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  • 1. Alkner, B.A
    et al.
    Berg, H.E
    Kozlovskaya, I
    Sayenko, D
    Tesch, P.A
    Effects of strength training, using a gravity-independent exercise system, performed during 110 days of simulated space station confinement2003In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 90, no 1-2, 44-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Alkner, B.A
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Berg, H.E
    Quadriceps EMG/force relationship in knee extension and leg press2000In: Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Vol. 32, no 2, 459-463 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Alkner, Björn A
    et al.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle size and function following 90 days of bed rest with or without resistance exercise.2004In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 93, no 3, 294-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle atrophy and strength loss induced by short-term simulated spaceflight are offset or attenuated by resistance exercise (RE). This study compared the effects of plantar flexor and knee extensor RE on muscle size and function in 17 healthy men (aged 26–41years) subjected to 90 days 6 head-down-tilt bed rest with (BRE; n=8) or without (BR; n=9) RE. The RE program consisted of coupled maximal concentric and eccentric actions in the supine squat (4 sets of 7 repetitions) and calf press (4·14) every third day employing a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer (FW). Prior to, and following bed rest, muscle volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Similarly, muscle strength and power and surface lectromyographic (EMG) activity were determined during maximal actions using FW or isokinetic dynamometry. In BR, knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle volume decreased (P<0.05) 18% and 29%, respectively. Torque or force and power decreased (P<0.05) 31–60% (knee extension) and 37–56% (plantar flexion) while knee extensor and plantar flexor EMG activity decreased 31–38% and 28–35%, respectively following BR. Muscle atrophy in BRE was prevented (P>0.05; knee extensors) or attenuated ()15%; plantar flexors). BRE maintained task-specific force, power and EMG activity. The decrease in non-task-specific torque was less (P<0.05) than in BR. The present data imply that the triceps surae and quadriceps muscles show different responsiveness to long-term bed rest with or without resistance exercise. The results also suggest that designing in-flight resistance exercise protocols for space travellers is complex and must extend beyond preserving

  • 4. Alkner, Björn
    et al.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Efficacy of a gravity-independent resistance exercise device as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy during 29-day bed rest.2004In: Acta Physioloogica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, Vol. 181, no 3, 345-357 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined changes in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle volume during 29 days of bed rest with or without resistance exercise using a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer. METHODS: Seventeen men (26-41 years) were subjected to 29 days of bed rest with (n = 8) or without (n = 9) resistance exercise; Supine Squat (SS) and Calf Press (CP) performed every third day. Quadriceps and triceps surae muscle volume was determined before and after bed rest and force and power were measured during training. Prior to these interventions, reproducibility of this device for training and testing was assessed in 23 subjects who performed bilateral maximal concentric, eccentric and isometric (MVC) knee extensions and plantar flexions over repeated sessions with simultaneous measurements of force, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity. RESULTS: Quadriceps and triceps surae muscle volume decreased (P < 0.05) 10 and 16%, respectively, after 29 days bed rest. Exercise maintained quadriceps volume and mitigated triceps surae atrophy. Thus, either muscle showed different response across subject groups (P < 0.05). Force and power output during training were either maintained (P > 0.05) or increased (P < 0.05). EMG amplitude in the training mode was similar (SS; P > 0.05) or greater (CP; P < 0.05) compared with that elicited during MVC. Peak force and power test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) ranged 5-6% and 7-8% for SS and CP, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that this resistance exercise paradigm counteracts quadriceps and abates the more substantial triceps surae muscle atrophy in bedridden subjects, and therefore should be an important asset to space travellers.

  • 5. Apple, F.S
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    CK and LD isozymes in human single muscle fibers in trained athletes1989In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 66, no 6, 2717-2720 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Balldin, U.I
    et al.
    Myhre, P.A
    Tesch, P.A
    Wilhelmsen, U
    Andersen, H.T
    Isometric abdominal muscle training and G-tolerance1985In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, Vol. 56, no 2, 120-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Bar-Or, O
    et al.
