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  • 1.
    Borgström, S.
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Law School, Finland.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    United Nations University, Japan.
    Developing law for the bioeconomy2016In: Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law, ISSN 0264-6811, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 373-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of a bioeconomy is seen to offer significant possibilities to address the challenges faced by a world with a growing population, resource scarcity, environmental degradation and climate change. The technical potential for a bioeconomy is impressive. It has been estimated that over 90 per cent of oil-based products could be replaced by bio-based alternatives. However, there are several challenges, uncertainties and concerns related to the development of a bioeconomy. These include potential negative effects of increased use of biomass on biodiversity and food production, as well as health and environmental risks associated with new biotechnologies. The urgency of the problems that a bioeconomy may provide solutions to and the new sustainability challenges emerging in a growing bioeconomy indicate the need to develop regulatory regimes that make the transition to a bioeconomy more rapid, controlled and sustainable. This article discusses the key issues in developing a bioeconomy that call for regulatory intervention. Further, it explores the need for development in regulatory approaches, strategies and structures for enabling the transition to and sustaining a bioeconomy and explains why, in theory, regulatory systems based on integrative, adaptive and proactive law approaches are a promising way to meet that need. © 2016 International Bar Association.

  • 2.
    Ding, X.
    et al.
    Northwest Institute of Historical Environmental and Socio-Economic Development, Shaanxi Normal University, No. 620, West Chang'an Avenue, Xi'an, 710119, China.
    Zhou, C.
    School of Stastics and Economics, Guangzhou University, No. 230, Huanxi Road, Guangzhou, 510006, China.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Environmental Law Cntr. of the Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Environmental Research, Graduate School of Law, Meiji University, B730, 14 Gokan 1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chioda-Ku, Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan.
    Zhong, W.
    School of Finance and Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 74, Yantaxi Road, Xi'an, 710063, China.
    Li, G.
    School of Finance and Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 74, Yantaxi Road, Xi'an, 710063, China.
    From environmental soundness to sustainable development: Improving applicability of payment for ecosystem services scheme for diverting regional sustainability transition in developing countries2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing and emerging countries, rapid urbanization at an unprecedented pace and degradation of ecosystem services at an alarming rate have caused many regions, especially those in environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs), to encounter the "regional development dilemma" (RDD), in which regions can hardly divert their current development pattern to achieve a transition to sustainability. The main research focus of this study is to introduce-by means of a case study-a payments for ecosystem service (PES) scheme as a policy instrument that incorporates an ecosystem services (ES)-based baseline for payments and a spatial-targeting-based allocation plan to address that dilemma and to bridge, as well as achieve, sustainable development goals simultaneously at a regional scale. The water source areas of the Middle Route Project in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China were used as the case study. Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) of this area between 2002 and 2010 was detected by adopting remote sensing and spatial analysis technologies. The ecosystem services value (ESV) variation was then estimated and the eco-compensation plan was determined through comprehensively applying equivalent weighting factors of the ecosystem service of terrestrial ecosystems in China and the adjustment coefficient of the ecosystem service based on the notion of willingness to pay for ecosystem services. Results show that rapid urbanization has substantial impacts on the spatial dynamics and quality of ecosystems in the research area. From 2002 to 2010, the total ESV declined by CNY 6 billion. Therefore, the baseline eco-compensation from the benefit zone to the research area was CNY 1.1 billion under the assumption of commensurability. Responsibility ought to be shared by Henan and Hebei provinces, and Beijing and Tianjin, with payment of CNY 422.3, 388.5, 110.9, and 133 million, respectively. We drafted the allocation plan of eco-compensation based on the spatial pattern of ESV variation, and suggested policy tools tailored for subregions in the research area defined by LUCC change categories. Such an integrated study can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of regional PES schemes and provide a set of policy instruments with upgraded spatial-targeting and better cost-efficiency, particularly as blueprints for regional governments in developing and emerging countries that aim at leveraging regional sustainability through bridging and achieving SDGs.

