customers can obtain towards suppliers. The research shows how lean and value stream mapping can be used to identify and remove certain wastes at supplier’s manufacturing to reduce costs.  A multiple supplier production permits the costumer to identify wastes and find improvements in an efficient manner.   In addition, cost engineering can be enabled by value stream mapping to estimate costs in current and future production after the application of lean to obtain real fact of production costs. The cost estimation done using real information of production can be used to gain bargaining power, in contrast to actual strategies where the costumer negotiates price by comparing diverse suppliers with different production conditions. The proposed methodology combines value stream mapping and cost estimation to take advantage of the benefits of cost reduction and cost estimation to generate savings.

  • 40.
    Dibo, Alexandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Challenges when making extensive changes to software processes: A case study on a software development department at Scania CV AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations go through a variety of different change processes during their life time, and many of these are necessary for the organizations to maintain their competitiveness. However, a large part of change efforts never achieve their goals and about 70 percent of all change efforts are considered to be unsuccessful. A reason for the high percentage of failures is the inability to deal with the challenges that often arises in connection with the change process. In order for the change effort to be successful it is therefore crucial to be prepared and knowing how to identify and handle the challenges and resistance that may arise during the change process.

    The aim of the study has been to identify the challenges with extensive change efforts in software development organizations. Two extensive changes, (1) changing the software itself by making the software structure modular and (2) changing the software development process by adapting agile methods, at a software development department at Scania CV AB has been used as a case study.

    An overall fear and resistance towards extensive changes was identified. In addition, four main challenges were identified with the first change; difficulties with the software development process, lack of vision and communication from management, fear and uncertainty, and lack of resources and tools. Two challenges were identified with the second change; that it was time consuming and lack of resources and tools.

    The difficulties with the software development process showed that the major challenge with the modular software structure was maintaining it. However, the remaining challenges have previously been identified in several studies and could all be related to being causes of resistance.

    Also, a comparison between the two changes were made to identify similarities and differences between them. This was made to further understand if the difference between the changes could be related to the challenges. The comparison indicates that a change effort with a clear vision, good communication and management involvement is less likely to encounter challenges.

  • 41.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division ICT - Acreo.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB.
    View Position Impact on QoE in an Immersive Telepresence System for Remote Operation2019In: 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different viewing positions affect a user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and performance in an immersive telepresence system. A QoE experiment has been conducted with 27 participants to assess the general subjective experience and the performance of remotely operating a toy excavator. Two view positions have been tested, an overhead and a ground-level view, respectively, which encourage reliance on stereoscopic depth cues to different extents for accurate operation. Results demonstrate a significant difference between ground and overhead views: the ground view increased the perceived difficulty of the task, whereas the overhead view increased the perceived accomplishment as well as the objective performance of the task. The perceived helpfulness of the overhead view was also significant according to the participants.

  • 42.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Modeling Depth Uncertainty of Desynchronized Multi-Camera Systems2017In: 2017 International Conference on 3D Immersion (IC3D), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurately recording motion from multiple perspectives is relevant for recording and processing immersive multi-media and virtual reality content. However, synchronization errors between multiple cameras limit the precision of scene depth reconstruction and rendering. In order to quantify this limit, a relation between camera de-synchronization, camera parameters, and scene element motion has to be identified. In this paper, a parametric ray model describing depth uncertainty is derived and adapted for the pinhole camera model. A two-camera scenario is simulated to investigate the model behavior and how camera synchronization delay, scene element speed, and camera positions affect the system's depth uncertainty. Results reveal a linear relation between synchronization error, element speed, and depth uncertainty. View convergence is shown to affect mean depth uncertainty up to a factor of 10. Results also show that depth uncertainty must be assessed on the full set of camera rays instead of a central subset.

  • 43.
    Edmon, Jannika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Nya spelregler för skogsindustrin: En studie om möjligheter att gamifiera ett skogsbolags transportstyrningssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, companies need to constantly improve in order to be competitive and achieve good results. Gamification is a concept that is being implemented by more and more companies to increase motivation for employees as well as to engage them to work in a way that can help fulfil the goals of the company, which in the long run can lead to improved results. This study is based on a case with an international IT consulting company and their customer who works in the forest industry. The consulting company has developed an IT system for the customer, where timber car drivers are the system users among others. The purpose of the study has been to explore the possibilities to gamify the existing IT system in order to increase the system usage and encourage certain behaviors of the drivers that are aligned with the customer’s goals. Furthermore, the goal of the study has been to follow a gamification framework to develop suggestions on features in the system that can support these behaviors of the drivers. The framework has been used in combination with different methods for data collection such as interviews and open questionnaires. The use of the framework has resulted in four features that can be implemented in the system to support certain behaviors of the drivers. All features provide feedback to the user in different ways, following an action taken, to motivate continued use. Prior to implementation however, it is recommended that measures be taken to ensure that the gamification project is able to succeed.

