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  • 1.
    Pettersson, Robert
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Time and space in event behaviour: Tracking visitors by GPS2011In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 13, no 1, 1-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on tourist mobility in combination with the tourists' experiences has been rare to date. Previous studies focusing on the activities of tourists in time and space have most often used the method of time-space diaries. However, an important flaw in this method is that these recordings depend on the respondents' personal observations and notes. This disadvantage is avoided by using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices, which record their carriers' movements directly, thus replacing personal notes. This new method was used to study the time-space movements of visitors during the Biathlon World Championships 2008 in Östersund, Sweden. In addition to the GPS devices, questionnaires were used to study the tourists' movements and experiences. In trying to combine methods to support the event analysis, the aim of the study is to evaluate the practicability of GPS devices during an out-door sports event. Movements and experiences in time and space are studied. In order to answer questions regarding the visitors' movements on a macro-level, these methods were combined with bird's-eye view photographs taken of the race arena every minute. The overall results of this study thereby contribute to our understanding of time space movements. The questionnaires offer comprehensive background information about the participants and their experiences, although some modifications will have to be made in future studies. The information provided by the photographs substantially complements the itineraries collected by means of GPS. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  • 2.
    Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Emotions in motion: Tourists' experiences in time and space2012In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 15, no 6, 505-523 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology enables the study of tourists’ activities and movement patterns in real time. But what does this information tell us about tourists’ subjective experiences? The present paper accounts for the results from four case studies: two event studies and two destination studies. Two of these took place in the wintertime, and two in the summertime. Visitors carried a GPS device for one day, after which they answered a brief questionnaire. A total of 241 visitors participated in the study. Based on cluster analyses of distance measures calculated from the GPS data, several movement patterns were revealed. Three of these, labelled Main attraction visitors, Wanderers, and Specialists, emerged in all four cases. The reported experiences differed between the clusters, especially concerning negative experiences. In the destination studies, the clusters differed with regard to what was considered a negative experience, while in the event studies, the clusters differed with regard to how the tourists responded emotionally to their experiences. The authors conclude that GPS technology is a promising tool for tourism research but that, if one is to gain a full understanding of tourists’ experiences and mobility, it ought to be combined with other methods.

  • 3.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    A spatial approach on tourists’ travel routes in Sweden2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund

    Destinationer och deras attraktioner har varit föremål för omfattande forskning. Detta gäller

    emellertid inte de olika förfl yttningar som görs under en resa. Förfl yttningarna görs inte bara

    till och från en destination, utan också på själva destinationen. Under de sista åren har så kalllade

    multidestinationsresor blivit allt populärare, där turister reser från en plats till en annan

    längs en resrutt.

    I denna studie har turisters olika förfl yttningar i Sverige undersökts. Som målgrupp har tyska

    bilturister valts, som utgör en av de viktigaste inkommande besöksgrupperna när det gäller

    fl erdagsresor. I studien ingår både turister som gör en rundresa genom Sverige, och de som

    bor på en och samma plats och gör dagsutfl ykter därifrån.

    Syfte och metod

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur typiska resrutter ser ut och vilka faktorer som påverkar

    dessa. Vidare analyseras turisternas resvana i Sverige samt resans längd. Även frågan om

    det fi nns återkommande resmönster, som sker oberoende av attraktionerna, belyses.

    Data har samlats in med hjälp av resdagböcker som 70-talet tyska bilturister skrev under sin

    resa genom Sverige. Varje dag skrev de ned hur långt de körde, var och varför de stannade

    och vilka aktiviteter de deltog i. Dessutom ritade de upp sin dagliga resrutt på en karta. Datainsamlingen

    gjordes under sommaren 2004.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att de fl esta turisterna reser enligt en viss rytm, oberoende av attraktioner som

    besöks. Antalet tidigare besök i Sverige påverkar inte den individuella rytmen. Däremot visar

    det sig att ett större antal tidigare besök i Sverige ökar benägenheten att resa längre norrut.

    Tiden som turisten spenderar i Sverige är en viktig faktor för dagliga förfl yttning. Turister

    som är i Sverige kortare tid reser inte kortare total körsträcka, utan kompenserar en kortare

    vistelsetid med längre dagliga körsträckor.