    Dotan, R
    Inbar, O
    Rothstein, A
    Karlsson, J
    Tesch, P.A
    Anaerobic capacity in muscle fiber type distribution in man1980In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, Vol. 1, no 2, 89-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Berggren, G
    Tesch, P.A
    Dynamic neck strength training effect on pain and function1994In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 75, no 6, 661-665 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Dudley, G.A
    Hather, B.M
    Tesch, P.A
    Work capacity and morphologic characteristics of the human quadriceps muscle in response to unloading1993In: Clinical Physiology, ISSN 0144-5979, Vol. 13, no 4, 337-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Dudley, G.A
    Häggmark, T
    Ohlsén, H
    Tesch, P.A
    Effects of lower limb unloading on skeletal muscle mass and function in humans1991In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 70, no 4, 1882-1885 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Eiken, O
    Tesch, P.A
    Involvment of eccentric muscle actions in gaint slalom racing1995In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 27, no 12, 1666-1670 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Larsson, L.L
    Tesch, P.A
    Lower limb skeletal muscle function after 6 wk of bed rest1997In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 82, no 1, 182-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Tedner, B
    Tesch, P.A
    Changes in lower limb muscle cross-sectional area and tissue fluid volume after transition from standing to supine1993In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 148, no 4, 379-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    A gravity-independent ergometer to be used for resistance training in space1994In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, Vol. 65, no 8, 752-756 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Changes in muscle function in response to 10 days of lower limb unloading in humans1996In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 157, no 1, 63-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Designing methods for musculoskeletal conditioning in weightlessness1992In: The Physiologist, ISSN 0031-9376, Vol. 35, 96-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Berg, H.E
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Force and power characteristics of a resistive exercise device for use in space1998In: Acta Astronautica, ISSN 0094-5765, Vol. 42, 219-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Callister, R
    et al.
    Callister, R.J
    Staron, R.S
    Fleck, S.J
    Tesch, P.A
    Dudley, G.A
    Physiological characteristics of elite judo athletes1991In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, Vol. 12, no 2, 196-203 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Carrithers, J
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Trieschmann, J.J
    Ekberg, A
    Trappe, T.A
    Skeletal muscle protein content following 5 weeks of unloading with or without resistance exercise countermeasures.2002In: Journal of gravitational physiology, Vol. 9, no 1, 155-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Colliander, E.B
    et al.
    Dudley, G.A
    Tesch, P.A
    Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal , concentric contractions1988In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 58, 81-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Colliander, E.B
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Bilateral eccentric and concentric torque at quadriceps and hamstrings muscles in females and males1989In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 59, no 3, 227-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Colliander, E.B
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Blood pressure in resistance trained athletes1988In: Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, ISSN 0833-1235, Vol. 13, no 1, 31-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Colliander, E.B
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Effects of detraining following short term resistance training on eccentric and concentric muscle strength1992In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 144, no 1, 23-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Colliander, E.B
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Effects of eccentric and concentric muscle actions in resistance training1990In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 140, no 1, 31-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Colliander, E.B
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Responses to eccentric and concentric resistance training in females and males1990In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 141, no 2, 149-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Cotter, Joshua A.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Hoang, Theresa
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Yu, Alvin
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Tesch, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Caiozzo, Vincent J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Adams, Gregory R.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Counteracting Decrements in Muscle Function and Aerobic Capacity During Unloading Utilizing a Gravity Independent Device2012In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, no Suppl 2, 110-110 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Cotter, Joshua Allan
    et al.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Haddad, Fadia
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Yu, Alvin M.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Hoang, Theresa N.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Kreitenberg, Arthur
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Baker, Michael J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Tesch, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Baldwin, Kenneth M.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Caiozzo, Vincent J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Adams, Gregory R.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA USA .
    Influence of 10 days of unilateral lower limb suspension and combined exercise training on human vastus lateralis and soleus muscles2012In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28. Dudley, G.A
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Harris, R.T
    Golden, C
    Buchanan, P
    Influence of eccentric actions on the metabolic cost of resistance exercise1991In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, Vol. 62, no 7, 678-682 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Dudley, G.A
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Miller, B.J
    Buchanan, P
    Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training1991In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, Vol. 62, no 6, 543-550 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Eiken, O
    et al.
