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  • 1.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Fac Forest Sci, S-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Protecting Forest Areas for Biodiversity in Sweden 1991-2010: the Policy Implementation Process and Outcomes on the Ground2011In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, Vol. 45, no 5, 1111-1133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forest and environmental policies imply that forests should be managed so that all naturally occurring species are maintained in viable populations. This requires maintenance of functional networks of representative natural forest and cultural woodland habitats. We first review the policy implementation process regarding protected areas in Sweden 1991-2010, how ecological knowledge was used to formulate interim short-term and strategic long-term biodiversity conservation goals, and the development of a hierarchical spatial planning approach. Second, we present data about the amount of formally protected and voluntarily set aside forest stands, and evaluate how much remains in terms of additional forest protection, conservation management and habitat restoration to achieve forest and environmental policy objectives in the long-term. Third, a case study in central Sweden was made to estimate the functionality of old Scots pine, Norway spruce and deciduous forest habitats, as well as cultural woodland, in different forest regions. Finally, we assess operational biodiversity conservation planning processes. We conclude that Swedish policy pronouncements capture the contemporary knowledge about biodiversity and conservation planning well. However, the existing area of protected and set-aside forests is presently too small and with too poor connectivity. To bridge this gap, spatial planning, management and restoration of habitat, as well as collaboration among forestand conservation planners need to be improved.

  • 2.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    SLU, Skinnskatteberg.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Törnblom, Johan
    SLU, Skinnskatteberg.
    Uppföljning av 1997 års bristanalys för bevarande av biologisk mångfald olika skogsmiljöer i Sveriges naturregioner: Vad har hänt på tio år?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Hur mycket är nog för att bevara arterna?2010In: Fakta Skog, ISSN 1400-7789, no 12, 1-4 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 5. Aune, Karin
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Moen, Jon
    Isolation and edge effects among woodland key habitats in Sweden: making fragmentation into forest policy?2005In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, Vol. 124, no 1, 89-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of natural forests is a major threat to forest biodiversity. In areas with a long history of forestry, the remaining patches of old forests constitute only a minor part of the landscape. In such situations small stands may be valuable and important for conservation. However, as they may suffer from strong edge effects and isolation, their value may be lower than anticipated. In Sweden a national inventory of woodland key habitats (WKHs) has identified about 1% of the forest landscape as sites where red-listed species occur or may occur. Most are small (national median 1.4 ha) and isolated stands within an intensively managed landscape. The present analyses calculate WKH core area based on a range of depths of edge influence, and isolation based on both distance to nearest WKH and a weighted isolation measure that includes all neighboring WKHs and protected forest. These analyses are done on the WKHs in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden and include almost 5000 stands. The actual core area in the WKHs is about 30% given a 50 m edge influence. The degree of isolation is species dependent but the results indicate that only species with high dispersal abilities may effectively utilize the network of WKHs. For species with effective dispersal distances of less than 2 km the network is probably insufficient. The results emphasize the need to create buffer zones, to increase reserve areas and to manage the matrix so that species dispersal is promoted. This likely includes a necessity to aggregate biodiversity efforts on the landscape scale.

  • 6.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Assessing the extinction vulnerability of wood-inhabiting fungal species in fragmented northern Swedish boreal forests2008In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 141, no 12, 3029-3039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of old-growth forests and greatly reduced amounts of coarse dead wood in managed forests threat the persistence of many saproxylic species in boreal Fennoscandia. Individual old-growth forest remnants may lose species over time as they pay off their extinction debt. We tested this by comparing the observed site occupancy of individual wood-inhabiting fungal species in isolated old-growth stands (i.e. woodland key habitats; WKHs) with statistical predictions of their occupancy assuming potential extinction debt had already been paid off. The occupancy of species was analysed in two sets of WKHs differing in time since isolation (i.e. recent and old isolates).

    Few species occurred more frequently than expected in WKHs. However, patterns across species and across all WKHs masked important differences among species in their risk of facing future extinction. The site occupancy decreased significantly between recent and old isolates for a group of annual, red-listed specialist fungal species, suggesting that an extinction debt in WKHs may exist among specific species confined to coarse dead wood and old-growth forest habitat. Generalist species that also occur in the surrounding matrix showed no negative trends, or actually increased in site occupancy, making future extinctions less likely. Thus, continuing loss of threatened species are likely if not preservation of WKHs are combined with other conservation efforts in managed forest landscapes. Natural forest landscapes may serve as important references when aiming to identify species in risk of future extinction but more detailed knowledge about the biology of the most vulnerable species is also required.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nested plant and fungal communities: the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests2003In: Biological conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, Vol. 112, no 3, 319-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the distribution of rare species is crucial for species conservation in fragmented habitats. Species communities often exhibit nestedness, i.e. species in species-poor sites comprise a subset of richer ones. Thus, rare species are confined to species-rich sites. We evaluate whether plant and fungal communities in 46 old-growth spruce forest patches (0.17–12 ha) exhibit nestedness. The question whether a single large patch or several small patches capture most species (i.e. the SLOSS-issue) is evaluated in combination with species saturation analyses. All species groups exhibited significant nestedness. Area was generally related to nestedness, i.e. rare species were over-represented in the largest patches. Species saturation analysis indicated that large patches accumulated more Red-list species in patch interiors than small patches. Thus, rare and Red-list species were best captured in large patches. However, nestedness also emerged in equal sized sample plots, i.e. rare species were over-represented in high quality habitats. Thus, small habitats of high quality should not be neglected in a conservation perspective.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Umeå Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden .
    Predictability of plant and fungal species richness of old-growth boreal forest islands2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, no 6, 857-866 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fragmentation and deterioration of old-growth forest habitat by modern forestry have become a major threat to species diversity in Fennoscandia. In order to develop a conservation strategy for the remaining diversity it is essential to identify the existing diversity and to develop appropriate conservation and monitoring programs. For these purposes indicators of conservation value for administrative prioritization are required. This study examines the predictability of plant and fungal species richness on two spatial scales on 46 isolated old-growth forest islands (0.17-12 ha) in a forest-wetland mosaic. We explore (1) to what extent area, isolation and stand structure variables can explain the variation in species richness and (2) if richness patterns of individual species groups correlate. Isolation showed no relation to species richness. Area explained 50-70% of the variation in total species richness and was positively related to the density of crustose lichens and Red-list species in island interiors. Stand structure variables explained 28-66% of the residual variation in total species richness after controlling for island size, and 15-73% of the variation in density of species in island interiors. The highest predictability of species richness was found among substrate-specific fungi and Red-list species. Different stand structure variables were found to explain richness in the different species groups, and only among a few species groups species richness correlated. Thus, species richness of one single species group is unlikely to be a good indicator for total biodiversity. The results show that measurements of stand size and stand structure variables may be a strong complementary tool. and sometimes a substitute to extensive species inventories when one aims to estimate and monitor plant and fungal species diversity in old-growth Picea abies forests.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Verifying an extinction debt in north Swedish boreal forests2005In: Conservation biology, ISSN 0888-8892, Vol. 19, no 2, 338-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats results in small species populations that face increased risk of extinction. A time delay may be involved in the regional extinction of species, and the number of species that eventually may go extinct in the future is called the "extinction debt." In boreal Sweden, we examined whether the number of epiphytic crustose lichens and wood-inhabiting fungi in old-growth forest remnants diverges from species richness levels in forest patches that have been naturally isolated for millennia. An excess of species in forest remnants could indicate the presence of an extinction debt. Observed species richness in 32 old-growth forest remnants (also called woodland key habitats [WKHs]) was compared with predicted species richness. To predict species richness we used regression models based on data from 46 isolated old-growth forest patches in a forest-wetland matrix. The reference landscape is ancient and assumed to reflect the conditions of insular floras in dynamic equilibrium. Stand factors constituted predictive variables in the models. The observed number of lichen species was higher than expected (i.e., an extinction debt among lichens may exist). By contrast, there was no significant difference between observed and expected species richness among wood-inhabiting fungi. The species richness of wood-inhabiting fungi has adjusted to the changes in forest and landscape structure more rapidly than the species richness of lichens. Differences in substrate dynamics between epiphytes on living trees and species growing on decaying logs might explain the difference between species groups. The results also indicate that population densities of red-listed species were low, which may result in continuing extinctions of red-listed species. The importance of WKHs might be overvalued because species may be lost if conservation efforts consider only protection and preservation of WKHs.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology, SLU Uppsala.
    O'Hara, Robert
    Dept of Mathematics and Statistics, Helsinki University.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Quantifying habitat requirements of tree-living species in fragmented boreal forests with Bayesian methods2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, no 5, 1127-1137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative conservation objectives require detailed consideration of the habitat requirements of target species. Tree-living bryophytes, lichens, and fungi are a critical and declining biodiversity component of boreal forests. To understand their requirements, Bayesian methods were used to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of individual species and habitat factors at the tree and the stand scale in a naturally fragmented boreal forest landscape. The importance of unexplained between-stand variation in occurrence of species was estimated, and the ability of derived models to predict species' occurrence was tested. The occurrence of species was affected by quality of individual trees. Furthermore, the relationships between occurrence of species at the tree level and size and shape of stands indicated edge effects, implying that some species were restricted to interior habitats of large, regular stands. Yet for the habitat factors studied, requirements of many species appeared similar. Species occurrence also varied between stands; most of the seemingly suitable trees in some stands were unoccupied. The models captured most variation in species occurrence at tree level. They also successfully accounted for between-stand variation in species occurrence, thus providing realistic simulations of stand-level occupancy of species. Important unexplained between-stand variation in species occurrence warns against a simplified view that only local habitat factors influence species' occurrence. Apparently, similar stands will host populations of different sizes due to historical, spatial, and stochastic factors. Thus, habitat suitability cannot be assessed simply by population sizes, and stands lacking a species may still provide suitable habitat and merit protection.