  • 3.
    Dudley, N.
    et al.
    School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Harrison, I. J.
    IUCN-WCPA Freshwater Task Force, Conservation International, United Kingdom.
    Kettunen, M.
    Institute for European Environmental Policy, London, United Kingdom.
    Madgwick, J.
    Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.
    Natural solutions for water management of the future: freshwater protected areas at the 6th World Parks Congress2016In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, Vol. 26, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater biodiversity continues to decline. Protected areas are recognized as critical tools in its conservation. Concurrently, despite global efforts to ensure water supplies, billions of people remain without access to pure water. Conversely, flooding kills tens of thousands of people each year. While designated primarily for nature conservation, protected areas supply a range of other ecosystem services to human society. The natural infrastructure they protect should be seen as a key component of water security and improved conservation of ecosystems, and recognized and invested in as a critical tool for water provision and regulation in the landscape. At the 2014 World Parks Congress delegates identified actions needed to maximize the potential of protected areas to contribute to water services: iKnowledge and capacity building: strengthening technical expertise and capacity building with respect to the role of protected areas in water security. iiValuation: to drive positive change in protected area management. iiiPolicy frameworks: covering legal, institutional, economic and social factors that produce a good synergy between protected area management and water security. ivPricing policy: integrating all the information from valuation of the role of protected areas in terms of water supply, regulation and quality. vWater security: considering natural infrastructure as a key investment in addressing water related risks and a legitimate component of water security strategies. viPartnerships: strengthening these across sectors with a wider group of stakeholders to promote the conservation and management of freshwater ecosystems in protected areas. viiLearning lessons from successful water management: by identifying knowledge requirements for legal, institutional, economic and social factors that synergize protected area management and water security management. None of these steps is technically impossible. Providing the right mixture of policies, legislation, economic and social approaches remains the main challenge for their achievement. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 4.
    Elbakidze, M.
    et al.
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 43, 730 91 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Hahn, T.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    International Organizations Center Pacifico-Yokohama, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), 1-1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-8502, Japan.
    Angelstam, P.
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 43, 730 91 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, R.
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 43, 739 21 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Legal framework for biosphere reserves as learning sites for sustainable development: A comparative analysis of Ukraine and Sweden2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) concept aims at encouraging sustainable development (SD) towards sustainability on the ground by promoting three core functions: conservation, development, and logistic support. Sweden and Ukraine exemplify the diverse governance contexts that BRs need to cope with. We assessed how the BR concept and its core functions are captured in national legislations. The results show that the core functions are in different ways reflected in legal documents in both countries. While in Ukraine the BR concept is incorporated into legislation, in Sweden the concept is used as a soft law. In Ukraine managers desired stronger legal enforcement, while in Sweden managers avoided emphasis on legislation when collaborating with local stakeholders. Hence, BR implementation have adapted to different political cultures by development of diverse approaches. We conclude that a stronger legal support might not be needed for BRs, rather SD needs to be recognized as an integrated place-based process at multiple levels. © 2013 The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Essl, I.
    et al.
    Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Environmental Law Centre of the Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Environmental Research, Graduate School of Law, Meiji University, B730,14 Gokan, 1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan.
    Opportunities for mutual implementation of nature conservation and climate change policies: A multilevel case study based on local stakeholder perceptions2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 183, p. 898-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses EU nature conservation and EU climate protection policies within the context of their local implementation in Vienna/Austria in order to gain insights into the decision-making process as well as to show the extent of achievements and experienced difficulties. In this connection, this paper also investigates based on published knowledge and the perceptions of stakeholders the awareness of nature conservation measures as climate-change adaptation and possibly ways of improvement. In order to address these issues, additionally to an in-depth literature review, 16 experts working in Vienna in the field of either nature conservation or climate protection were interviewed. The transcriptions of these interviews were then used in a qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the vast majority of the interviewed stakeholders see EU climate policy and nature conservation policy separately. Furthermore, the implementation of EU climate and nature conservation policy in Vienna is indicated as a “learning by doing” process. There the currently limited cooperation between stakeholders can be improved. Our study also finds that the awareness of different stakeholder groups of the possibility to use nature conservation as a measure against climate change is limited.