  • 4.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Bilden av Sverige i tyska guideböcker2005Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Die Hansestadt Bremen als Ziel schwedischer Städtetouristen2003In: Norden, ISSN 0029-1226, no 15, 33-43 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    German tourists and their use of guidebooks in Sweden2004Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Germans' tourist behaviour in Sweden2008In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 56, no 2, 143-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism research has identified a number of factors that influence tourist behaviour, among them socio-demographic characteristics and the number of previous visits. This article argues that also tourists' spatial mobility, the time period within the holiday, the characteristics of the places visited, and the access to information act as important determinants for the level and choice of tourist activities. Focus in this analysis is lying on German car tourists in Sweden. For this study, a combination of methodologies is employed. This includes travel diaries on access to information as well as on type, place and length of activities, which were written by the respondents during their holiday in Sweden, and personal interviews, which were carried out after the respondents had returned home. Tourist behaviour was found to be similar to the respondents' behaviour at home, and place in combination with a limited time period and the absence of externally imposed routines was a major factor for this. In general, tourists took part in an activity for a relatively short period time before moving on. The level of spatial mobility was found to positively influence the level of tourist activity, and was to a great part responsible for the succession of activities. The time period within the holiday did not specifically influence activities, but so did access to tourist information, which affected the choice and duration of activities. Guidebooks were found to constitute the most important tourist information for the analysed tourist group.

  • 8.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Guidebooks and the city: Guided city tours in German guidebooks on Sweden2009In: Guiding and guided tours / [ed] Adolfsson, P., Dobers, P., Jonasson, M, Göteborg: BAS , 2009, 1, 129-146 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Guided tourism: the role of guidebooks in German tourist behaviour in Sweden2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Om tyskarnas kärlek till älgen2008In: Jämten 2009, Östersund: Jamtli , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Organising tourism development in peripheral areas -the case of the Subarctic network in northern Sweden2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Organising tourism development in peripheral areas: the case of the Subarctic network in northern Sweden.2006In: Tourism in peripheries: perspectives from the north and south, Wallington: CABI Publishing, 2006, 53-68 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The importance of guidebooks for the choice of tourist sites: a study of German tourists in Sweden.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 6, no 3, 229-247 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guidebooks contain important sources of information for travellers. It can be assumed that they influence the reader's choice of tourist sites, as a selection of tourist attractions is presented in the books. In this study, the influence of guidebooks on German tourists' choice of tourist sites in Sweden was examined. Nine guidebooks were analysed. In order to analyse the relationship between the presentation in the guidebooks and tourist journeys to these places, a comparison between presented tourist sites and accommodation statistics (for the year 2002) was accomplished. Further, the content of the presented tourist regions was analysed. The results indicate that the distance from home affects how strongly tourists are influenced by guidebooks. In addition, it was found that individually created tourist regions are regularly used in guidebooks and that a stereotype picture of these tourist regions is provided.

  • 14.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The power over tourist information – on the selection of tourist sites in guidebooks2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tourist routes: a time-geographical approach on German car-tourists in Sweden2007In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, Vol. 9, no 1, 64-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is often studied as if it was static. Yet, mobility constitutes an important part of the tourism system. The paper argues that tourists are travelling according to an individual travel rhythm, which can be defined as a travel pattern that tourists relate to, independent from the tourist sites that are visited. It was found out that there are long travel distances on the first and last day of the holiday, that mobility and stationariness are concentrated in time and that tourists along a round tour often spend the longest time in the region with the longest distance to the home region. The paper concludes that a travel rhythm exists, and that it is only partly influenced by the time the tourist spends at the destination, and the previous number of visits. Time geography was applied as underlying theory, and its use can be encouraged in forthcoming tourism studies.

  • 16.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Turistinformationens produktion och betydelse: Forskningsrapport för Stiftelsen för kunskapsfrämjande inom turism.2007Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tyska bilturisters resor i Sverige: Rapport för Stiftelsen för kunskapsfrämjande inom turism.2005Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tyska bilturisters resrutter i Sverige: Forskningsrapport för Stiftelsen för kunskapsfrämjande inom turism.2005Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tyskar och älgar - en kärlekshistoria2008In: Alces alces: älskade älg / [ed] Zipsane, H., 2008, 1, 70-81 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Zillinger, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Who has the power over tourist information? About the selection of tourist sites in guidebooksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 20 of 20
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