     

  • 11.
    Bernes, C.
    et al.
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, K.
    Metsähallitus Parks and Wildlife Finland, C/o UEF, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu, Finland .
    Lõhmus, A.
    Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu University, Vanemuise 46, Tartu, Estonia .
    Macdonald, E.
    Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada .
    Müller, J.
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Freyunger Str. 2, Grafenau, Germany .
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What is the impact of active management on biodiversity in boreal and temperate forests set aside for conservation or restoration?: A systematic map2015In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 4, no 1, 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The biodiversity of forests set aside from forestry is often considered best preserved by non-intervention. In many protected forests, however, remaining biodiversity values are legacies of past disturbances, e.g. recurring fires, grazing or small-scale felling. These forests may need active management to keep the characteristics that were the reason for setting them aside. Such management can be particularly relevant where lost ecological values need to be restored. In this review, we identified studies on a variety of interventions that could be useful for conserving or restoring any aspect of forest biodiversity in boreal and temperate regions. Since the review is based on Swedish initiatives, we have focused on forest types that are represented in Sweden, but such forests exist in many parts of the world. The wide scope of the review means that the set of studies is quite heterogeneous. As a first step towards a more complete synthesis, therefore, we have compiled a systematic map. Such a map gives an overview of the evidence base by providing a database with descriptions of relevant studies, but it does not synthesise reported results. Methods: Searches for literature were made using online publication databases, search engines, specialist websites and literature reviews. Search terms were developed in English, Finnish, French, German, Russian and Swedish. We searched not only for studies of interventions in actual forest set-asides, but also for appropriate evidence from commercially managed forests, since some practices applied there may be useful for conservation or restoration purposes too. Identified articles were screened for relevance using criteria set out in an a priori protocol. Descriptions of included studies are available in an Excel file, and also in an interactive GIS application that can be accessed at an external website. Results: Our searches identified nearly 17,000 articles. The 798 articles that remained after screening for relevance described 812 individual studies. Almost two-thirds of the included studies were conducted in North America, whereas most of the rest were performed in Europe. Of the European studies, 58 % were conducted in Finland or Sweden. The interventions most commonly studied were partial harvesting, prescribed burning, thinning, and grazing or exclusion from grazing. The outcomes most frequently reported were effects of interventions on trees, other vascular plants, dead wood, vertical stand structure and birds. Outcome metrics included e.g. abundance, richness of species (or genera), diversity indices, and community composition based on ordinations. Conclusions: This systematic map identifies a wealth of evidence on the impact of active management practices that could be utilised to conserve or restore biodiversity in forest set-asides. As such it should be of value to e.g. conservation managers, researchers and policymakers. Moreover, since the map also highlights important knowledge gaps, it could inspire new primary research on topics that have so far not been well covered. Finally, it provides a foundation for systematic reviews on specific subtopics. Based on our map of the evidence, we identified four subtopics that are sufficiently covered by existing studies to allow full systematic reviewing, potentially including meta-analysis. © 2015 Bernes et al.

  • 12.
    Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, Kaisa
    Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland.
    Asko, Lõhmus
    Tartu University, Estonia.
    McDonald, Ellen
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Müller, Jörg
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany.
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What is the impact of active management on biodiversity in forests set aside for conservation or restoration?: A systematic review protocol2014In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 3, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The traditional approach to limiting impacts of forestry on biodiversity is to set aside forest areas of particular conservation interest, either as formally protected reserves or on a voluntary basis. Many set-asides are left more or less untouched, but some of them have a history of disturbances such as wildfires, forest grazing, coppicing or small-scale felling. Such areas may gradually lose the qualities that were to be safeguarded unless the disturbances are re-introduced (e.g. by burning) or replaced with alternatives (e.g. gap-felling). Active management of forest set-asides may be particularly relevant in areas where the biota has been impoverished by intensive and large-scale harvesting. Here, biodiversity may not be able to recover adequately without restoration measures such as gap-felling or creation of dead wood.

    In recent years, interest in active management of forest set-asides has increased, but opinions differ among conservationists on how such management should be balanced against non-intervention. The topic of the proposed systematic review has therefore met approval among stakeholders in Sweden, where it is currently an issue of high concern.

