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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hassmen, Nathalie
    Umeå Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Hassmen, Peter
    Umeå Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Are athletes burning out with passion?2011In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 11, no 6, 387-395 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passion is a strong motivational force towards an activity considered very important, possibly to the extent that the activity forms a part of an individual's identity. Two forms of passion, harmonious and obsessive, are thought to lead to different cognitive and affective responses. Although being passionate about sport appears to be important from a motivational perspective, it possibly also increases the risk for burnout, which is a negative consequence blamed partly on too much training and inadequate recovery. The question voiced in this study is whether harmonious passion and obsessive passion pose equal risks for burnout. Participants were 94 female and 164 male competitive athletes from 21 sports. The results, analysed using partial correlation and multivariate analyses of variance, showed that athletes with an obsessive passion scored higher on a burnout inventory than did harmoniously passionate athletes. Obsessively passionate athletes also scored higher on perceived stress and negative affect, and lower on positive affect. These findings support the assumption that even though the two forms of passion may be an integral part of elite sports, athletes scoring high on obsessive passion may be at greater risk of developing burnout than more harmoniously passionate athletes. Burning bright and burning out can thus be seen as two potential consequences for athletes driven by passion. Athletes and coaches who are aware of this may be better equipped to avoid the potential negative consequences associated with too much stress and too little recovery.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hassmen, Peter
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Podlog, Leslie
    Texas Tech Univ, Lubbock, TX 79409 USA.
    Exploring the relationship between hope and burnout in competitive sport2010In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, Vol. 28, no 14, 1495-1504 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have postulated that hope may be an important factor associated with burnout. Consistent with hope theory contentions, low-hope individuals may be susceptible to burnout because they are prone to experience goal blockage, frustration, and negative affect, all of which likely increase the risk of burnout. We examined the relationship between hope and athlete burnout among 178 competitive athletes (63 females and 115 males) aged 15-20 years. Hope was significantly and negatively correlated with all three burnout subscales: emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance showed that low-hope athletes scored significantly higher than medium- and high-hope athletes on all three burnout dimensions. Finally, results revealed that agency thinking was a significant predictor of all burnout dimensions. Frustration over unmet goals and a perceived lack of agency, a characteristic of low-hope athletes, might pose a risk factor in athlete burnout, whereas being able to maintain hope appears to be associated with health and well-being.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Psykofysiologisk träningsmonitorering - en förutsättning för optimal prestationsutveckling och en lyckad formtopp2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hassmen, Peter
    An elite endurance athlete's recovery from underperformance aided by a multidisciplinary sport science support team2008In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 8, no 5, 267-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overload training resulting in an overreached state is common in elite sports, and if undetected can develop into an overtraining syndrome. This risk is accentuated by the lack of reliable measures of overreaching. Coaches and scientists therefore have to use a combination of tests in the monitoring process. This article presents a case study of the recovery from underperformance of a young elite endurance athlete and the work of a multidisciplinary sport science support team. When it was determined that the athlete's performance had deteriorated, and that this was due solely to the stress of training, training load was radically reduced for a period of 14 days. A combination of physiological, biochemical, and psychological measurements were then used to monitor the recovery process. The purpose of this article is to describe how coaches and sport science teams can help in monitoring training and recovery in practical settings, allowing detection of the early signs of overreaching before a more serious overtraining syndrome develops.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Skoog, T.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Podlog, L.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Lundqvist, C.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Wagnsson, S.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Hope and athlete burnout: Stress and affect as mediators2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 5, 640-649 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study we examined the relationship between trait hope and burnout in elite junior soccer players and whether stress and positive and negative affect mediated this relationship. Methods: Participants were 238 Swedish soccer players (166 males, 71 females; one did not indicate gender) aged 15-19 years who completed questionnaires measuring trait hope, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation). Results: Bivariate correlations were consistent with hope theory contentions indicating significant negative relationships between hope and all three burnout dimensions. The relationship between hope and emotional/physical exhaustion was fully mediated by stress and positive affect. For sport devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment, stress and positive affect partially mediated the relationship with hope. In contrast, negative affect did not mediate the relationship between hope and any of the burnout dimensions. Conclusion: The results support earlier findings that hope is negatively related to athlete burnout. Support was also found for the hypothesis that high hope individuals would experience less stress and therefore less burnout. Promoting hope may be relevant in reducing the likelihood of this detrimental syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 6.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tänk dig uthålligare2008In: Glid, ISSN 1652-2737, Vol. 1, 49-51 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vägledning mot prestation: skillnader och likheter mellan elitidrott och forskarvärlden2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 17, no 4, 56-60 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ivarsson, A.
    et al.
    Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Johnson, U.
    Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Lindwall, M.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Altemyr, M.
    Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Psychosocial stress as a predictor of injury in elite junior soccer: A latent growth curve analysis2014In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 17, no 4, 366-370 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate by use of a latent growth curve analysis framework whether athletes' individual levels and changes in hassle and uplift levels over a 10-week period could predict injury outcome in an elite junior soccer population. Design: A prospective design with repeated measurement points. Methods: Participants were 101 Swedish elite junior soccer players (67 males and 34 females). Ten sets of measures were taken on a weekly basis during which participants completed the Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HUS). Latent growth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 10-week period. Results: The results show that injury occurrence was significantly associated with both the initial level of daily hassle and the change in daily hassle. High initial daily hassle levels and a smaller decrease in daily hassles were associated with injury occurrence. Moreover, injury occurrence was significantly associated with a greater decrease in daily uplift. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate analysis of within-person change to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury-prediction research. © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia.

  • 9.
    Jouper, John
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Dept Sport Sci, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mindful Recovery: A Case Study of a Burned-Out Elite Shooter2013In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, Vol. 27, no 1, 92-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on how to recover from athlete burnout is scarce. The current aim is therefore to describe an intervention with an elite shooter suffering from burnout, and the use of mindfulness and Qigong to reestablish sport functioning as well as general well-being. The participant used mindfulness and Qigong exercise on a daily basis. Exercise frequency, exercise time, concentration level and Qigong state were noted daily, and levels of stress, energy and primordial force were self-rated weekly for 20 weeks, and followed up after 30, 40 and 50 weeks. The participant recovered from burnout to a state of general well-being (energy and primordial force changed from weak to strong), and her ability to stay concentrated in a Qigong state changed from weak to strong. Her capacity to shoot high scores was reestablished, even if her shooting endurance was not fully recovered. Mindfulness and Qigong techniques may be useful in the prevention of and recovery from athlete burnout.

  • 10.
    Lundkvist, E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hjälm, S.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, SE-701 82, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hassmén, P.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    An interpretative phenomenological analysis of burnout and recovery in elite soccer coaches2012In: Qualitiative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, Vol. 4, no 3, 400-419 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the personal experience of burnout in elite coaches is sparse. We therefore studied subjective experiences associated with burnout in a group of elite soccer coaches; specifically how they describe perceived causes of burnout, symptoms and the subsequent recovery process. A qualitative approach was used, because our aim was to study the coaches' personal experiences of burnout. We conducted semi-structured interviews and used interpretative phenomenological analysis to analyse the data. We interviewed eight Swedish elite soccer coaches who had previously reported high levels of burnout. We found two burnout profiles that matched the coaches' perceived causes of burnout. The first was associated with problems in handling the performance culture itself and the second had to do with the overall situation, including workload, family and health. Our findings describe coach burnout as stemming from a combination of issues, related to both home and work. When combined with work overload, coaches who have problems handling the performance culture in elite sports, and who lack the tools to enhance recovery, are particularly vulnerable to burnout. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 11.
    Smith, A. L.
    et al.
    Department of Health and Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2046, United States.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of adolescent athletes2010In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 11, no 6, 453-460 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The role of social environment in fostering athlete burnout is understudied, in particular with regard to the peer social context. We therefore examined the association between perceptions of the peer-created motivational climate and athlete burnout in adolescent athletes while controlling for weekly training hours and perceived stress. We also examined potential gender differences on peer-created motivational climate perceptions. Method: Adolescent athletes (N = 206, M age = 17.2 yr) completed questionnaires assessing weekly training hours and perceptions of stress, task-involving (i.e., improvement, relatedness support, effort) and ego-involving (i.e., intra-team competition and ability, intra-team conflict) peer motivational climate, and burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, sport devaluation). Results: Multivariate multiple regression analysis with training hours, stress, and peer motivational climate variables predicting the burnout components showed a significant multivariate relationship with 24.6% of burnout variance explained. Canonical loadings indicated that lower scores on weekly training hours, higher perceived stress and intra-team conflict peer climate perception scores, and lower improvement, relatedness support, and effort peer climate perception scores associate with higher scores on all burnout components. Intra-team competition and ability did not contribute to prediction of burnout. Stronger prediction was observed for individual compared to team sport athletes. Gender differences were in line with expectations. Males scored higher on the two ego-involving peer motivational climate components, whereas females scored higher than males on effort. Conclusion: The findings offer insight on the potential role of social context in shaping burnout perceptions and suggest that attention to peers in the burnout process is warranted. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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