    Hesser, C.M
    Thorsson, A
    Lind, F
    Tesch, P.A
    Human skeletal muscle function and metabolism during intense exercise at high oxygen and nitrogen pressures1987In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 63, no 2, 571-575 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Eiken, O
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Effects of acute hyperoxia and hypoxia on dynamic and sustained static performance of the human quadriceps muscle1984In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 122, no 4, 629-633 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Eiken, O
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Mekjavic, I.B
    Effect of nitrus oxide on human skeletal muscle function1996In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 40, no 4, 486-488 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Enocson, A. G
    et al.
    Berg, H. E.
    Vargas, A. R.
    Jenner, G
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Signal intensity of MR-images of thigh muscles following acute open- and closed chain kinetic knee extensor exercise – index of muscle use2005In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 94, no 4, 357-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise-induced shifts in signal intensity (SI) of magnetic resonance (MR) images were examined to assess indirectly muscle use in closed- and open-chain knee extensor exercises. Eight men performed five sets of 8–12 repetitions in the leg press (LP) and the seated knee extension (KE) exercises at 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the 5·10 repetition maximum (RM) load. Prior to exercise and after each load setting, images of the thigh were obtained. The increase in SI (D SI) of the quadriceps at 100% load was greater (P<0.05) after KE (32.1±9.0%) than after LP (21.9±9.2%). Regardless of load, the four individual muscles of the quadriceps showed similar changes in SI after LP. The three vastii muscles showed comparable increases in SI after KE. M. rectus femoris showed greater (P<0.05) D SI than the vastii muscles at 100%. Neither exercise produced increase in SI of mm. semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis or biceps femoris. Mm. adductor magnus and longus showed increased (13.3±6.5%; P<0.05) SI after LP, but not after KE, at 100% load. The present data also infer greater involvement of the quadriceps muscle in the open-chain knee extension than in the closedchain leg press exercise. The results of the current investigation also indicate similar over-all use among the three vastii muscles in LP and KE, but ifferential m. rectus femoris use between the two exercises. This report extends the merits of the MR imaging technique as an aid to study individual muscle involvement in a particular exercise task.

  • 34. Essén-Gustavsson, B
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Glycogen and triglyceride utilization in relation to muscle metabolic characteristics in men performing heavy resistance exercise1990In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 61, 5-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, R.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Tommy R.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acute molecular responses in untrained and trained muscle subjected to aerobic and resistance exercise training versus resistance training alone2013In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 209, no 4, 283-294 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThis study assessed and compared acute muscle molecular responses before and after 5-week training, employing either aerobic (AE) and resistance exercise (RE) or RE only. MethodsTen men performed one-legged RE, while the contralateral limb performed AE followed by RE 6h later (AE+RE). Before (untrained) and after (trained) the intervention, acute bouts of RE were performed with or without preceding AE. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of each leg pre- and 3h post-RE to determine mRNA levels of VEGF, PGC-1, MuRF-1, atrogin-1, myostatin and phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, rpS6 and eEF2. ResultsPGC-1 and VEGF expression increased (P<0.05) after acute RE in the untrained, but not the trained state. These markers showed greater response after AE+RE than RE in either condition. Myostatin was lower after AE+RE than RE, both before and after training. AE+RE showed higher MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 expression than RE in the untrained, not the trained state. Exercise increased (P<0.05) p70S6K phosphorylation both before and after training, yet this increase tended to be more prominent for AE+RE than RE before training. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was greater in trained muscle. Changes in these markers did not correlate with exercise-induced alterations in strength or muscle size. ConclusionConcurrent exercise in untrained skeletal muscle prompts global molecular responses consistent with resulting whole muscle adaptations. Yet, training blunts the more robust anabolic response shown after AE+RE compared with RE. This study challenges the concept that single molecular markers could predict training-induced changes in muscle size or strength.