    Methods

    The review will examine primary field studies of how various forms of active management have affected biodiversity in boreal or temperate forests set aside for conservation or restoration. The primary focus will be on forest types represented in Sweden. In some cases, useful insights about management options may also be provided by studies of interventions in commercially managed forests. Non-intervention or alternative forms of active management will be used as comparators. Relevant outcomes include assemblage diversity (species richness, diversity indices), abundance of different functional or taxonomic groups of organisms, population viability of target species, and indicators of forest biodiversity such as forest structure and amounts of dead wood.

    The relevant scientific literature may turn out to be very heterogeneous, however. Numerous combinations of management forms and biodiversity outcomes can be conceived, and it remains to be seen whether any such combination is covered by sufficiently many studies to allow a meaningful meta-analysis. Nonetheless, it should be feasible to achieve a useful narrative synthesis of the available evidence.

  • 13.
    Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, Kaisa
    Metsähallitus Parks and Wildlife Finland, Joensuu, Finland; School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland .
    Lõhmus, Asko
    Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu University, Vanemuise 46, Tartu, Estonia.
    Macdonald, Ellen
    Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Müller, Jörg
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Freyunger Str. 2, Grafenau, Germany.
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What are the impacts of manipulating grazing and browsing by ungulates on plants and invertebrates in temperate and boreal forests?: A systematic review protocol2016In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 5, no 1, 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Livestock grazing and 'overabundance' of large wild herbivores in forested areas have long been perceived as conflicting with the aims of both silviculture and forest conservation; however, certain kinds of herbivory can help to maintain habitat values in forest ecosystems. Management of grazing/browsing in protected forests can, therefore, be a critical tool for biodiversity conservation. However, it is not clear what impacts of wild ungulates or livestock are tolerable or desirable in forests set aside for conservation or restoration. The primary aim of the proposed systematic review is to clarify how the diversity of plants and invertebrates is affected by manipulation of the grazing/browsing pressure by livestock or wild ungulates. The ultimate purpose of the review is to investigate whether such manipulation is useful as a means of conserving or restoring biodiversity in forest set-asides. Methods: The review will examine primary field studies of how fencing or other kinds of manipulation of the grazing/browsing pressure by livestock or wild ungulates affects plants or invertebrates. We will consider studies made in boreal or temperate forests anywhere in the world, incorporating investigations made not only in protected areas but also in stands under commercial management. Non-intervention or alternative levels of grazing pressure will be used as comparators. Relevant outcomes include abundance, diversity and composition of plants and invertebrates, tree regeneration, and performance of focal/target species. Relevant studies will mainly be selected from a recent systematic map of the evidence on biodiversity impacts of active management in forest set-asides. A search update will be made with a subset of the search terms used for the systematic map. Searches for additional literature will be made in bibliographies of existing reviews. Relevant studies will be subject to critical appraisal and categorised as having high, medium or low susceptibility to bias. Studies with high susceptibility to bias will be excluded from the review. Useful outcomes and data on interventions and other potential effect modifiers will be extracted from included articles. A narrative synthesis will describe the quality and findings of all studies in the review. Where studies report similar outcomes, meta-analysis will be performed.

  • 14.
    Brumelis, Guntis
    et al.
    Univ Latvia, Fac Biol, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kouki, Jari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Joensuu, Finland.
    Kuuluvainen, Timo
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Shorohova, Ekaterina
    St Petersburg State Forest Acad, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Forest Naturalness in Northern Europe: Perspectives on Processes, Structures and Species Diversity2011In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, Vol. 45, no 5, 807-821 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saving the remaining natural forests in northern Europe has been one of the main goals to halt the ongoing decline of forest biodiversity. To facilitate the recognition, mapping and efficient conservation of natural forests, there is an urgent need for a general formulation, based on ecological patterns and processes, of the concept of "forest naturalness". However, complexity, structural idiosyncracy and dynamical features of unmanaged forest ecosystems at various spatio-temporal scales pose major challenges for such a formulation. The definitions hitherto used for the concept of forestnaturalness can be fruitfully grouped into three dimensions: 1) structure-based concepts of natural forest, 2) species-based concepts of natural forest and 3) process-based concepts of natural forest. We propose that explicit and simultaneous consideration of all these three dimensions of naturalness can better cope with the natural variability of forest states and also aid in developing strategies for forest conservation and management in different situations. To become operational, criteria and indicators of forest naturalness need to integrate the three dimensions by combining species (e.g. red-listed-, indicator- and umbrella species) with stand and landscape level structural features that are indicative of disturbance and succession processes.

  • 15.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of pollination distance on reproductive success in Filipendula ulmariaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Equal seed set and germination rate over distance and indication of self incompatibility in artificial crosses of Filipendula ulmariaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.2012In: Fungal Biology, ISSN 1878-6146, Vol. 116, no 10, 1025-1031 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Forest fire has for a long time been the major stand replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. For organisms to adopt to this phenomenon different strategies for protective measurements has evolved. This study focuses on the organism group of wood fungi, and one of several possibilities for adaptation to forest fire - increased heat resistance in the mycelia. 16 species of wood fungi where selected and sorted a priori according to their prevalence for fire affected substrate. These were isolated and re-inoculated on pine wood before testing. Experiments where done in a series where the mycelia was exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220°C for 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 min. A very clear difference was found, the group containing species with a prevalence for a fire affected substrate had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species with a more general ecology. This data suggests that increased heat resistance in mycelia could be a possible adaptation to forest fire. This in turn has major impacts on the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi. An increase in temperature could shift the population structure in a log, allowing minor non fruiting mycelia content to expand on the expense of earlier dominant colonizers. Furthermore this study has implications on how to control prescribed restoration burning events. When burning areas where the dead wood content is dominated by early decay stages, loss of species can be avoided by proper management.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of heat on interspecific competition in saprotrophic wood fungi2014In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, Vol. 11, 100-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some boreal wood fungi that are associated with forest fire or open dry habitats have an increased resistance to heat in comparison to species associated with a less specific distribution or species found in mesic forests. We hypothesize that extreme temperature-stress experienced during fires will favor species adapted to heat and, ultimately, the composition of species inhabiting logs in such habitats will change. Competitiveness after temperature stress was examined in three fire-associated species – Dichomitus squalens, Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Phlebiopsis gigantea – and three non fire-associated species – Ischnoderma benzoinum, Phellinus pini and Fomitopsis pinicola. There was a difference between the fire-associated species and the non fire-associated species with respect to competitive strength after heat stress. All fire-associated species had an advantage after heat treatment, colonizing a larger volume of wood than any non-fire-associated competitor. Our findings suggest that increased heat tolerance of mycelia can exert a competitive balance shift after forest fire. It shows that a system governed by forest fire will be dominance controlled under certain conditions. Furthermore, from a management perspective, during a prescribed burning, certain species already present in the ecosystem will be favored if the fire is not allowed to totally consume the substrates.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Increased CO2 evolution caused by heat treatment in wood-decaying fungi2017In: Mycological progress, ISSN 1617-416X, E-ISSN 1861-8952, Vol. 16, no 5, 513-519 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-decaying fungi are regarded as the main decomposers of woody debris in boreal forests. Given that fungal respiration makes a significant contribution to terrestrial carbon flows, it is important to understand how the wood-decaying fungal metabolism is regulated in relation to different environmental conditions and disturbances. In the present study, we investigated the effect of temperature stress on wood decomposition rate in 18 species of wood-decaying fungi, representing a broad range of species-habitat associations. Heat shock duration and temperature were calibrated to match the conditions of a forest fire. We found a general increase in fungal decay rate after heat shock; the response was more pronounced in species associated with fire-prone forests. The underlying mechanism is unclear, but possibly relates to an up-regulation at the cellular level in response to heat shock. Our results show that the decomposition rate of dead wood can be strongly affected by environmental triggers.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Increased decomposition, triggered by heat shock found in wood fungiManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fungi can be extremely heat resilient: several studies have shown that species can survive highly elevated temperatures relative to their growth optima. In this study we examine the effect of heat shock on subsequent decomposition rates. Sixteen species of wood fungi were tested over a period of 17 weeks. All strains were inoculated on to sterilized pine wood cylinders, placed in small bio chambers and tested twiice a week for CO2 accumulation. After 8 weeks all species were subjected to heat shock. We found that this triggered an increased decomposition rate in all species, this increase peaked 6 weeks after the shock. the peak was higher in wood fungi species that are associated with forest fires compared to specoes with no such association.