  • 6.
    Huang, B.
    et al.
    College of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Department of Botany and BIodiversity Research, Faculty of Life Science, University of Vienna, Austria.
    Life cycle sustainability assessment of ground source heat pump in Shanghai, China2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 119, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing worldwide demand for Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction has led to a new age of energy saving. Besides the energy saving extent, the costs of energy saving measures as well as the environmental and social impacts are also necessary to be evaluated in order to make sure that the application of these measures can also meet sustainable development requirements. Thus, a sustainability evaluation method based on Life Cycle Theory is innovatively designed in this study. We present its new aspects, describe its working steps in detail and also test this new method by means of a case study on Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP), which is a renewable technology that is widely applied in the building sector in China. Data for the case study is collected by literature review and site investigation. Results show that the energy consumption of the investigated GSHP cases has an energy saving rate as around 40.2%.The main environmental impacts of GSHP are found to be global warming, acidification and eutrophication in the production process, and soil temperature change in the operation process. The prevention cost of the environmental impacts is around 15.84 RMB/m2 in the production process, and 5 RMB/m2 in the operation process. The payback time of our cases is around 4 years, and it will rise to 4.29 years if accounting the environmental prevention cost. We conclude based on the case study that our assessment method proofs to be useful as it can demonstrate comprehensive characteristics of sustainability for energy saving measures in the whole life cycle. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 7.
    Huang, B.
    et al.
    College of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Department of Botany and Biodiversiy Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.
    Low carbon technology assessment and planning-Case analysis of building sector in Chongming, Shanghai2016In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, Vol. 86, p. 324-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to comparatively analyze the carbon reduction potential of several low carbon technologies by means of different assessment and planning methods for regional development. Seven commonly used building energy saving technologies are evaluated and the priority-setting among them is identified on the example of the building sector in Chongming Island, Shanghai. By applying Decoupling Theory, the CO2 emission reduction extent under a low carbon scenario and an ideal scenario are estimated for 2030. The required application areas for different technology schemes are calculated using the Technology Combination Planning Method. In order to further find out required application areas for each technology under the least costs, the Goal Programming Method is then applied. Findings of the Technology Combination Planning Method reveal that the combination of energy saving technologies with high GHG emission reduction such as building insulation and geothermal heat pump have obvious effect in helping reducing the required technology application area. Goal Programming provides results for the required application area of each technology, and the minimum emission reduction cost is found as 2.54 × 108 US dollar under low carbon scenario and 3.50 × 108 US dollar under ideal scenario. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 8.
    Huang, B.
    et al.
    College of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.
    Geng, Y.
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Analysis of existing building energy saving policies in Japan and China2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 112, p. 1510-1518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building sector accounts for a large percentage of the total national energy consumption in most of the countries, thus it is critical to formulate and implement appropriate energy saving policies in the building sector. This paper focuses on energy saving policies in the building sector by conducting a comparative study between Japan and China. The exiting Building Energy Saving (BES) policies, actual effectiveness of policy implementation and obstacles to the effective policy implementation are compared in sequence. Related policies are categorized into four groups: control and regulatory instruments; economic/market-based instruments; fiscal instruments and information and voluntary actions. Policy effect analysis identifies that BES policies have promoted building energy saving in both Japan and China. Obstacles comparison reveals that Japan and China shared many obstacles including high transaction costs and lack of applicable methodology. Compared with Japan, China is suffering more obstacles such as inefficient enforcement, insufficient levels of information and awareness and immature financial regulation system. Based on the previous findings, common suggestions for overcoming these obstacles of BES policies in Japan and China are presented, such as the accurate methods of baseline identification and emission accountings, innovative incentives, and more capacity building activities. Distinct suggestions for Japan and China are also added by considering their own situations so that both countries can further improve their BES policies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 9.
    Huang, B.
    et al.
    College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, China.
    Yang, H.
    College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, China.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    United Nations University-Institute of Advanced Studies, Tokyo, Japan.
    Guo, R.
    College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, China.
    Sustainability assessment of low carbon technologies-case study of the building sector in China2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 32, p. 244-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to meet the goals of GHG reduction and sustainability in industry development, strategies are needed that are reducing GHG emissions without compromising other economic, environmental and social priorities. In this paper, existing low carbon and sustainability requirements and evaluation methods are comparatively analyzed based on an in-depth literature review. Based on this analysis, multi-attributive assessment is selected as the methodological basis of our envisaged assessment framework; modified indicators and classified values are designed accordingly. The building sector in China is analyzed as a case study. Eleven main building energy saving technologies are assessed. The results show that under the sustainability criterion, the priority order of the assessed technologies is as follows: geothermal heat pump; solar thermal; solar PV; air conditioning energy saving; central heating system energy saving; building enclosure; lighting energy conservation; electric water heater energy saving, washing machine energy saving, refrigerator energy saving (these three have equal priority), and cooking appliance energy saving. The GHG and sustainability properties of technologies are discussed by comparing the indicator scores of the two aspects. The designed evaluation method can be used in regional cases if data resources are available; and for other sectors after indicator modification. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Hubacek, K.
    et al.
    Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Future generations: Economic, legal and institutional aspects2008In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 413-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In economics, the issue of 'future generations' is mainly related to the environmental problems of resource consumption and pollution and their distribution over long time horizons. This paper critically discusses fundamental concepts in economics, such as efficiency and optimality, in relation to the incorporation of future generations in present day decision-making. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and discounting are used as a starting point and criticized for its inherent flaws such as incommensurability of values and its tendency to hide rather than reveal underlying values which are assumed to be fixed. We then investigate alternative approaches, in which, unlike in CBA, the preferences are not assumed to be a priori but must be constructed. Thus, interest groups or individuals must sit down together and figure out what things seem to be worth. The aim is to involve all interested parties in planning for the future. Similarly, on a national and regional level, increasingly stakeholder processes, deliberative and interest group procedures are used to develop strategies and visions for resource management and conservation. A similar case can be made for institutions at the international level. The legal examples provided in this paper show that rather than only installing an institution such as the guardian for the future on the global level, more 'democratized' bottom up approaches might be more appropriate. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Iasmina Roman, A.
    et al.
    Division of Conservation Biology, Vegetation Ecology and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Wien, Austria.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Environmental Law Centre, Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Multilevel coordination and cooperation during implementing supranational environmental legislation: A case study on invasive alien species2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination and cooperation are necessary topics to strengthen international environmental agreements that improve action against worldwide challenges towards sustainable development and environmental protection, such as invasive alien species (IAS). This study aims to assess to what extent national and transnational cooperation and coordination influences the implementation of a supranational regulation against IAS based on an example from the European Union (EU). Data is used from a broader study, including 47 responses to an online questionnaire and 22 interviews completed by experts from two countries (Austria and Romania), together with in depth literature. Additionally, the IAS-Regulation is analyzed from the perspective of cooperation and coordination. The terms "cooperation" and "coordination" were found within the text of the IAS-Regulation 11 and nine times respectively, whereas their context was transnational and national levels mainly, and transnational, respectively. It was further acknowledged from the majority of the answers from the survey respondents that the national coordination and cooperation is weaker than the transnational level due to the influence of the national competence distribution. Results from the interviews are separated into 'transnational' and 'national' cooperation and coordination. They show that the majority of the 47 responses indicate that the distribution of competence is one of the main influencing factors on the implementation. It is concluded that the current situation of cooperation and coordination in Austria and Romania renders it difficult for the European Commission to receive a realistic view about IAS and the implementation of the IAS Regulation in the two countries; hence, it is difficult to offer helpful support especially due to poor national cooperation. The current study can serve as a blueprint for further studies. Even in regional integration contexts beyond the EU, it can prove helpful to assess the impact of different kinds of competence distribution on the implementation of common norms. Thus, this research can path the way innovatively and serve as a comparative example for similar future studies.

  • 12.
    Li, W.
    et al.
    Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Austria.
    Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, Vol. 182, p. 429-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the ‘fitness for purpose’ of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges.

