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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Lina J. K.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The interactive effect of the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and response inhibition on accuracy in a modified stop-signal task2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 97, 198-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adjust to a changing environment is an important aspect of every-day life and successful goal directed behavior requires the ability to suppress responses that are no longer appropriate. The main purpose of the present study was to examine if the relationship between inhibitory control (as indexed by stop-signal reaction time, SSRT) and behavioral precision is dependent on levels of Gray and McNaughton's Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). Additionally, the relationship between BIS and electrodermal activity, and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) and heart rate activity was investigated. A modified stop-signal task was used. The results showed that there was an interaction effect of BIS and SSRT on accuracy, suggesting that among individuals with higher levels of BIS, longer SSRT (i.e. poorer inhibitory ability) was associated with decreased accuracy. There were no significant correlations between trait variables and physiological variables. The results were discussed in terms of higher levels of BIS being a vulnerability factor when the individual's inhibitory ability simultaneously is poor in situations where the ability to inhibit inappropriate behavioral routines is important for task performance.

  • 2.
    Jansson, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    The interactive role of worried mood and trait anxiety in the selective processing of subliminally presented threat words2006In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 41, no 7, 1195-1204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was threefold: (a) to replicate the finding by MacLeod and Rutherford (1992) that low trait-anxious individuals, in contrast to high trait-anxious individuals, show a selective attention away from subliminally presented threat words at elevated levels of stress; (b) to test the hypothesis that this effect is due to individuals with repressive coping-style rather than true low trait-anxious individuals; and (c) to study the stability of Stroop interference over time. Both social threat and physical threat words were used. Although some support was found for the first hypothesis, there was no evidence that this effect was due to individuals with repressive coping-style. Finally, Stroop interference showed very little test–retest stability from the first to the second testing session, indicating that it is heavily influenced by temporary cognitive-emotional states, and that it should not be treated as a trait variable. Unexpectedly, high defensiveness predicted a decrease in worried mood from session 1 to session 2.

  • 3.
    Jansson, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Oldenberg, Christian
    Is defensiveness associated with cognitive bias away from emotional information?2005In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 39, no 8, 1373-1382 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of defensiveness and repressive coping style for the performance on a combined emotional Stroop and tachistoscopic identification task with masked and unmasked words was studied in a community sample. Defensiveness was associated with a decrease in Stroop interference for masked threat words, but not for unmasked threat words. The most robust results, however, were found with regard to overall test performance (independent of emotional valence). On the emotional Stroop task, high-defensive men (but not women) were faster to colour-name words in general, irrespective of emotional valence. On the tachistoscopic identification task, high-defensive women identified fewer words in general than low-defensive participants. The results are discussed in terms of defensiveness being associated with (a) avoidance of emotional information at an automatic, pre-attentive level, and (b) a general avoidance of potentially emotional information that takes different form in men and women depending on possible differences in what is seen as socially desirable for the two genders.

  • 4.
    Jansson, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Najström, Mats
    Is preattentive bias predictive of autonomic reactivity in response to a stressor?2009In: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, Vol. 23, no 3, 374-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biased processing of threatening information may play a casual role in the development of anxiety disorders. Even though empirical evidence points to the fact that preattentive bias can predict subjectively experienced distress in response to a stressor, it is still unknown whether it could be useful in predicting the physiological reactivity in response to a stressor. In the present study, the emotional Stroop task was used to measure preattentive bias. Whereas Stroop interference for masked threat words (i.e., preattentive bias) was found to be positively associated with emotional distress (self-reported) in response to a laboratory stressor, this association was reversed when the autonomic reactivity (electrodermal activity) was used as a measure of emotional response to the very same stressor. Also, neither of these effects were a function of pre-existing anxiety levels. The negative association between preattentive bias and autonomic reactivity corresponds to the autonomic inflexibility seen in clinical anxiety (or very high scores of trait anxiety) when exposed to stressful events. Results were discussed in terms of an inability to automatically inhibit the processing of threatening cues that seems to be a vulnerability marker for anxiety.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The reliability and factorial validity of the Swedish version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale2016In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the factor structure of the victimization form of the revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (CBS-R). Data from 1,218 women and men were analyzed in the study. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) failed to find support for the proposed five-factor structure of the scale, as the items on the scale were better represented by one common factor. In addition, when examining if controlling behaviors are distinct from psychological aggression, the CFA indicated that the items on the CBS-R are clearly distinguishable from the items on the psychological aggression (as measured with the subscales of the revised Conflict Tactic Scales [CTS2]), and that this holds for both males and females. Implications for the general use of the CBS-R and for use in conjunction with psychological aggression and physical aggression in intimate partner violence were discussed.