  • 21. Dahlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Hysing, Erik
    Olsson, Jan
    Kruys, Nicholas
    Silfvering, Göran
    Niemälä, Jari
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vedlevande arters ekologi: kunskaper för skötsel av död ved2005In: Död ved i levande skogar: hur mycket behövs och hur kan målet nås?, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2005, 110- p.Chapter in book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydelsen av död ved i skogen för biologisk mångfald är väl dokumenterad. Sveriges riksdag har fastställt 15 miljömål och varje mål är uppdelat i flera delmål. I ett av dessa mål, Levande skogar, konstateras att kvantiteten av hård död ved måste öka med åtminstone 40 procent i hela landet och betydligt mer i områden, där biologisk mångfald är speciellt hotad. Men än så länge finns inget detaljerat långsiktigt mål. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka: 1. Vilken kvalitet och kvantitet av död ved behövs i skogen för att bevara mångfalden? 2. Var i landskapet är det viktigast att öka mängden död ved? 3. Hur når vi målet? Arbetet har baserats på litteraturöversikter och frågeformulär till markägare, avverkningsentreprenörer och tjänstemän inom skogsnäringen. Olika scenarier baserade på litteraturgranskningen framställdes via datorsimulationer, där mängden och spridningen av död ved varierade med en beräknad ökningstakt. Utifrån dessa studier kan vi dra följande slutsatser: 1. Somliga arter är specialiserade och kräver ett rikligt utbud av död ved (50 m3/ha eller mer). Dessa arter kan endast bevaras i skyddade områden. 2. Brukade skogar utanför skyddade områden med 20 m3 död ved/ha tycks vara högkvalitativa habitat för många arter. 3. I områden dominerade av skog bör sådana habitat täcka mellan 10 och 30 procent av landskapet. 4. Dessa områden bör lokaliseras i anslutning till skyddade områden och områden med sällsynta arter. 5. Om den här strategin antas, kommer medelvärdet för hela Sverige vara 10 m3 död ved/ha. 6. För att kunna nå det målet 2030 måste mängden död ved öka med 40 procent varje årtionde (vilket innebär en exponentiell ökning). 7. Men ännu viktigare än att nå ett visst medelvärde för hela Sverige är, att så snabbt som möjligt öka förekomsten av död ved i anslutning till områden med hotade arter. 8. Det gäller att så snabbt som möjligt identifiera dessa hotade områden/ biotoper och för det ändamålet behöver regionala bristanalyser tas fram. 9. Men död ved behövs även utanför speciellt rika områden, som en resurs för kommande generationer samt som spridningskorridor mellan olika “hot-spots”. Där kan mängden död ved vara mindre och ökningsgraden lägre. 10. Förutom ökningen av död ved är det viktigt med en större variation av olika kvaliteter samt en kontinuerlig tillförsel. 11. Att öka mängden död ved snabbt i hotade områden (hot-spots) enbart med hjälp av frivilliga åtgärder, kommer troligen att bli svårt. Därför kan olika nya slags politiska åtgärder vara nödvändiga (såsom ekonomisk kompensation). 12. För att definiera målet mer i detalj, behövs mer kunskap om den kritiska tröskeln, spridningsmöjligheter, habitat och substratanspråk samt populationsbiologi för några arter.

  • 22. de Jong, Johnny
    et al.
    Dahlberg, A
    Almstedt, M
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hysing, E
    Silverling, G
    Mer död ved i skogen: en förutsättning för tusentals arters överlevnad2004In: Fauna och flora, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 99, no 2, 36-41 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Dellasala, D.A.
    et al.
    Geos Institute, 84-4th St., Ashland, OR 97420, United States.
    Fitzgerald, J
    1017 O St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20001, United States.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    McNeely, J
    International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 28 Rue Mauverney, 1196 Gland, Switzerland.
    Dovie, B
    School of Animal Plant and Environmental Sciences, Wits University, Wits 2050, South Africa.
    Dieterich, M
    Institute for Landscape and Vegetation Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Majluf, P
    Center for Environmental Sustainability, Cayetano Heredia University, Armendáriz 445, Lima 18, Peru.
    Nemtzov, S
    Israel Nature and Parks Authority, 3 Am Ve'Olamo Street, Jerusalem 95463, Israel.
    Nevin, O
    National School of Forestry, University of Cumbria, Penrith, CA11 0AH, United Kingdom.
    Parsons, E
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, United States.
    Watson, J
    University of Queensland, Ecology Centre, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Priority Actions for Sustainable Forest Management in the International Year of Forests2012In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 26, no 3, 572-575 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Dettki, Holger
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Edman, Mattias
    Umeå Universitet.
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Umeå Universitet.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Umeå Universitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Umeå Universitet.
    Kruys, Nic
    Umeå Universitet.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå Universitet.
    Renhorn, Karl Erik
    Umeå Universitet.
    Screening for species potentially sensitive to habitat fragmentation1998In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 21, no 6, 649-652 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Eales, Jacqualyn
    et al.
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
    Haddaway, Neal R.
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
    Bernes, Claes
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
    Cooke, Steven J.
    Department of Biology, Canadian Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kouki, Jari
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland-Joensuu, Yliopistokatu 7, Joensuu, Finland.
    Petrokofsky, Gill
    Department of Zoology, Tinbergen Building, South Parks Road, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond tree regeneration, pyrophilous and saproxylic species?: A systematic review protocol2016In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 5, no 1, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Forests set aside from productive forestry are often considered best conserved by non-intervention. However, biodiversity is often maintained in natural forests by a background level of disturbance, which, in some forests, takes the form of forest fires. Set-aside forests may therefore benefit from continuation of such disturbances, which, in forests under protection, must be managed anthropogenically. While the effects of prescribed burning on tree regeneration and on pyrophilous and/or saproxylic species in some regions are well known, effects on other organisms are less clear and/or consistent. It would be valuable to broaden the knowledge of how prescribed burning affects forest biodiversity, particularly because this practice is increasingly considered as a conservation management intervention. The primary aim of the proposed systematic review is to clarify how biodiversity is affected by prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forests. The ultimate purpose of the review is to investigate whether and how such prescribed burning may be useful as a means of conserving or restoring biodiversity, beyond that of pyrophilous and saproxylic species, in forest set-asides. Methods: The review will examine primary field studies of how prescribed burning affects biodiversity in boreal and temperate forests. We will consider studies made in such forests anywhere in the world, and will include forests both in protected areas and under commercial management. Non-intervention will be used as a comparator. Relevant outcomes will include a range of measures of biodiversity, including abundance and diversity, but not of pyrophilous and saproxylic species. Relevant studies will be taken from a recent systematic map of the evidence on biodiversity impacts of active management in forests set aside for conservation or restoration. Additional searches and a search update will be undertaken in a subset of databases from the systematic map, using a search string targeted to identify studies focused on prescribed burning interventions. Searches for additional literature will be made in the bibliographies of existing reviews of forest burning. Traditional academic literature and grey literature in English, French, Swedish and Finnish will be considered. Stakeholders who engage in prescribed burning will be asked to provide relevant grey literature.