  • 13.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    3-D Sustainability: An approach for priority setting in situation of conflicting interests towards a Sustainable Development2008In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide a new approach to objectively assess hierarchies and priority setting in the relationship between environmental, social and economic sustainability within Sustainable Development. After a literature review, several widely used conceptual figures (diagrams) describing this relationship were assessed using SWOT analyses in order to identify the major weaknesses in these pictorial descriptions. Based on the findings, a new concept called '3-D Sustainability' has been developed and is presented visually as well as is described in the text. This concept introduces and ranks criteria for the assessment of hierarchies within, and conflicts of interests between, social, environmental and economic sustainability (the three dimensions of sustainability). These criteria are applied to several existing hierarchies and solutions to conflicts of interests. Based on the SWOT analyses, the main shortcomings of the widely used conceptual figures were identified as (1) misinterpretation of embeddings, (2) misjudgement of equity between the three dimensions of sustainability, (3) a lack of expression of limitations, and (4) lack of adequate decision support. These shortcomings are overcome (theoretically and in practice) by '3-D Sustainability', a slightly more complex, but conceptually richer, figure than the widely used conceptual figures assessed. In particular, the shift of the burden of proof within the three sustainability dimensions is argued as a main solution. The application of the criteria of '3-D Sustainability' to several real examples indicates its usefulness in decision support, while justifying more sustainable hierarchies and solutions in the settlement of conflicts of interests within the three sustainability dimensions. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    3-d sustainability and its contribution to governance assessment in legal terms: Examples and perspectives2015In: Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development: Horizontal and Sectorial Policy Issues / [ed] Mauerhofer, V, Springer International Publishing , 2015, p. 35-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental, social and economic capitals, capacities and carrying capacities provide the theoretical construct of the three dimensions of a sustainable development. Based thereon, this chapter aims firstly to provide a conceptual overview on two main objectives of multilevel rule of law systems that should be addressed when adapting these systems towards a more sustainable direction. This first aim is addressed based on ‘3-D Sustainability’, a concept offering six flexibly applicable decision-making criteria for priority setting between these sustainability dimensions based on the burden of proof in the sense of the precautionary principle. The theoretical application of these criteria on several real-world examples of legislative acts indicates the concept’s usefulness in practice. The two main objectives identified within this first aim are to stay through international environmental policy within the environmentally sustainable scale and to politically define flexible legal trade-off mechanisms, which more sustainably deal with conflicts among these sustainability dimensions. Secondly, the chapter strives to identify ways to strengthen the application of the existing international environmental legislation. Thus, several innovative mechanisms are identified that overcome current implementation and enforcement deadlocks, without changing existing laws, but also increasing its direct effect. In summary, the chapter innovatively offers—based on ongoing research—several solution proposals for addressing in a sustainable manner geopolitical and organizational scales as well as trade-offs when it comes to re-writing existing environmental legal institutions (de lege ferenda). It further provides proposals for the innovative implementation of existing normativeregimes without modifying legal text (de lege lata). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 15.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, Faculty Centre for Biodiversity, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.
    A bottom-up 'Convention-Check' to improve top-down global protected area governance2011In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 877-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the so-called 'Convention-Check' as a new bottom-up approach of assessing the contribution of large-scale protected areas to the implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) that are introduced from the top down. The assessment consists of three major sub-sequential parts: the current contribution of a protected area to the implementation of the MEAs, recommendations for improvements and - through an ex-post-evaluation - the impact of the recommendations provided. The Convention-Check is carried out in a total of ten methodical working steps. A very first application of the method is presented based on the example of an Austrian National Park. In this example, a Convention-Check was carried out using five MEAs and was evaluated after two years. The results show that there is great variability regarding the number and intensity of implementation measures already taken by the different levels of governance addressed. Potential reasons and perspectives for the example situation, as well as possibilities for future improvement of the method and its global application on large scale protected areas, are discussed. A significant and causal impact of the Convention-Check towards improved protected area governance is already shown by the Austrian example after two years. The Convention-Check combines different working methods from social as well as natural sciences in a new way. Its innovative approach is designed to overcome deadlocks in the top-down implementation of MEAs by means of bottom-up initiatives out of large scale protected areas, and aims to contribute towards improved global protected area governance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 16.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    A global conceptual framework for categorizing environmental change based on property rights and compensation2015In: Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development: Horizontal and Sectorial Policy Issues / [ed] Mauerhofer, V, Springer International Publishing , 2015, p. 251-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper offers a new conceptual framework based on property rights and financial compensation in different nature conservation situations in order to provide a globally applicable system for the assessment of participation of public and private stakeholders in envisaged changes within those situations. These situations of change represent a modification from conservation toward non-conservation and vice versa. The framework distinguishes further between governance systems based on command and control as wells as on negotiation. Within these main change situations and governance types, the framework allows the distribution of change situations into 8 main sections. These main sections are further separated into 32 sub-sections by means of different property right and compensations situations among public and private stakeholders. The theoretical utility of this new framework is then demonstrated by testing it by means of a random sample of 74 papers (25%) out of representative 297 papers from the academic literature dealing with property rights. These 74 papers provided practical examples for situations of change in conservation as evidence for most of the 32 sub-section. Several papers provide examples for more than one sub-section. The allocation of papers to these different subsections is described and discussed in detail. This widely possible allocation proofs in general the global applicability and usefulness of the new framework. The framework also proofed to be appropriate for formally (rule of law based) and informally (customary law based) institutionalized situations where rights are given to public and private stakeholders for other practical cases of public participation. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 17.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation- and Landscape Ecology, Faculty Centre for Biodiversity, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.
    A 'Legislation-Check' based on '3-D Sustainability' - Addressing global precautionary land governance2012In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 652-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide a new and practical approach called 'Legislation-Check' to identifying shortcomings in national legislation in terms of how well it implements sustainable development, and ways of improving the legislation. National legislation was chosen as it represents a sort of 'skeleton of society' and defines the status quo, as well as setting the main environmental, societal and economic directions of the population covered.The approach presented is based on a new concept called '3-D Sustainability', which focuses on the precautionary principle. 3-D Sustainability provides criteria in a flexible hierarchy for solving conflicts of interest between economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In this paper, these criteria and dimensions are applied to various sectors of Austrian national environmental legislation to identify the shortcomings of the legislation and ways of addressing these shortcomings.This paper shows, by way of quantitative data, a significant increase in the use of sustainability related terms in generally applicable legal instruments (both federal and provincial) in Austria since 2003. In qualitative terms the results of the paper further indicate, using national environmental legislation, several hierarchical disorders between different legal acts and opportunities for improving them. Furthermore, inadequacies in the way that the legislation handles sustainable development and a total lack of overall objectives and targets in terms of sustainability are highlighted, which can jeopardise sustainable development.The concept of '3-D Sustainability' has not previously focused on national legislation, despite the practical importance of the legal implementation and enforcement on this geographic level. Hence, this paper contributes, through scientifically-based decision support, to practical pathways for the innovation of institutional, procedural and substantive arrangements in existing legislation.The approach presented in this paper is not restricted to environmental issues, but is applicable to all thematic areas. It is also not geographically limited, but could be implemented in any country and also beyond national borders. Furthermore, the approach can be easily replicated and provides systematically gained results for global governance change towards sustainable development. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 18.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Activities of environmental convention-secretariats: Laws, functions and discretions2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 3116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilateral Environmental Agreements-MEAs-are indispensable legal frameworks for environmental sustainability and also define the operating rules of their implementation bodies ("Secretariats"). The contribution assesses in how far the norms defining Secretariats' functions differ and also reflect on actual functions for three MEAs, namely (1) the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora-CITES (1973), (2) the Convention on Biological Diversity-CBD (1992), and (3) the Convention on Migratory Species-CMS (1979). It does so by comparative legal interpretation of the main norms of these MEAs laying down the functions of its respective Secretariats as well as an in-depth review of academic literature about these functions. The results for these three conventions divide into nine functional areas and show an unexpectedly wide range of different functions laid down in the conventions as well as extensive variety in the discretion for many of these functional areas. Some potential explanations of these formal differences are provided. The paper further finds that actually executed functions may not be fully covered by the underlying legal norms but rather by "flexible" highest governing bodies of MEAs and concludes that occasionally an unusual legislative style was chosen, and shows potential solutions and future research directions. 