  • 44.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Comparison Between the Coefficients of the Kubelka-Munk and DORT2002 Models2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives the exact translation and between the scattering and absorption coefficients of the Kubelka-Munk and DORT2002 models. It is shown that the conditions, under which this exact translation is valid, are perfectly diffuse light, perfectly isotropic scattering, and only two channels in the DORT2002 model. Reasons for non-validity in other cases are given. It is also shown that it is possible to use grammage instead of thickness for DORT2002, as has previously been shown for Kubelka-Munk. Since the s and k values of the Kubelka-Munk model are so well known and in such widespread use, a translation to and from the DORT2002 coefficients will make it easy to use the models together, to compare results, and to change from one model to the other.

  • 45.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    A Two-Phase Parameter Estimation Method for Radiative Transfer Problems in Paper Industry Applications2008In: Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, ISSN 1741-5977, E-ISSN 1741-5985, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 927-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-phase method for estimation of the scattering and absorption coefficients and the asymmetry factor (sigma_s, sigma_a and g) in the radiative transfer problem is presented. The first phase parameterizes sigma_s and sigma_a through g via a simplified model and performs - at a relatively low cost - a scalaroptimization over g. It is shown that this gives such a good starting point that the second phase can be accurately performed by a simple Gauss-Newton method. It is also shown that a part of the first phase can be used on its own when only sigma_s and sigma_a are wanted, and it is noted that this gives higheraccuracy than the commonly used Kubelka-Munk method when using standardized paper industry reflectance factor measurements.The parameter estimation problem is shown to be non-trivial and ill-conditioned, and its character is analyzed. It is discussed that standard optimization methods are so sensitive to the choice ofstarting point for this problem that it is hard to find a starting point that gives convergence at all. The new two-phase method is illustrated by application to relevant paper industry problems, and efficiency and sensitivity measures are given.

  • 46.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Efficient Reflectance Calculations and Parameter Estimation Methods for Radiative Transfer Problems in Paper Industry Applications2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Very fast code for standardized d/0° reflectance calculations and an efficient Gauss-Newton parameter estimation method are introduced into the radiative transfer based light scattering simulation tool DORT2002, which makes it competitive in paper industry applications. Outstanding problems in general radiative transfer theory are addressed in a paper industry application. The parameter estimation problem is given a least-squares formulation, different solution methods are evaluated, some characteristics of the problem are found, and the sensitivity of the solution is analyzed. Tests show that Gauss-Newton type methods are most suitable for the studied parameter estimation problem; superior performance was shown with respect to both robustness and speed. The parameter estimation problem is shown to be non-trivial and sometimes ill-conditioned. The type of analyses made in this work give good insight in the character of the problem, and similar studies will be valuable in the future design of measurements and parameter estimation methods when using angle-resolved measurements to estimate also the asymmetry factor.

  • 47.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Examination of the Revised Kubelka-Munk Theory: Considerations of Modeling Strategies2007In: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 548-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The revised Kubelka-Munk theory is examined theoretically and experimentally. Systems of dyed paper sheets are simulated, and the results are compared with other models. The results show that the revised Kubelka-Munk model yields significant errors in predicted dye-paper mixture reflectances, and is not self-consistent. The absorption is noticeably overestimated. Theoretical arguments show that properties in the revised Kubelka-Munk theory are inadequately derived. The main conclusion is that the revised Kubelka-Munk theory is wrong in the inclusion of the so-called scattering-induced-path-variation factor. Consequently, the theory should not be used for light scattering calculations. Instead, the original Kubelka-Munk theory should be used where its accuracy is sufficient, and a radiative transfer tool of higher resolution should be used where higher accuracy is needed.

  • 48.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ljus idé kastar nytt ljus på ljusspridning i papper och tryck: Ekmandagarna, Stockholm2007Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 49.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Next Generation Simulation Tools for Optical Properties in Paper and Print2008In: International Conference Modeling and Simulation in the Pulp and Paper Industry, 2008, p. 156-169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of optical properties in paper and print are determined by measuring the light reflected from an illuminated paper surface. These measurements are interpreted through a model, and the one that has been in use in the paper industry since the 1930’s (Kubelka-Munk) is deficient in some respects. This paper presents a selection of issues that will be in focus for future optical modeling, and shows what the next generation simulation tools may look like.

    The anisotropy of the scattered light becomes increasingly important, and this will open up a large area of research that will both explain a number of outstanding issues and open for a new kind of material property design. Physically objective material parameters will be introduced instead of phenomenological model parameters. The wish to model the real structure of paper and printed paper products instead of homogenized approximations will drive the development of Monte Carlo models with greater explanative power, which in turn will give an increased need for characterization methods. Differences in optical standards between the paper and graphic arts industries will force harmonization or models for data exchange. The treatment of UV and fluorescence will be included in both light scattering simulation tools and color management tools, and there will be attempts of merging these two types of tools, which will open for another view on color reproduction. The directions of development outlined above are exemplified with recent results.

  • 50.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Simulation and modeling of light scattering in paper and print applications2010In: Light Scattering Reviews, vol 5, Part 3 / [ed] Kokhanovsky, A., Springer, 2010, p. 451-475Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing and applying models to light scattering problems, things usually turn very mathematical. This is all in good order, but it may also be a hindrance for a broader audience to gain insight into the overall issues. This chapter aims at discussing a range of light scattering simulation and modeling issues with a minimum of mathematics involved, and with the specific perspective of paper and printing industry applications. Shorter sections of mathematical content are included, but the mathematically interested reader is here pointed to selected references and other chapters in this volume.

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