  • 36.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Tommy R.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gene Expression After Acute Resistance Exercise is Modified by Aerobic Exercise and Chronic Training2013In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 45, no 5, 528-528 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissemark, Catarina
    Östersund Rehabctr Remonthagen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Aslund, Birgitta
    Östersund Rehabctr Remonthagen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sojka, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Östersund Rehabctr Remonthagen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Chronic stroke patients show early and robust improvements in muscle and functional performance in response to eccentric-overload flywheel resistance training: a pilot study2014In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 11, Art. no. 150- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Resistance exercise comprising eccentric (ECC) muscle actions enhances muscle strength and function to aid stroke patients in conducting daily tasks. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel ECC-overload flywheel resistance exercise paradigm to induce muscle and functional performance adaptations in chronic stroke patients. Methods: Twelve patients (similar to 8 years after stroke onset) performed 4 sets of 7 coupled concentric (CON) and ECC actions using the affected limb on a flywheel leg press (LP) device twice weekly for 8 weeks. Maximal CON and ECC isokinetic torque at 30, 60 and 90 degrees/s, isometric knee extension and LP force, and CON and ECC peak power in LP were measured before and after training. Balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait (6-Min Walk test, 6MWT; Timed-Up-and-Go, TUG), functional performance (30-s Chair-Stand Test, 30CST), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale) and perceived participation (Stroke Impact Scale, SIS) were also determined. Results: CON and ECC peak power increased in both the trained affected (34 and 44%; P < 0.01), and the untrained, non-affected leg (25 and 34%; P < 0.02). Power gains were greater (P = 0.008) for ECC than CON actions. ECC isokinetic torque at 60 and 90 degrees/s increased in the affected leg (P < 0.04). The increase in isometric LP force for the trained, affected leg across tests ranged 10-20% (P < 0.05). BBS (P = 0.004), TUG (P = 0.018), 30CST (P = 0.024) and SIS (P = 0.058) scores improved after training. 6MWT and spasticity remained unchanged. Conclusions: This novel, short-term ECC-overload flywheel RE training regime emerges as a valid, safe and viable method to improve muscle function, balance, gait and functional performance in men and women suffering from chronic stroke.

  • 38.
    Fluck, Martin
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Balgrist Univ Hosp, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Li, Ruowei
    Manchester Metropolitan Univ, Inst Biomed Res Human Movement & Hlth, Manchester M15 6BH, Lancs, England.
    Valdivieso, Paola
    Univ Zurich, Balgrist Univ Hosp, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Linnehan, Richard M.
    Johnson Space Ctr, Natl Aeronaut & Space Adm, Houston, TX USA.
    Castells, Josiane
    Univ St Etienne, Fac Med, EA4338, Lab Physiol Exercice, St Etienne, France.
    Tesch, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Clin Physiol Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Early Changes in Costameric and Mitochondrial Protein Expression with Unloading Are Muscle Specific2014In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, 519310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesised that load-sensitive expression of costameric proteins, which hold the sarcomere in place and position the mitochondria, contributes to the early adaptations of antigravity muscle to unloading and would depend on muscle fibre composition and chymotrypsin activity of the proteasome. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of eight men before and after 3 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and subjected to fibre typing and measures for costameric (FAK and FRNK), mitochondrial (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, UCP3, and ATP5A1), and MHCI protein and RNA content. Mean cross-sectional area (MCSA) of types I and II muscle fibres in VL and type I fibres in SOL demonstrated a trend for a reduction after ULLS (0.05 <= P < 0.10). FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine 397 showed a 20% reduction in VL muscle (P = 0.029). SOL muscle demonstrated a specific reduction in UCP3 content (-23%; P = 0.012). Muscle-specific effects of ULLS were identified for linear relationships between measured proteins, chymotrypsin activity and fibre MCSA. The molecular modifications in costamere turnover and energy homoeostasis identify that aspects of atrophy and fibre transformation are detectable at the protein level in weight-bearing muscles within 3 days of unloading.

  • 39. Fluckey, James D
    et al.
    Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E
    Knox, Micheal
    Gaddy, Dana
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Peterson, Charlotte A
    Insulin facilitation of muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise in hindlimb suspended rats is independent of a rapamycin-sensitive pathway2004In: American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, Vol. 287, no 6, E1070-E1075 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hindlimb suspension (HS) results in rapid losses of muscle mass, which may in part be explained by attenuated rates of protein synthesis. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates protein synthesis and has been implicated as a potential mediator of the muscle mass decrement with HS. This study examined the effect of resistance exercise, a muscle hypertrophy stimulant, on rates of protein synthesis after 4 days of HS in mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. Flywheel resistance exercise (2 sets x 25 repetitions) was conducted on days 2 and 4 of HS (HSRE). Sixteen hours after the last exercise bout, soleus muscles were assessed for in vitro rates of protein synthesis, with and without insulin (signaling agonist) and/or rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor). Results demonstrated that soleus mass was reduced (P < 0.05) with HS, but this loss of mass was not observed (P > 0.05) with HSRE. Muscle protein synthesis was diminished (P < 0.05) with HS, with or without insulin. HSRE also had reduced rates of synthesis without insulin; however, insulin administration yielded higher (P < 0.05) rates in HSRE compared with HS or control. Rapamycin diminished protein synthesis in all groups (P < 0.05), but insulin rescued synthesis rates in HS and HSRE to levels similar to insulin alone for each group, suggesting that alternate signaling pathways develop to increase protein synthesis with HS. These results demonstrate that the capacity for an augmented anabolic response to resistance exercise is maintained after 4 days of HS and is independent of a rapamycin-sensitive pathway.

  • 40. Fluckey, James D.
    et al.
    Knox, Micheal
    Smith, Latasha
    Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.
    Gaddy, Dana
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Peterson, Charlotte A.
    Insulin-facilitated increase of muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise involves a MAP kinase pathway.2006In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, Vol. 290, no 6, E1205-E1211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have implicated the mTOR-signaling pathway as a primary component for muscle growth in mammals. The purpose of this investigation was to examine signaling pathways for muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6 mo old) were assigned to either resistance exercise or control groups. Resistance exercise was accomplished in operantly conditioned animals using a specially designed flywheel apparatus. Rats performed two sessions of resistance exercise, separated by 48 h, each consisting of 2 sets of 25 repetitions. Sixteen hours after the second session, animals were killed, and soleus muscles were examined for rates of protein synthesis with and without insulin and/or rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) and/or PD-098059 (PD; MEK kinase inhibitor). Results of this study demonstrated that rates of synthesis were higher (P 0.05) with insulin after exercise compared with without insulin, or to control muscles, regardless of insulin. Rapamycin lowered (P 0.05) rates of synthesis in controls, with or without insulin, and after exercise without insulin. However, insulin was able to overcome the inhibition of rapamycin after exercise (P 0.05). PD had no effect on protein synthesis in control rats, but the addition of PD to exercised muscle resulted in lower (P 0.05) rates of synthesis, and this inhibition was not rescued by insulin. Western blot analyses demonstrated that the inhibitors used in the present study were selective and effective for preventing activation of specific signaling proteins. Together, these results suggest that the insulin-facilitated increase of muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise requires multiple signaling pathways.

  • 41. Fluckey, J.D
    et al.
    Dupont-Versteegden, E
    Montague, D.C
    Knox, M
    Tesch, P.A
    Peterson, C.A
    Gaddy-Kurten, D
    A rat resistance exercise regimen attenuates losses of musculoskeletal mass during hindlimb suspension2002In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 176, no 4, 293-300 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Gallagher, P
    et al.
    Trappe, S
    Harber, M
    Creer, A
    Mazzetti, S
    Trappe, T. A.