  • 19.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    An introduction and overview on law, politics and governance: Institutions, organizations and procedures for Ecological Economics2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 165, article id 106396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this Special Issue (SI) are to provide a broad and structured overview on literature published related to Law and Ecological Economics (EE) as well as to offer latest insights into this wide and further emerging combined field of research by means of contributed papers. Thus, this introduction into the SI firstly implements a systematic database term search and further analyses 129 papers identified. It was found that the majority refers to the “laws” of thermodynamics. Only 33 publications could be related to EE and Law, latter in the sense of the Rule of Law, with quite even allocation among the three streams identified, namely theoretical and philosophical considerations, strategic transition and transformation studies, and practical case studies. The literature overview also chronologically indicates that the vast majority of those 33 papers have been written during the past 15 years. The second part of this introduction describes the content of the seven contributions to this SI more in detail. Afterwards it shows that these contributions tend similarly more into the directions of providing strategic transition and transformation studies as well as practical case studies, indicating an overall shift from theory towards practical implementation of EE within Law. 

  • 20.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Book review: Technology, Globalization, and Sustainable Development: Transforming the Industrial State2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 165Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Conclusions2015In: Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development: Horizontal and Sectorial Policy Issues / [ed] Mauerhofer, V., Springer International Publishing , 2015, p. 631-640Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the main findings of the previous chapters. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 22. Mauerhofer, Volker
    EU-Gebiets- und Artenschutz-Judikatur: CEF-Maßnahmen ade? (Teil I): Gleichzeitig eine Analyse der einschlägigen EuGH-Judikatur seit 20142019In: Recht der umvelt, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 66-70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23. Mauerhofer, Volker
    EU-Gebiets- und Artenschutz-Judikatur: CEF-Maßnahmen ade? (Teil II): Gleichzeitig eine Analyse der einschlägigen EuGH-Judikatur seit 20142019In: Recht der umvelt, no 3, p. 109-113Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Environmental Law Centre of the Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Environmental Research, Graduate School of Law, Meiji University, B730,14 Gokan,1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Identifying Legal Priorities for Policy Making: A Forest-society-economy Context Analysed by 3-D Sustainability2018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 152, p. 183-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-related legal questions appear often interwoven with complicated networks of numerous other themes at several geographical levels. This paper introduces a new analytic tool based on 3-D Sustainability to restructure complex question bundles from policy practice to ease and support practical legal solution prioritization. This approach is applied to the enviro-socio-economic context of forests and their multifunctional use in Japan. First it is shown how the initial problem formulations from practice listed in a table are addressed by the different categories of 3-D Sustainability. Then it is presented how the order of the initial problem formulation was in the table reshaped based on this approach and also which problems were combined for a common search of solutions. In conclusion, the new analytic tool proofed to be applicable also in practice and provided already appropriate support to gain first ideas of solutions including legal ones and their preliminary prioritization, although the work is further in progress. The tool represents a rather simple but effective methodological option to structure complex question bundles and prioritizing solutions also for further legal measures, not only limited to issues of forests or geographically restricted to Japan, and appears to be widely applicable and definitely replicable.