  • 6.
    Jansson, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tham, K.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Ramnerö, J.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    A structured approach to goal formulation in psychotherapy: Differences between patients and controls2015In: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy / Revista Internacional de Psicologia y Terapia Psicologica, ISSN 1577-7057, E-ISSN 2340-2857, Vol. 15, no 2, 181-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Therapeutic goals are considered a vital component in psychological treatments, but to date relatively little attention has been paid to the assessment and evaluation of these goals. In order to validate a self-rating version of the Bern Inventory of Therapeutic goals checklist (BIT-C), the present study investigated if goals, measured this way, can differentiate between patients (n= 147) and healthy controls (n= 106). Results suggested that BIT-C was successful in discriminating between client and non-clients. Most importantly, clients had a higher tendency to endorse goal categories related to depressive symptoms, substance abuse, coping with somatic problems and current relationships, but a lower tendency to endorse goal categories relating to eating behaviors compared to non-patients. Further, patients perceived attainment of prioritized goals as more distant than non-patients did. The results were discussed in terms of BIT-C being a measure that can be readily applied to identify key targets in psychological treatments. © 2015 AAC.

  • 7. Najström, Mats
    et al.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Skin conductance responses as predictor of emotional responses to stressful life events2007In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 45, no 10, 2456-2463 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferential preattentive processing towards threat has been proposed to play a casual role in the development of anxiety, mainly because it reliably predicts emotional responding to stressful events. However, in the investigation of the predictive value of preferential preattentive processing towards threat, the emotional Stroop task has exclusively being used. This study was designed to prospectively investigate the predictive value of skin conductance reactivity in response to masked (i.e., preattentively perceived) threatening pictures on emotional responding following stressful life events. To collect skin conductance data, the picture perception task was administered to 136 police recruits due to enroll into active duty within 2–4 months. To assess psychological distress following emotionally stressful life events, the impact of event scale were administered approximately 24 months later. Controlling for trait anxiety, analyses indicated that enhanced skin conductance reactivity in response to masked threatening pictures (relative to neutrals) was a strong predictor of emotional responding to stressful life events. This finding support preferential preattentive processing towards threat as a relatively independent factor predictive of emotional responding.

  • 8. Najström, Mats
    et al.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Unconscious responses to threatening pictures: The interactive effect of trait anxiety and social desirability on skin conductance responses.2006In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, Vol. 35, no 1, 11-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of trait anxiety and social desirability on skin conductance responses (SCRs) following exposure to masked and unmasked pictures in a non-clinical sample. The most prominent results were found with regard to masked pictures (i.e. subliminal). Higher levels of social desirability were associated with a decrease in SCRs to masked threat pictures (relative to neutral), whereas elevated levels of trait anxiety were associated with an increase in SCRs. This latter effect, however, was mainly seen among participants who simultaneously scored low on social desirability. These results were discussed in terms of trait anxiety (combined with lower social desirability scores) being associated with (i) enhanced autonomic responses to threatening information most evident at a pre-attentive level, that (ii) may potentially be a vulnerability marker for anxiety disturbances.

  • 9.
    Partanen, Petri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Metacognitive Strategy Training Adds to the Effects of Working Memory Training in Children with Special Educational Needs2015In: International Journal of Psychological Studies, ISSN 1918-7211, E-ISSN 1918-722X, Vol. 7, no 3, 130-140 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of computer-based Working Memory (WM) training using two training procedures were examined among sixty-four primary-school children with Special Educational Needs (SEN). Measures of general cognitive ability, auditory and visuospatial working memory, arithmetic ability, and reading and writing skills were gathered and analysed. The referred group of SEN children predominantly had lower performance in auditory WM, arithmetics and reading and writing skills. The SEN children within respective school were randomized into either an active WM training group or a control group and ten schools participating in the WM training study were randomized into one of two different training conditions. At five schools the SEN children received regular WM training and at the other five schools the children received WM training with the addition of metacognitive strategy training. Results showed a significant difference in WM performance during training in favor of the metacognitive intervention. Furthermore, transfer effects occurred on visuospatial WM measures at posttest and at 6-month follow-up. Post-hoc tests showed that the effects pertained only to the metacognitive intervention. No transfer to arithmetic or reading and writing skills occurred after training in the two training conditions. Results were discussed in terms of metacognitive factors being important in optimizing performance in WM training, and that such factors should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for children with SEN. It is also suggested that in referral of children with SEN to remediation with WM training the WM profiles should be taken into consideration to a greater degree. 