    Alkner, B. A.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Effects of 84-days of bedrest and resistance training on single muscle fibre myosin heavy chain distribution in human vastus lateralis and soleus muscles2005In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, Vol. 185, no 1, 61-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation determined the effects of 84 days of bedrest on the composition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) in single skeletal muscle fibres with and without a resistance-training countermeasure programme. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were obtained from the m. vastus lateralis (VL) and m. soleus (SOL) before and after 84 days of bedrest. While control (BR) subjects (VL n = 9; SOL n = 3) refrained from exercise, BRE subjects (VL n = 8; SOL n = 3) performed knee extensor and plantar flexor resistance exercise every third day. Approximately 110 fibres per sample were analysed for MHC composition using SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: BR-VL had 16 and 14% decreases (P < 0.05) in MHC I and IIa fibres, respectively. There were 10% increases (P < 0.05) in MHC I/IIa, IIa/IIx, I/IIa/IIx, and a approximately 30% increase (P < 0.05) in total hybrid fibres. BRE-VL showed a 15% reduction (P < 0.05) in MHC I fibres, no change in MHC IIa fibres, and a 13% increase (P < 0.05) in total hybrids. BR-SOL had a 19% decrease (P < 0.05) in MHC I fibres with a 22% increase in total hybrids. BRE-SOL showed no change in MHC composition across all fibre types. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the exercise countermeasures programme prevented MHC shifts in the SOL and mitigated MHC shifts in the VL. Furthermore, in the VL it appears that the resistance training programme employed in this investigation during bedrest, emphasized the use of MHC IIa phenotype muscle fibres.

  • 43. Gamrin, L
    et al.
    Berg, H.E
    Essén, P
    Tesch, P.A
    Hultman, E
    Garlick, P.J
    McNurlan, M.A
    Wernerman, J
    The effect of unloading on protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle1998In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 163, no 4, 369-377 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Gustafsson, T.
    et al.
    Osterlund, T.
    Flanagan, J. N.
    von Walden, F.
    Trappe, T. A.
    Linnehan, R. M.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Effects of 3 days unloading on molecular regulators of muscle size in humans2010In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 109, no 3, 721-727 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gustafsson T, Osterlund T, Flanagan JN, von Walden F, Trappe TA, Linnehan RM, Tesch PA. Effects of 3 days unloading on molecular regulators of muscle size in humans. J Appl Physiol 109: 721-727, 2010. First published June 10, 2010; doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00110.2009.-Changes in skeletal muscle mass are controlled by mechanisms that dictate protein synthesis or degradation. The current human study explored whether changes in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt1, p38, myostatin, and mRNA expression of markers of protein degradation and synthesis occur soon after withdrawal of weight bearing. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) and soleus muscle (Sol) were obtained from eight healthy men before and following 3 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Akt1, Forkhead box class O (FOXO)-1A, FOXO-3A, p38, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation and protein levels and myostatin protein level were analyzed by Western blot. Levels of mRNA of IGF1, FOXO-1A, FOXO-3A, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, caspase-3, calpain-2, calpain-3, 4E-BP1, and myostatin were measured using real-time PCR. The amounts of phosphorylated Akt1, FOXO-1A, FOXO-3A, and p38 were unaltered (P > 0.05) after ULLS. Similarly, mRNA levels of IGF1, FOXO-1A, FOXO-3A, caspase-3, calpain-2, and calpain-3 showed no changes (P > 0.05). The mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, as well as the mRNA and protein phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, increased (P < 0.05) in VL but not in Sol. Both muscles showed increased (P < 0.05) myostatin mRNA and protein following ULLS. These results suggest that pathways other than PI3K-Akt stimulate atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression within 3 days of ULLS. Alternatively, transient changes in these pathways occurred in the early phase of ULLS. The increased myostatin mRNA and protein expression also indicate that multiple processes are involved in the early phase of muscle wasting. Further, the reported difference in gene expression pattern across muscles suggests that mechanisms regulating protein content in human skeletal muscle are influenced by phenotype and/or function.

  • 45. Haddad, F
    et al.