  • 25. Mauerhofer, Volker
    Ignorance, Uncertainty and Biodiversity: Decision-Making by the Court of Justice of the European Union2019In: Part II - Legitimacy and Scientific Certainty: Environmental Adjudication, Use of Experts and the Limits of Science / [ed] Christina Voigt, Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 146-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Introduction2015In: Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development: Horizontal and Sectorial Policy Issues / [ed] Mauerhofer, V, Springer International Publishing , 2015, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview on the content of this edited volume. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 27.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    University of Vienna, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Austria.
    Introduction to the Special Issue: Public participation in environmental and land use policy in East Asia2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 52, p. 477-480Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Environmental Law Centre of the Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Environmental Research, Graduate School of Law, Meiji University, B730, 14 Gokan, 1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan.
    Legal aspects of ecosystem services: An introduction and an overview2018In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 29, p. 185-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory contribution to a Special Issue (SI) titled “Legal Aspects of Ecosystem Services” intends to provide both a short introduction on the SI-topic as well as a brief overview on the content of each paper therein. The introduction aims to provide an overall entry point into the topic from a legal as well as an interdisciplinary perspective. It first offers initial insights into the relationship between the rule of law as one socially constructed normative framework and ecosystem services. Furthermore, it also points out interrelations among rule-focused, economic-focused and information-focused incentives, all with the potential to influence human behaviour with regard to ecosystem services. The overview delivers as a sort of short-cut a table of authors, levels of the geopolitical scale addressed, types of analysis implemented and themes focused upon within the Special Issue. It further provides an overview of the main direction of each contribution to this SI. The conclusions strive to provide a brief summary of the “why” the “when” the “where” the “how” and the “what” of current and future research on legal aspect of ecosystem services.

  • 29.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Legal aspects of sustainable development: Horizontal and sectorial policy issues2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses legal aspects of sustainable development and offers the latest thinking on a wide range of current themes. By taking a cross-cutting approach, it adds considerably to the exploration of this emerging scientific field. Twenty-nine original contributions present innovative thoughts and replicable ideas from this exciting, new area, which will be of value to practitioners and researchers alike. These contributions are allocated into a horizontal and sectorial part. The section covering horizontal policies has five sub-parts: 1) general aspects; 2) human and intellectual property rights; 3) communication and social enterprise governance; 4) public participation and 5) assessment tools. The second part on sectorial policies also has five sub-parts: 1) forest and water management; 2) renewable energy; 3) cities, waste and material management; 4) biodiversity, nature conservation, oceans and spatial planning and 5) agriculture and rural policy. It offers a multifaceted discussion of sustainable development and law by authors from five continents and from both the public and the private sectors. This selection guarantees a broad view that presents the more theoretical arguments from the academic as well as the practical perspective. Furthermore, the authorship includes senior, highly experienced academics and practitioners as well as those at the start of their career. This ensures thoughtful expansions of established theories as well as the emergence of innovative ideas. Moreover, the ten sub-parts bring together likeminded thoughts, resulting in an exchange of different viewpoints on a similar theme. This allows the readers to concentrate on individual chapters, while at the same time discovering a variety of thoughts and ideas. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 30.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Environmental Law Centre of the Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Environmental Research, Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Legal Institutions and Ecological Economics: Their Common Contribution for Achieving a Sustainable Development2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 156, p. 350-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims firstly to provide a conceptual overview on the two main objectives that should be addressed when modifying international environmental law and subordinated law in a more sustainable direction in the sense of Ecological Economics. This first aim is addressed based on ongoing research on ‘3-D Sustainability’ a concept providing decision-making support for priority setting between environmental, social and economic dimensions within sustainable development. The two main objectives identified within this aim are to stay by means of international environmental law within the ecologically sustainable scale and to legally define flexible trade-off mechanisms, which better deal with conflicts of interests among the three sustainability dimensions. Secondly, the paper strives to identify ways to further strengthen the application of the existing international law in this respect. Thus, several innovative mechanisms within international law are identified that overcome current implementation and enforcement deadlocks, without necessarily changing the existing law, in order to serve a sustainable development in the sense of Ecological Economics.

  • 31.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), 6F International Organizations Center, Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-8502, Japan.
    Lose less instead of win more: The failure of decoupling and perspectives for competition in a degrowth economy2013In: Environmental Values, ISSN 0963-2719, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide a comprehensive explanation for the likely failure in the decoupling of economic growth from environmental degradation, and also intends to offer perspectives on the new role of competition in a steady state or a degrowth economy. The analysis is based on five different scenarios, and uses the European Union as an example. It is concluded that we must prepare ourselves for a potential incompatibility between sustainability and economic growth. In this respect one can say that the current EU situation is in some ways already quite close to an economic system without growth, although far from sustainable as yet. Two of the four perspectives developed, regarding the new role of competition in an economy without growth, indicate an increase of direct and indirect competition over resources. The other two perspectives point out that regulatory public intervention as well as financial intervention will increase in order to ensure that - despite the revised role of competition - the poorest are still given a chance to develop (e.g. through basic minimum incomes), even in a degrowth economy.

