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  • 1.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    3D Video Playback: A modular cross-platform GPU-based approach for flexible multi-view 3D video rendering2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of depth‐perception visualization technologies, emerging format standardization work and research within the field of multi‐view 3D video and imagery addresses the need for flexible 3D video visualization. The wide variety of available 3D‐display types and visualization techniques for multi‐view video, as well as the high throughput requirements for high definition video, addresses the need for a real‐time 3D video playback solution that takes advantage of hardware accelerated graphics, while providing a high degree of flexibility through format configuration and cross‐platform interoperability. A modular component based software solution based on FFmpeg for video demultiplexing and video decoding is proposed,using OpenGL and GLUT for hardware accelerated graphics and POSIX threads for increased CPU utilization. The solution has been verified to have sufficient throughput in order to display 1080p video at the native video frame rate on the experimental system, which is considered as a standard high‐end desktop PC only using commercial hardware. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution a number of throughput evaluation metrics have been introduced measuring average frame rate as a function of: video bit rate, video resolution and number of views. The results obtained have indicated that the GPU constitutes the primary bottleneck in a multi‐view lenticular rendering system and that multi‐view rendering performance is degraded as the number of views is increased. This is a result of the current GPU square matrix texture cache architectures, resulting in texture lookup access times according to random memory access patterns when the number of views is high. The proposed solution has been identified in order to provide low CPU efficiency, i.e. low CPU hardware utilization and it is recommended to increase performance by investigating the gains of scalable multithreading techniques. It is also recommended to investigate the gains of introducing video frame buffering in video memory or to move more calculations to the CPU in order to increase GPU performance.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Parallel Simulation: Parallel computing for high performance LTE radio network simulations2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio access technologies for cellular mobile networks are continuously being evolved to meet the future demands for higher data rates, and lower end‐to‐end delays. In the research and development of LTE, radio network simulations play an essential role. The evolution of parallel processing hardware makes it desirable to exploit the potential gains of parallelizing LTE radio network simulations using multithreading techniques in contrast to distributing experiments over processors as independent simulation job processes. There is a hypothesis that parallel speedup gain diminishes when running many parallel simulation jobs concurrently on the same machine due to the increased memory requirements. A proposed multithreaded prototype of the Ericsson LTE simulator has been constructed, encapsulating scheduling, execution and synchronization of asynchronous physical layer computations. In order to provide implementation transparency, an algorithm has been proposed to sort and synchronize log events enabling a sequential logging model on top of non‐deterministic execution. In order to evaluate and compare multithreading techniques to parallel simulation job distribution, a large number of experiments have been carried out for four very diverse simulation scenarios. The evaluation of the results from these experiments involved analysis of average measured execution times and comparison with ideal estimates derived from Amdahl’s law in order to analyze overhead. It has been shown that the proposed multithreaded task‐oriented framework provides a convenient way to execute LTE physical layer models asynchronously on multi‐core processors, still providing deterministic results that are equivalent to the results of a sequential simulator. However, it has been indicated that distributing parallel independent jobs over processors is currently more efficient than multithreading techniques, even though the achieved speedup is far from ideal. This conclusion is based on the observation that the overhead caused by increased memory requirements, memory access and system bus congestion is currently smaller than the thread management and synchronization overhead of the proposed multithreaded Java prototype.

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