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  • 1.
    Leidermark, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Saltanvändning i skidbackar: Utbredning och påverkan av natriumklorid i den lokala miljön2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium chloride is spread in approx. 20 ski slopes within the ski system of Åre. Sodium chloride lowers the waters freezing point and can keep the snow stable during ski competitions, which gives the contestants as similar conditions as possible. The primary purpose of the study were to examine if the distribution of sodium chloride in ski slopes is harmful to vegetation in the area and in the aquatic environment of Indalsälven. Mainly, this was done through a mapping of the sodium chloride transport through the soil and water. By using the mapping, calculations were done to know which amount of chloride ions that reaches Indalsälven from the spreading and the contribution to the concentration of chloride ions in Indalsälven. Through a literature- and field study, the sodium chloride impact on vegetation and soil were investigated.

    The results shows that the most of the chloride ions from the salting of sodium chloride in ski slopes reaches Indalsälven through surface runoff and the chloride ions residence time in the slopes is less than a year. Because of the dilution effect, the contribution to the concentration of chloride ions in Indalsälven deemed negligible. No impact on ground vegetation in or below the slopes were identified. The soil physical properties and structure within the salted area and 25 m below, is expected to deteriorate which can cause increased erosion. However, it is not established that this is the case. Summarize, the results of the study shows limited impact on the environment by the use of salt in the ski system of Åre. It requires further investigation in order to gain deeper understanding of the environmental impacts in short and long term of salt use. 

  • 2.
    Leidermark, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Vulnerabilities of municipal drinking water systems in tourist regions under a changing climate: A case study of Åre ski resort, northern Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking water is a crucial provision for our survival and well-being. However, it is often taken for granted. The environmental objectives in Sweden appear insufficient to ensure drinking water with good quality, because the objectives lack clear protective descriptions, which allow municipalities to determine how to interpret and ensure drinking water. The purpose of this study is to investigate barriers and opportunities for sustainable management of drinking water sources in a tourist region. In order to fulfil the purpose, the study identifies vulnerabilities in the municipal drinking water system with the help from scenario analysis of climate change and tourism development. The study also presents relevant adaptation solutions. The DPSIR framework was used as a tool to categorize and describe the studied problem and was based on a literature study and a mapping of the study area. Åre ski resort was used as a case, and it is supplied with drinking water from two groundwater beds infiltrated by Åresjön (a lake, part of a river). Åresjön is included in an objective to keep drinking water quality standards.

        The results show that climate change and tourism development reduces surface and groundwater quality, primarily by increasing microbiological particles. Increases in the number of tourists combined with insufficient monitoring of groundwater levels and infiltration capacity knowledge are unsustainable and are expected to reduce the amount of water in the large groundwater beds. The identified most vulnerable parts of the drinking water system are within the municipal planning process, water production and wastewater treatment. Therefore, the various adaptation solutions address these issues. Direct and indirect adaptations are necessary to ensure sufficient drinking water of good quality until 2100. Tourism development is the main driver for affecting drinking water (if no adaptation measures are implemented).

     

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