  • 32.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Missing links: How individual's can contribute to reserve policy enforcement on the example of the European Union2010In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 601-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comment looks at opportunities available to individuals alone or as a member of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to enforce reserve policy at the EU level to improve the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation. Based on a literature review, recent developments in certain EU policies (i.e., Nature Conservation Policy, Common Agricultural Policy, Regional Policy, Århus-Public Participation and Access to Justice) are assessed by means of a SEPO analysis. SEPO is a French acronym that stands for the successes (succès), failures (echècs), potentials (potentialités), and obstacles (obstacles). This method aims to analyse a situation from four dimensions of the past (successes and failures) and future (potentials and obstacles). The analysis shows different ways in which individuals can contribute to reserve policy enforcement (i.e., by public interest complaint based on private rights) and identifies public funding opportunities for research and management of reserves. Some of these mechanisms have just recently been introduced (e.g., Århus rights and several funding opportunities). Not surprisingly, the widest set of opportunities is provided by the Nature Conservation Policy. The other three policies (Common Agricultural Policy, Regional Policy, Århus-Public Participation and Access to Justice) touch on reserve conservation only in an additional way, either horizontally or vertically. The analysis also identifies inter-linkages between the different policies with regard to reserve conservation, which may be used by individuals to enforce policy either in a protective or cooperative way. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  • 33.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.
    Public participation in environmental matters: Compendium, challenges and chances globally2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 52, p. 481-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide a global and comparative overview of Public Participation in Environmental Matters in the sense of the Aarhus convention. The method applied is an in-depth literature review in particular of research papers, legal documents, policy papers, which was implemented by means of electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus) as well as by internet research using terms such as public participation, access to information, participation in decision-making and access to justice in combination with continent names. The results were then analysed according to the five continents. They were then divided as well as discussed regarding general aspects, access to information, access to decision-making and access to justice. The results for the five continents show regionally and nationally within the three pillars, access to information, participation in decision-making and access to justice large differences. While access to information is widely legally established within all regions on all continents, access to justice is the one sector of the three mentioned in Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration which has obtained the least reflection in legislation and implementation so far. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 34.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), 6F International Organizations Center, Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220 8502, Japan.
    Social capital, social capacity and social carrying capacity: Perspectives for the social basics within environmental sustainability2013In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, Vol. 53, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to the continued development of a coherent theory and practical implementation of sustainable development in the social context. It does so by presenting a systematic discussion on 'social capital', 'social capacity' and 'social carrying capacity' under the umbrella of environmental carrying capacity regarding environmental sustainability. Based on an in-depth literature review, the relationship between social capital and human capital is assessed in detail, the overlap between the social capacity approach and different capability approaches closely discussed and the use as well as the meaning of social carrying capacity in science and in practice for environmental sustainability is more intensively explored. In summary, the results of the analysis provide for all the three assessed terms an innovative variety of possible new contributions to future policy proposals and research priorities for social sustainability regarding population growth, social riots, overwork and technical overload obeying the environmental limits. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 35.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), 6F International Organizations Center, Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-8502, Japan.
    The 'Governance-Check': Assessing the sustainability of public spatial decision-making structures2013In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 328-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the so-called 'Governance-Check', a new approach for assessing governance structures and making them more sustainable, and also applies it on the example of Austrian environmental institutions and organisations. Three parts are analysed mainly by means of the concept '3-D Sustainability' (Mauerhofer, 2008a): (1) the constitutional distribution of competences among public authorities on a spatial scale, (2) the distribution of different competences to a single public authority based on sub-constitutional legislation, and (3) the relationship between different public authorities in a federal state based on sub-constitutional legislation. For all the three parts, public authorities are assessed regarding the public powers given to them to govern environmental, social and economic capital and capacity as capital authorities and/or capacity authorities. The results present for all three parts innovative and practical pathways towards a more sustainable type of governance, with the aim of overcoming the incoherencies, conflicts of interests and inadequate levels of cooperation which could be identified. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 36.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Vienna, Austria.
    The law, ecosystem services and ecosystem functions: An in-depth overview of coverage and interrelation2018In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 29, p. 190-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services have been particularly since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 a broadly analysed issue. This discussion has been widely led by scholars from environmental and related economic sciences, while social scientists have paid less attention and legal scholars have hardly entered a deeper controversy about the topic. This paper addresses the following questions 1. in how far law in general already currently covers – perhaps not explicitly - ecosystem services 2. in how far law goes beyond the pure coverage of these ‘services’ and additionally covers functions of ecosystems which usually are not already considered ‘services’ 3. which consequences arise from this differentiated coverage by law, and 4. which services/functions of ecosystems the law and even governance in the widest sense are not able to cover at all or in particular situations. The whole analysis is implemented by an in-depth review of existing academic literature as well as by means of theoretical and practical cases which support the arguments brought forward. First, it is shown by examples that law covers since millennia the essence of all the main different ecosystem services but not necessarily by using the term ecosystem services. Secondly, several cases describe how law addresses functions of ecosystems which often are not considered (anymore) by humans as ecosystem services, such as river floods, springtides and volcano eruptions. Thirdly, among the consequences found are conflicting interests between more ecocentric related functions and more anthropocentric related services of ecosystems. Law has played in the past a pivotal role in fostering these ecosystem services. With regard to ecosystem functions the role of law has during the past been a less enabling, but rather a restricting one. However, some recent changes of this situation, e.g. in flood protection or wilderness conservation are shown. Fourthly, the paper indicates e.g. natural genetic modifications and fertilizing through volcano eruption as services/functions of ecosystems which the law and even governance in the widest sense is not able to cover at all in the sense of enabling, but only – if at all - can cover in a reactive way. The results of this contribution provide a basic assessment of the relationship between law and the functions as well as the services of ecosystems. In this way, the findings critically reflect potentials and pitfalls to be globally considered when intending to apply law on these features.