    Baldewin, K. M.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pretranslational markers of contractile protein expression in human skeletal muscle: Effect of limb unloading plus resistance exercise.2004In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, Vol. 98, no 1, 46-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Previously, it has been shown that the human ground-based model consisting of unilateral limb suspension (ULLS) induces atrophy and reduced strength of the affected quadriceps muscle group. Resistance exercise (RE) involving concentric-eccentric actions, in the face of ULLS, is effective in ameliorating these deficits. The goal of the present study was to determine whether alterations in contractile protein gene expression, e.g., myosin heavy chain and actin, as studied at the pretranslational level, provide molecular markers concerning the deficits that occur in muscle mass/volume during ULLS, as well as its maintenance in response to ULLS plus RE. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of 31 middle-aged men and women before and after 5 wk of ULLS, ULLS plus RE, or RE only. The RE paradigm consisted of 12 sessions of 4 sets of 7 concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Our findings show that there were net deficits in total RNA, total mRNA, and actin and myosin heavy chain mRNA levels of expression after ULLS (P < 0.05), whereas these alterations were blunted in the two groups receiving RE. Additional observations involving IGF-I and its associated receptor and binding proteins suggest that RE postures the skeletal muscle for signaling processes that favor a greater anabolic state relative to that observed in the ULLS group. Collectively, these findings suggest that molecular markers of contractile protein gene expression serve as useful subcellular indicators for ascertaining the underlying mechanisms regulating alterations in muscle mass in human subjects in response to altered loading states.

  • 46. Hather, B.M
    et al.
    Adams, G.A
    Tesch, P.A
    Dudley, G.A
    Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspensions in humans1992In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 72, no 4, 1493-1498 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Hather, B.M
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Buchanan, P
    Dudley, G.A
    Influence of eccentric actions on skeletal muscle adaptations to resistance training1991In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 143, no 2, 177-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Haus, Jacob M
    et al.
    Carrithers, John A
    Carroll, Chad C
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Trappe, Todd A
    Contractile and connective tissue protein content of human skeletal muscle:: effects of 35 and 90 days of simulated microgravity and exercise countermeasures.2007In: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, ISSN 0363-6119, Vol. 293 , no 4, 1722-1727 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effects of 35 and 90 days of simulated microgravity with or without resistance-exercise (RE) countermeasures on the content of the general skeletal muscle protein fractions (mixed, sarcoplasmic, and myofibrillar) and specific proteins that are critical for muscle function (myosin, actin, and collagen). Subjects from two studies, using either unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) or bed rest (BR), comprised four separate groups: 35 days ULLS (n =11), 35 days ULLS+RE (n = 10), 90 days BR (n = 9), and 90 days BR+RE (n = 8). RE consisted of four sets of seven maximal concentric and eccentric repetitions of the quadriceps femoris muscles that were performed 2 or 3 times per week. Pre- and post-simulated weightlessness muscle biopsies were analyzed from the vastus lateralis of all groups and the soleus of the 35-day ULLS and 90-day BR groups. The general protein fractions and the specific proteins myosin, actin, and collagen of the vastus lateralis were unchanged (P > 0.05) in both control and countermeasures groups over 35 and 90 days, despite large changes in quadriceps femoris muscle volume (35 days ULLS: -9%, 35 days ULLS+RE: +8%; and 90 days BR: -18%, 90 days BR+RE: -1%). The soleus demonstrated a decrease in mixed (35 days ULLS: -12%, P = 0.0001; 90 days BR: -12%, P = 0.004) and myofibrillar (35 days ULLS: -12%, P = 0.009; 90 days BR: -8%, P = 0.04) protein, along with large changes in triceps surae muscle volume (35 days ULLS: -11%; 90 days BR: -29%). Despite the loss of quadriceps femoris muscle volume or preservation with RE countermeasures during simulated microgravity, the quadriceps femoris muscles are able to maintain the concentrations of the general protein pools and the main contractile and connective tissue elements. Soleus muscle protein composition appears to be disproportionately altered during long-duration simulated weightlessness.

  • 49. Häkkinen, K
    et al.
    Komi, P.V
    Tesch, P.A
    Effect of combined concentric and eccentric strength training and detraining on force-time, muscle fiber and metabolic characteristics of leg extensor muscles1981In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 3, 50-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Inbar, O
    et al.
    Kaiser, P
    Tesch, P.A
    Relationships between leg muscle fiber type distribution and leg exercise performance1981In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, Vol. 2, no 3, 154-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 147
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