  • 26.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mårten
    Stenlid, Jan
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson, Lars
    Spore deposition of wood-decaying fungi: Importance of landscape composition2004In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 27, no 1, 103-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-living fungi in an old-growth spruce forest2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, no 5, 609-620 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since many wood-living forest species are influenced by the dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD), information about the spatial pattern of CWD under natural conditions is essential to understand species distributions. In this study we examined the spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-decaying fungi in an old-growth boreal Picea abies forest in northwestern Sweden that is governed by gap-phase dynamics. The spatial pattern of wood-decaying fungi was studied to draw conclusions about species dispersal abilities. A total of 684 logs with a diameter 10 cm were mapped and analysed with Ripley's K-function. The distribution of all logs taken together displayed a significant aggregated pattern up to 45 m. The different decay stages also deviated from random expectations. Fairly fresh logs and logs in the middle decay stage were clumped up to about 25 and 35 m respectively, and late decayed logs aggregated up to 95 m. Logs with diameters from 10-29 cm were aggregated up to 25 m, whereas logs ≥30 cm diameter were randomly distributed. The result suggests that gap-dynamics do have an impact on the spatial pattern of the CWD, creating fine-scale clumping. The random distribution of large logs may result from the slightly regular spacing of large living trees. The spatial patterns of 16 species (n 20) of wood-decaying fungi were analysed with Ripley's K-function. Three patterns were aggregated, for Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Coniophora olivacea and Vesiculomyces citrinus. These results indicate that the distribution of most species at the stand level is generally not influenced by dispersal limitations.

  • 28.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fungi and wind strongly influence the temporal availability of logs in an old-growth spruce forest2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 2, 482-490 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is a key habitat for many species in forest ecosystems. To ensure the long-term survival of such species, forest management regimes must include measures that promote dead wood dynamics similar to those of natural forests. Thus, information on CWD dynamics under natural conditions is required, including data pertaining to the underlying agents of disturbance. This study examines modes of mortality, decay rates, and temporal patterns in the availability of Picea abies logs in a Swedish old-growth forest affected by internal, small-scale disturbance. All 684 logs in a 6.6-ha plot were mapped and classified into one of six decay classes. Logs in the early stages of decay were examined for the presence of heart-rot fungi. Six years later all logs were re-inventoried, including newly formed logs. Matrix models based on the transition rates between decay classes showed that it took about 60 years for 90% of the logs to decay beyond class 6 (a deformed trunk with soft wood). Large logs (≥26 cm) decayed 40% more slowly than small logs (≤25 cm). The initial volume of logs was 37.6 m3/ha but increased to 44.8 m 3/ha after six years. In addition, there was a large shift in the decay-class distribution. The volume of logs in early and late decay classes increased by 71% and 45%, respectively, while the volume of logs in the intermediate decay classes decreased by 32%. The fluctuations appear to result from pulses in mortality, driven by a combination of strong winds and the heart-rot fungus, Phellinus chrysoloma, which was present in more than 30% of all logs at an early stage of decay. These results show that large temporal fluctuations in dead wood also occur in the absence of large-scale disturbance, and that heart-rot fungi are important factors driving the overall dynamics of dead wood. Since many wood-inhabiting species are naturally rare and have very specific substrate demands, such temporal variability in dead wood availability may have effects on biodiversity and should be taken into account when designing small, protected forest areas.

  • 29.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Small-scale fungal- and wind-mediated disturbances strongly influence the temporal availability of logs in an old-growth Picea abies forest2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kruys, Nicholas
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Local dispersal sources strongly affect colonization patterns of wood-decaying fungi on experimental spruce logs2004In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 14, no 3, 893-901 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important habitat for many species in forest ecosystems. However, forestry has decreased the abundance of CWD so that many wood-dependent species have become threatened. To alleviate this problem, guidelines for a more biodiversity-oriented forestry focus on increasing CWD in managed forests. Unfortunately, how this increase is to be allocated on a landscape scale is not well understood. The present study reports an experiment in which freshly cut logs of varying sizes were placed in stands with contrasting abundance of natural CWD and subsequently varying pools of wood-inhabiting species. The first six years of colonization by wood fungi show that local abundance and composition of the fungal flora strongly influenced colonization. Higher species richness was observed in CWD-rich sites, and several species were more frequent on the experimental logs at CWD-rich sites. The strong within-site effect is interpreted as resulting from high spore deposition from the local species pool. This is supported by spore deposition estimates of Fomitopsis rosea, a red-listed species that only occurred on experimental logs at the CWD-rich sites. F. rosea had a 9-180 times higher spore deposition at the CWD-rich sites compared to the CWD-poor sites. The species richness and composition on small logs differed from that of large logs with higher richness on the latter. The results strongly suggest that restoration efforts would be more efficient if directed toward sites close to CWD-rich sites and that preferably large logs should be created.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Toivanen, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of restoration fire on deadwood heterogeneity and availability in three Pinus sylvestris forests in Sweden2013In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, ISSN ISSN-L 0037-5330 | ISSN 2242-4075 (Online), Vol. 47, no 2, Art. no. 954- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration fires are increasingly used as a conservation tool in Sweden to recreate forests with characteristics of previous forests that were periodically disturbed by fires and promote firedependent species. Restoration fires can result in large inputs of fresh dead wood, but there are risks of losing some of the existing, pre-fire dead wood. To assess these counteracting effects we studied the heterogeneity and availability of dead wood before and after three restoration fires in boreal Scots pine forests. Specifically, we studied volumes of stumps, high stumps, snags and logs. The fires decreased the total volume of pre-fire dead wood (23-41%) and consumed logs in late decay stages (26-54%) to a higher extent than logs in earlier stages. The input of new fresh dead wood after the fires exceeded losses of pre-fire dead wood and resulted in a net increase of dead wood in all three sites. The added dead wood consisted of fresh snags killed by the fires. Fire also affected log characteristics: reducing their vegetation coverage (60-98%), decreasing their ground contact (4-50%) and increasing their surface area of charred wood (>50%). Such changes have important consequences for the micro environmental conditions inside logs, but have been rarely studied in relation to restoration fires. Our results show that restoration fire causes changes in dead wood availability and characteristics of logs. The results imply that ideally stands with low abundance of rare and heavily decayed wood substrates should be burned to optimize dead wood values. Alternatively, management practices should include protection of these substrates during restoration fires.

