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  • 1.
    Forsström Torres, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    A comparison between the brand loyalty online towards bank brands and clothing brands2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brand loyalty has had a growing interests among marketing researchers and practitioners in the recent decades. The reasons behind this are the benefits that brand loyalty can generate such as positive word-of-mouth, customer’s willingness to pay more for offers and commitments to repurchase with a brand. Simultaneously, consumers use of companies’ online services increases, which increases the need for companies to understand what makes consumers purchase repeatedly online. Despite this, a limited understanding has been made of the antecedents of brand loyalty with online businesses. In addition, brand loyalty has also been examined in a variety of different industries, but few scholars have made comparisons between different industries’ brand loyalty. More specifically, comparisons between brand loyalty for bank brands and clothing brands. This study therefore aims to gain a deeper understanding of how the antecedents brand communication, brand knowledge, brand trust, and emotional attachment influence brand loyalty. Furthermore, this study also investigates if these antecedents’ relationships with brand loyalty differ between bank brands and clothing brands online. This study has taken a quantitative approach in which 729 Swedish and British University students were assigned a questionnaire that was based on the theoretical background of the study. The results showed that brand trust and emotional attachment had positive and significant relationships with brand loyalty for bank brands. Brand loyalty for clothing brands had positive and significant relationships with brand knowledge and brand trust. The findings contribute to a better understanding of factors affecting brand loyalty for bank brands compared to clothing brands.

  • 2.
    Hessling, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Forsström Torres, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Små och medelstora exportföretags upplevda autonomi, strategi och utfall i samband med internationalisering: En kvantitativ studie av svenska och kinesiska företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalization has been studied by many researchers, mainly trying to explain why, how and when companies internationalize. However, it can be concluded that a gap exists in studies that examine how companies strategically plan and make decisions related to internationalization. By investigating how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) strategically plan and make decisions in their export activities we aim in this study to investigate how much planning that takes place in internationalization and how autonomous companies allows their employees to be. Furthermore, the purpose of the study is to examine how the outcomes in terms of satisfaction will be based on these internationalization decisions. The survey was conducted in both Swedish and Chinese exporting SME. These SMEs were chosen in order to find out if there existed any differences in their internationalization strategies and perceived autonomy. We found it interesting to study companies from a large country like China, compared with companies from a smaller country like Sweden. In addition to the sizes of the countries we chose these companies because of cultural differences that exist between the countries. From the empirical results, we found significant positive correlation between autonomy and outcomes and between planning strategy and outcomes. We also found a tendency for employees of the Chinese companies to experience a greater degree of autonomy in comparison to employees of the Swedish companies. Furthermore, Chinese companies tend to use a planned strategy in their internationalization and Swedish companies use both planned and unplanned strategies for internationalization.

  • 3.
    Hessling, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Forsström Torres, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Små och medelstora exportföretags upplevda autonomi, strategi och utfall i samband med internationalisering.: En kvantitativ studie av svenska och kinesiska företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalization has been studied by many researchers, mainly trying to explain why, how and when companies internationalize. However, it can be concluded that a gap exists in studies that examine how companies strategically plan and make decisions related to internationalization. By investigating how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) strategically plan and make decisions in their export activities we aim in this study to investigate how much planning that takes place in internationalization and how autonomous companies allows their employees to be. Furthermore, the purpose of the study is to examine how the outcomes in terms of satisfaction will be based on these internationalization decisions. The survey was conducted in both Swedish and Chinese exporting SME. These SMEs were chosen in order to find out if there existed any differences in their internationalization strategies and perceived autonomy. We found it interesting to study companies from a large country like China, compared with companies from a smaller country like Sweden. In addition to the sizes of the countries we chose these companies because of cultural differences that exist between the countries. From the empirical results, we found significant positive correlation between autonomy and outcomes and between planning strategy and outcomes. We also found a tendency for employees of the Chinese companies to experience a greater degree of autonomy in comparison to employees of the Swedish companies. Furthermore, Chinese companies tend to use a planned strategy in their internationalization and Swedish companies use both planned and unplanned strategies for internationalization.

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