  • 10.
    Partanen, Petri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the relation between working memory and national curriculum performance in mathematics in children with special educational needsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Partanen, Petri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of working memory and complex executive function in assessment of risk for mathematical learning difficulties in children with special educational needsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Ramnero, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Treatment goals and their attainment: a structured approach to assessment and evaluation2016In: The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, ISSN 0965-5794, E-ISSN 1754-470X, Vol. 9, e2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment goals are considered a vital part of therapeutic work, and their role is often emphasized in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the attainment of goals is rarely accounted for in terms of treatment outcome. In this study, we set out to investigate a structured format for goal assessment and goal attainment in CBT delivered as routine care. We were especially interested in the sensitivity to change in perceived goal attainment. Patients completed a self-administered version of the Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals (BIT-C) and rated their perceived attainment on a maximum of five prioritized goals before and after 12 weeks of treatment, along with measures on anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. The results indicated that the prioritized goals only partially correspond to disorder-specific concerns, and that perceived proximity to treatment goals is clearly associated with improvements following treatment. The results are discussed in terms of the BIT-C being a promising tool for use in clinical settings in assessing treatment goals as well as in evaluating the attainment of these goals.

  • 13.
    Ramnerö, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of treatment goals, as assessed by a Swedish version of the Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals2016In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 68, no 1, 30-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formulating treatment goals has been shown to be an area of vital concern for both outcome and treatment processes. However, it is not as yet an area of structured routine assessment, either in clinical practice or in research. One possible explanation for this is the lack of validated and readily available goal assessment procedures. The present study investigated the test-retest stability of a Swedish translation of the checklist version of the Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals (BIT-C) among 30 patients in primary care. We calculated the consistency of the endorsement of the different therapeutic goal categories over a 2-week period prior to treatment. There were no changes in symptoms or quality-of-life-related measures between the two assessment points. Overall, the goal category items in BIT-C were found to demonstrate moderate to substantial reliability. In conclusion, even though our study was small, it provided initial psychometric support for the Swedish version of BIT-C as a clinically useful tool for the assessment of treatment goals.

  • 14. Sohlberg, Staffan
    et al.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Unconscious responses to "Mommy and I are one": Does gender matter?2002In: The psychodynamics of gender and gender roles, Washington, D.C:: American Psychological Association (APA), 2002, 165-201 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Tabrizi, Fara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory Modulation: Some Support for Modality Specific Effects2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using aversive auditory stimuli to induce involuntary memories, the present study investigated if emotional memories can be modulated. In line with the modality specific approach to intrusion development, the study found that intrusive auditory memories can be prevented by performing a verbal interference task following exposure to the experimental trauma.  

  • 16.
    Tabrizi, Fara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reducing involuntary memory by interfering consolidation of stressful auditory information: A pilot study2016In: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, ISSN 0005-7916, E-ISSN 1873-7943, Vol. 50, 238-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Intrusive emotional memories were induced by aversive auditory stimuli and modulated with cognitive tasks performed post-encoding (i.e., during consolidation). Method: A between-subjects design was used with four conditions; three consolidation-interference tasks (a visuospatial and two verbal interference tasks) and a no-task control condition. Forty-one participants listened to a soundtrack depicting traumatic scenes (e.g., police brutality, torture and rape). Immediately after listening to the soundtrack, the subjects completed a randomly assigned task for 10 min. Intrusions from the soundtrack were reported in a diary during the following seven-day period. Results: In line with a modality-specific approach to intrusion modulation, auditory intrusions were reduced by verbal tasks compared to both a no-task and a visuospatial interference task.. Limitations: The study did not control for individual differences in imagery ability which may be a feature in intrusion development. Conclusions: The results provide an increased understanding of how intrusive mental images can be modulated which may have implications for preventive treatment. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Thirus, J.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Starbrink, M.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Jansson, Billy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relational frame theory, mathematical and logical skills: A multiple exemplar training intervention to enhance intellectual performance2016In: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy / Revista Internacional de Psicologia y Terapia Psicologica, ISSN 1577-7057, E-ISSN 2340-2857, Vol. 16, no 2, 141-155 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated the effects of Relational Frame Theory (RFT) based training on mathematical and logical skills. A sample of 21 Swedish high school students attending first grade and second grade were assigned to either training (n= 10) or no-training conditions (n=11). Measures of performance on mathematical tests, Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and relational responding tasks were taken prior to and after training. For 8-10 weeks, the experimental group trained using SMART, an online multiple exemplar training program for enhancing relational skills. No significant differences between the groups were found on mathematical performance. A significant increase on SPM performance was observed for the experimental group. The findings are in line with previous research on RFT, suggesting that behaviorally based interventions can enhance intellectual performance. Population characteristics, SMART training procedures, strengths and methodological limitations are discussed. © 2016 AAC.

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