  • 32.
    Esseen, P. -A
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Ekström, M.
    Department of Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Westerlund, B.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Palmqvist, K.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Grafström, A.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Ståhl, G.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Broad-scale distribution of epiphytic hair lichens correlates more with climate and nitrogen deposition than with forest structure2016In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 46, no 11, 1348-1358 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hair lichens are strongly influenced by forest structure at local scales, but their broad-scale distributions are less understood. We compared the occurrence and length of Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach., Bryoria spp., and Usnea spp. in the lower canopy of > 5000 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees within the National Forest Inventory across all productive forest in Sweden. We used logistic regression to analyse how climate, nitrogen deposition, and forest variables influence lichen occurrence. Distributions overlapped, but the distribution of Bryoria was more northern and that of Usnea was more southern, with Alectoria's distribution being intermediate. Lichen length increased towards northern regions, indicating better conditions for biomass accumulation. Logistic regression models had the highest pseudo R2 value for Bryoria, followed by Alectoria. Temperature and nitrogen deposition had higher explanatory power than precipitation and forest variables. Multiple logistic regressions suggest that lichen genera respond differently to increases in several variables. Warmingdecreased the odds for Bryoria occurrence at all temperatures. Corresponding odds for Alectoria and Usnea decreased in warmer climates, but in colder climates, they increased. Nitrogen addition decreased the odds for Alectoria and Usnea occurrence under high deposition, but under low deposition, the odds increased. Our analyses suggest major shifts in the broad-scale distribution of hair lichens with changes in climate, nitrogen deposition, and forest management.

  • 33.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of Debarking Water from Norway Spruce (Picea abies) on the Growth of Five Species of Wood-Decaying Fungi2014In: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Biosciences, ISSN 0939-5075, E-ISSN 1865-7125, Vol. 9-10, no 69c, 418-424 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  • 34. Fleischmann, E
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sjögren-Gulve, Per
    Focal species modeling for biodiversity conservation2000In: The use of population viability analyses in conservation planning, Copenhagen: Munksgaard , 2000, 85-99 p.Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 35.
    Fraver, Shawn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, United States .
    D'Amato, Anthony W.
    Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, United States .
    Bradford, John B.
    US Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Flagstaff, AZ, 86001, United States .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Mari
    The Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden .
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, 901 87, Sweden .
    Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning2014In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 25, no 2, 374-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree competition studies, in which tree spatial patterning is typically not taken into account. Our findings highlight the importance of forest structure - particularly the spatial arrangement of trees - in regulating inter-tree competition and growth in structurally diverse forests, and they provide insight into the causes and consequences of heterogeneity in this old-growth system.

  • 36.
    Fraver, Shawn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Demographics and disturbance history of a boreal old-growth Picea abies forest2008In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 19, no 6, 789-798 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: To what extent do tree growth, mortality, and long-term disturbance patterns affect stand structure and composition of an old-growth Picea abies forest?Location: Boreal Sweden.Methods: We linked data from three 50 m × 50 m permanent plots established in 1986 with dendrochronology data to evaluate tree growth and mortality over an 18-year period and to describe a several-hundred-year disturbance history for this forest type.Results: Averaged over all diameters, P. abies trees had an annual mortality rate of 0.60%; however, diameter had a striking effect on both growth and mortality, with trees of intermediate diameters (ca. 20–30 cm) showing faster growth and lower mortality. Their increased vigor gave rise to a diameter distribution resembling the ‘rotated sigmoid’ (not reverse-J) proposed for such conditions, and it led to a deficit of snags of intermediate diameters. Slow-growing trees had an increased likelihood of dying. Although recruitment occurred in most decades over the past 400 years, two prominent recruitment peaks occurred (mid 1700s and 1800s), neither of which appeared to cause a shift in tree species composition. The lack of fire evidence suggests that fire was not responsible for these recruitment peaks.Conclusions: Taken together, these results depict a rather impassive system, where canopy trees die slowly over decades. Field observations suggest that fungal infections, mediated by wind, account for much of the mortality during these periods of relative quiescence. However, these periods are at times punctuated by moderate-severity disturbances that foster abundant recruitment.

     

  • 37.
    Fraver, Shawn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ringvall, Anna
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Refining volume estimates of down woody debris2007In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 37, no 13, 627-633 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Down woody debris (DWD) plays a vital role in forest ecosystem structure and function. Although volume is likely the most common metric used to characterize DWD, an evaluation of the formulae used for volume estimation on individual DWD pieces has received little attention. We determined actual volume of 155 diverse DWD pieces (types, species, lengths, and diameters) by detailed field measurements. By comparing the actual and calculated volumes from six commonly used formulae, we assessed their bias, precision, and accuracy. Based on observed DWD forms, we developed a new formula, namely the “conic-paraboloid”, which was included in the assessment. Among the formulae that require length and two end diameter measurements, the conic-paraboloid had the lowest bias, highest precision, and hence greatest accuracy. Newton’s and the centroid formulae had higher accuracy yet require more field measurements. Smalian’s, conical frustum, and average-of-ends formulae had poor performance relative to the others. Accuracy of all formulae decreased with increasing piece length. Thus, partitioning pieces into two, three, and four sections for additional measurement improved accuracy. As decay advances, pieces become progressively more elliptical in cross section. Using the cross-sectional area derived from only the long axis of the ellipse leads to substantial volume overestimates for well-decayed DWD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 38.
    Haddaway, Neal R.
    et al.
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Mistra Council Evidence Based Environm Management, Stockholm.
    Bernes, Claes
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Mistra Council Evidence Based Environm Management, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund.
    The benefits of systematic mapping to evidence-based environmental management2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 5, 613-620 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews of evidence are a vital means of summarising growing bodies of research. Systematic reviews (SRs) aim to reduce bias and increase reliability when summarising high priority and controversial topics. Similar to SRs, systematic maps (SMs) were developed in social sciences to reliably catalogue evidence on a specific subject. Rather than providing answers to specific questions of impacts, SMs aim to produce searchable databases of studies, along with detailed descriptive information. These maps (consisting of a report, a database, and sometimes a geographical information system) can prove highly useful for research, policy and practice communities, by providing assessments of knowledge gaps (subjects requiring additional research), knowledge gluts (subjects where full SR is possible), and patterns across the research literature that promote best practice and direct research resources towards the highest quality research. Here, we introduce SMs in detail using three recent case studies that demonstrate their utility for research and decision-making.

  • 39.
    Halme, P.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Allen, K. A.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Auniņš, A.
    Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia .
    Bradshaw, R. H. W.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Brumelis, G.
    Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia .
    Čada, V.
    Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic .
    Clear, J. L.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hannon, G.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Hyvärinen, E.
    Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Services, Finland.
    Ikauniece, S.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Daugavpils University, Daugavpils, Latvia .
    Iršenaite, R.
    Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, K.
    Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Services, Finland.
    Kareksela, S.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Komonen, A.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kotiaho, J. S.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kouki, J.
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Kuuluvainen, T.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Mazziotta, A.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mönkkönen, M.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Nyholm, K.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Oldén, A.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Shorohova, E.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute Metla, Vantaa, Finland .
    Strange, N.
    Forest and Landscape, Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Toivanen, T.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Vanha-Majamaa, I.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute Metla, Vantaa, Finland .
    Wallenius, T.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Ylisirniö, A. -L
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Finland .
    Zin, E.
    Forest Research Institute (IBL), European Centre for Natural Forests, Białowieza, Poland.
    Challenges of ecological restoration: Lessons from forests in northern Europe2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 167, 248-256 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many ecosystem services remain at high level. However, extensive areas of northern forests are heavily exploited and have lost a major part of their biodiversity value. There is a strong requirement to restore these areas towards a more natural condition in order to meet the targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology of the target ecosystem should be established with the need for restoration carefully assessed and the outcome properly monitored. Finally, we identify the most important challenges that need to be solved in order to carry out efficient restoration with powerful and long-term positive impacts on biodiversity: coping with unpredictability, maintaining connectivity in time and space, assessment of functionality, management of conflicting interests and social restrictions and ensuring adequate funding. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 40.
    Harper, Karen A.
    et al.
    School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada .
    Macdonald, S. Ellen
    Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H1, Canada.
    Mayerhofer, Michael S.
    Mt St Vincent Univ, Dept Biol, Halifax, NS B3M 2J6, Canada.
    Biswas, Shekhar R.
    Lakehead Univ, Dept Biol, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada.
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stewart, Katherine J.
    Yukon Coll, Yukon Res Ctr, Whitehorse, YT Y1A 5K4, Canada.
    Mallik, Azim U.
    Lakehead Univ, Dept Biol, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada.
    Drapeau, Pierre
    Univ Quebec, Dept Sci Biol, Chaire Ind CRSNG UQAT UQAM Amenagement Forestier, Ctr Etud Foret, Montreal, PQ H3C 2P8, Canada.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lesieur, Daniel
    Univ Quebec, Dept Sci Biol, Chaire Ind CRSNG UQAT UQAM Amenagement Forestier, Ctr Etud Foret, Montreal, PQ H3C 2P8, Canada.
    Kouki, Jari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Bergeron, Yves
    Univ Quebec Abitibi Temiscamingue, Inst Rech Forets, Rouyn Noranda, PQ J9X 5E4, Canada.
    Edge influence on vegetation at natural and anthropogenic edges of boreal forests in Canada and Fennoscandia2015In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 103, no 3, 550-562 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although anthropogenic edges are an important consequence of timber harvesting, edges due to natural disturbances or landscape heterogeneity are also common. Forest edges have been well studied in temperate and tropical forests, but less so in less productive, disturbance-adapted boreal forests. We synthesized data on forest vegetation at edges of boreal forests and compared edge influence among edge types (fire, cut, lake/wetland; old vs. young), forest types (broadleaf vs. coniferous) and geographic regions. Our objectives were to quantify vegetation responses at edges of all types and to compare the strength and extent of edge influence among different types of edges and forests. Research was conducted using the same general sampling design in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec in Canada, and in Sweden and Finland. We conducted a meta-analysis for a variety of response variables including forest structure, deadwood abundance, regeneration, understorey abundance and diversity, and non-vascular plant cover. We also determined the magnitude and distance of edge influence (DEI) using randomization tests. Some edge responses (lower tree basal area, tree canopy and bryophyte cover; more logs; higher regeneration) were significant overall across studies. Edge influence on ground vegetation in boreal forests was generally weak, not very extensive (DEI usually <20m) and decreased with time. We found more extensive edge influence at natural edges, at younger edges and in broadleaf forests. The comparison among regions revealed weaker edge influence in Fennoscandian forests.Synthesis. Edges created by forest harvesting do not appear to have as strong, extensive or persistent influence on vegetation in boreal as in tropical or temperate forested ecosystems. We attribute this apparent resistance to shorter canopy heights, inherent heterogeneity in boreal forests and their adaptation to frequent natural disturbance. Nevertheless, notable differences between forest structure responses to natural (fire) and anthropogenic (cut) edges raise concerns about biodiversity implications of extensive creation of anthropogenic edges. By highlighting universal responses to edge influence in boreal forests that are significant irrespective of edge or forest type, and those which vary by edge type, we provide a context for the conservation of boreal forests.

  • 41.
    Hedenström, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Resveratrol, piceatannol, and isorhapontigenin from Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking wastewater as inhibitors on the growth of nine species of wood-decaying fungi2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 3, 617-629 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diethyl ether extract obtained from solvent-solvent extraction of Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water, a byproduct from debarking of logs in the pulp and paper industry, was tested for inhibition of growth on agar plates of nine species of wood-decaying fungi: Antrodia sinuosa, Antrodia xantha, Coniophora puteana, Fomitopsis pinicola, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Heterobasidion parviporum, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Serpula himantioides, and Serpula lacrymans. One fraction of the extract showed excellent antifungal activity for a majority of the species, with complete inhibition of growth for A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium. The major constituents of the most active fraction were identified as the hydroxystilbenes resveratrol, isorhapontigenin (synonymous with methyl piceatannol), and piceatannol (synonymous with astringenin). The active compounds were isolated or synthesized and used individually for dose-response studies. It was found that isorhapontigenin and piceatannol inhibited all growth of A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium in 0.35 % weight concentration. The hydroxystilbenes were the three most abundant substances in the debarking water and can be obtained as a mixture or in enriched forms. From some extraction steps of the raw debarking water, it would be possible to obtain the hydroxystilbenes in quantities that might be of commercial interest as efficient natural fungicides.

  • 42. Hedenås, H
    et al.
    Bolyukh, V.O
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spatial distribution of epiphytes on Populus tremula in relation to dispersal mode2003In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 14, no 2, 233-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined if the spatial distribution of epiphytes in a forest stand differs between two sexually and three asexually dispersed species. As study species we have chosen two sexually dispersed species, the lichen Collema curtisporum and the bryophyte Orthotrichum speciosum, and three asexually dispersed species, the lichens C. furfuraceum and Leptogium saturninum and the bryophyte O. obtusifolium. All of these species grow on Populus tremula. In P. tremula stands, individual trees may be regarded as distinct patches for the studied species, while the stand represents a 'landscape" of discrete patches. The study was performed in two relatively homogeneous forest stands. The study revealed that the asexually dispersed species were more common than the sexually dispersed. It was also shown that the sexually dispersed species were more aggregated than P. tremula in both stands. In contrast, the distribution of the asexually dispersed species mirrors, more or less, the distribution of their host, i.e. the spatial pattern shown by P. tremula. It is unlikely that the measured environmental variables strongly influenced the observed spatial distribution. Thus, we suggest that the different dispersal and establishment strategies were important in shaping the local distribution of the species.

  • 43.
    Holm, Svante
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bång, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Paternity analysis in Filipendula ulmaria indicates high level of gene flow between populations, using AFLPManuscript (Other academic)
  • 44. Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Evaluating Buffer Strips Along Boreal Streams Using Bryophytes as indicators2002In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, Vol. 12, no 3, 797-806 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The conservation ecology of cryptogams - editoral2007In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 135, no 3, 311-314 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conference entitled 'Conservation Ecology of Cryptogams' was held in Bispgården, Sweden in November, 2005 to increase awareness about the amount of ecological research on cryptogams and the inclusion of these organisms in practical conservation. The conference brought together researchers in the field and helped in collecting findings on the ecology of cryptogams. The topics discussed at the event covered theoretical developments in ecology and the links between these areas of research and their application in applied conservation. It was also helpful in reducing the gap between leading researchers and conservation professionals and covered a wide range of topics on significant ecological research on cryptogams. Participants at the conference also revealed that many general ecological theories can be applied to cryptogams and specific theories, models, and applications need to be developed for conservation of cryptogams.

  • 46. Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Substrate form determines the fate of bryophytes in clear-cuts and buffer strips along small boreal streams2005In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, Vol. 15, no 2, 674-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the effectiveness of forest buffer strips left along streams after logging have long overlooked the biota of the buffers themselves, despite their high species richness. We investigated mosses and liverworts (bryophytes), abundant and species-rich groups in boreal forests, before and 2.5 years after logging along 15 small streams. In each Site, two 1000-m(2) (20 X 50 m) plots along the stream were inventoried; one plot in an area subjected to clear-cutting, and another in a buffer strip (10 m wide on each side of the stream). Ten plots along small streams in forest reserves in the same region were used as references. We found that less than half as many bryophyte species per plot disappeared after logging in the buffer strips compared to the clearcuts. The changes in bryophyte cover and in species composition were smaller in the buffer strips, and the species that were negatively affected in the clearcuts were less affected in the buffer strips. However, there was a significant change in species composition in the buffer strips compared to the references. Substrate form. and taxonomic group were important factors in understanding this turnover. Many species growing on substrates with a convex form (e.g., logs, tree bases, and mesic ground) decreased or disappeared, while species on concave substrates were rather unaffected. This held for both mosses and liverworts, although liverworts were generally more sensitive than mosses. The difference in response of assemblages on convex vs. concave substrates makes changes in microclimate due to logging a likely explanation. The species in most need of protection (i.e., the red-listed species) were among the ones with strongest declines in the 20 m wide buffer strips. In order to function optimally for bryophyte conservation, forests along small streams need to be protected from high wind-throw frequency and strong edge effects. Increasing the width of buffer strips at sites with known or potential values (e.g., large amounts of woody debris or boulders) should be considered a better strategy than using narrow buffer strips with a fixed width.

  • 47. Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Göthner, Tove
    Differences in habitat quality explain nestedness in a land snail meta-community2005In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, Vol. 108, no 2, 351-361 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We set up two alternative hypotheses on how environmental variables could foster nestedness; one of "nested habitats" and another of "nested habitat quality". The former hypothesis refers to situations where the nestedness of species depends on a nestedness of discrete habitats. The latter considers situations where all species in an assemblage increase in abundance along the same environmental gradient, but differ in specialisation or tolerance. We tested whether litter-dwelling land snails (terrestrial gastropods) in boreal riparian forest exhibited a nested community structure, whether such a pattern was related to differences in environmental variables among sites, and which of the two hypotheses that best could account for the found pattern. We sampled litter from 100 m(2) plots in 29 mature riparian forest sites along small streams in the boreal zone of Sweden. The number of snail species varied between 3 and 14 per site. Ranking the species-by-site matrix by PCA scores of the first ordination axis revealed a similarly significant nested pattern as when the matrix was sorted by number of species, showing that the species composition in this meta-community can be properly described as nested. Several environmental variables, most notably pH index, were correlated with the first PCA axis. All but two species had positive eigenvectors in the PCA ordination and the abundance increased considerably along the gradient for most of the species implying that the hypothesis of "nested habitats" was rejected in favour of the "nested habitat quality" hypothesis. Analyses of nestedness have seldom been performed on equal sized plots, and our study shows the importance of understanding that variation in environmental variables among sites can result in nested communities. The conservation implications are different depending on which of our two hypotheses is supported; a conservation focus on species "hotspots" is more appropriate if the communities are nested because of "nested habitat quality".

  • 48.
    Jogiste, Kalev
    et al.
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kuuluvainen, Timo
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Ste Foy, PQ, Canada.
    Moser, W. Keith
    USDA, Ft Valley Expt Forest, Forest Serv, Flagstaff, AZ USA.
    Forest landscape mosaics: disturbance, restoration, and management at times of global change2015In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 45, no 9, V-VI p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49. Johansson, Therese
    et al.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson, Lars
    Beetle attraction to sporocarps and mycelia of wood-decaying fungi in old-growth spruce forests of northern Sweden2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 237, 335-341 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many saproxylic beetles do not feed on wood directly but on fungi colonizing the wood. The volume of decaying wood has decreased drastically in Scandinavian managed forest landscapes in recent years, so improved knowledge on the interactions between beetles and wood-decaying fungi is important for the long-term persistence of these trophic partners. Sporocarps of polypores are known to emit volatiles attracting both fungivorous and predatory beetles, but it is unknown whether some beetles are also attracted to odours from the mycelia. The aim of this experiment was to test the attraction of beetles to volatiles from the sporocarps and mycelia of wood-decaying fungi. In a randomized block design, six substrate types: Fomitopsis pinicola sporocarp, F. pinicola mycelium-infected wood, Fomitopsis rosea sporocarp, F. rosea mycelium-infected wood, Phellinus chrysoloma sporocarp and Phlebia centrifuga mycelium-infected wood were attached separately to specially designed window traps in four old-growth spruce forests in northern Sweden. Empty traps and traps with sterilised wood were used as controls. We found no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of saproxylic beetles between the control and sterilised wood and the fungal substrates. However, two abundant species showed significant preferences for one substrate type. The bark beetle Dryocoetes autographus preferred F. rosea mycelium-infected wood and the rove beetle Lordithon lunulatus preferred fruiting bodies of F. pinicola. The results indicate that some species do discriminate between volatiles emitted by different polypore species and also between volatiles emitted by the sporocarps and mycelia from the same species. Our data indicate a hitherto unknown interdependence between D. autographus and F. rosea. We conclude that present knowledge on interactions between beetles and wood-decaying fungi is limited and further studies are needed to enhance our ability to design appropriate conservation strategies in the forest landscape.

  • 50.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skogspolitiken hotar biologiska mångfalden2008Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
123 1 - 50 of 123
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