  • 37.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Wilderness protection in Austria2016In: Wilderness Protection in Europe: The Role of International, European and National Law / [ed] Bastmeijer, K, Cambridge University Press , 2016, p. 247-268Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction ‘Nature needs protection and refuge areas where it can unfold without influence from the human hand’. This statement was made in 2012 - not by a classical deep ecologist - but by the CEO of the publicly owned company Österreichische Bundesforste (OeBf). This company is responsible for managing ten per cent of the national territory of Austria, including fifteen per cent of its woodlands and over one hundred lakes. This statement was not unexpected. It was made in connection with the presentation of a study entitled ‘Wilderness in Austria? Challenges for society, nature conservation and the management of areas of unspoiled nature in times of climate change’, co-launched with the World Wide Fund for Nature Austria (WWF Austria) in September 2012. This initiative is illustrative of a new type of collaboration in relation to wilderness protection in Austria, mainly addressing one specific wider type of ecosystem, namely forests, but also alpine moorlands which are managed by the OeBf. These moorlands and the only officially declared wilderness area of Austria, all of which are located in the Alpine Region, in conjunction with the specific legal aspects of forestry have already been covered in Chapter 9 of this book. This chapter instead focuses on the role of law in protecting wilderness in Austria in areas beyond alpine habitats. The analysis is grounded in an in-depth review of literature, relevant legal sources and legal databanks. Based on these sources, more detailed information has been collected with respect to a number of specific areas. After discussing the relevance of the wilderness concept in Austrian society (Section 2), attention is given to the definition of wilderness in an Austrian legal context (Section 3). The main body of this chapter addresses the relevance of Austrian law in protecting wilderness (Section 4). The extent to which this protection is also ensured in practice is discussed subsequently (Section 5). The final section includes some main conclusions and the author’s personal reflection on the future of wilderness protection in Austria (Section 6). © Cambridge University Press 2016.

  • 38.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    Environmental Law Centre of the Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Environmental Research, Graduate School of Law, Meiji University, B730, 14 Gokan, 1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Essl, I.
    Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    An analytical framework for solutions of conflicting interests between climate change and biodiversity conservation laws on the example of Vienna/Austria2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 178, p. 343-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures that aim to enhance different environmental assets are increasingly conflicting also in urban areas and there is a lack as well as a need for science-based assessment tools that also provide solution-oriented approaches which work in practice. This paper aims to provide a new analytical framework for conflicts of interest between such measures. The framework is applied to climate change and biodiversity (including ecosystem) conservation law as well as thereon based measures and tested on the example of a city embedded in different geopolitical governance levels. The analysis is based on an in-depth literature review and develops an analytical framework in particular grounded upon differentiations between actions and inactions as well as between voluntary and compulsory activities. When testing this framework for the Viennese case, the authors systematically discuss the different types of Viennese endangered habitat types especially according to their required legal and other governance interventions, particularly under the climate change related forest law regime and biodiversity conservation law (both especially against the background of the Natura 2000 scheme of the European Union). The paper explains the logic and structure of the new framework and describes its theoretical applicability on conflicts of interests in general. Furthermore, the case study tested on the city of Vienna/Austria indicates also the practical applicability of the framework and offers different solution approaches de lege lata (how the law is) and de lege ferenda (how the law should be).

  • 39.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Galle, E.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Onida, M.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    The alpine convention and wilderness protection2016In: Wilderness Protection in Europe: The Role of International, European and National Law / [ed] Bastmeijer, K, Cambridge University Press , 2016, p. 199-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The international treaty on the protection of the Alps (‘Alpine Convention’, hereafter ‘AC’) was signed during the Second International Alpine Conference on 7 November 1991 in Salzburg (Austria) by the representatives of the Alpine countries (Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein and Switzerland) and the European Community. The Republic of Slovenia signed the AC in March 1993 and the Principality of Monaco followed in 1994. The AC came into force on 6 March 1995. It constitutes a Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEA) taking a specific regional geographical approach. The AC is an international legal instrument for sustainable development and is based on the awareness that environment and development have close interlinkages. It is an instrument that, with its all-encompassing and cross-border approach, has attained a special status among regional environmental agreements. Unlike other MEAs, the AC does not exclusively address certain ecosystems, habitat types and species, but instead has a very broad thematic scope relating to a whole mountain region. It can be therefore considered one of the general MEAs related to, among other aspects, biodiversity protection. Furthermore, in view of its geographic scope, the AC can be considered as being based on an ecosystem approach: it is the occurrence of certain geomorphological and biological characteristics that determines the geographical scope of application of the AC, rather than national or regional borders. The AC applies to an area of approximately 190,000 km2 across eight States, with a population of 14 million people. Austria and Italy account for about two-thirds of the area and population. Some twenty-five per cent of the territory of the AC is addressed through different protection regimes. Population density in the Alps is high if only the area suitable for human settlement is taken into account. For obvious reasons, the concentration of wilderness is greater at higher altitudes. The Western Alps account for eighty-one of the eighty-two peaks that exceed 4,000 metres in altitude (these are mostly concentrated around the Regions of Haute Savoie, Valle d’Aosta and Valais). Clearly, these least accessible regions, as well as some scarcely inhabited valleys in the Maritime, Cottian and Julian Alps, host the largest unspoiled natural areas. © Cambridge University Press 2016.

  • 40.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), Japan.
    Hubacek, K.
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, United States.
    Coleby, A.
    Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    From polluter pays to provider gets: Distribution of rights and costs under payments for ecosystem services2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Should society have the right to freely available clean air and water, or should people be required to pay for these as commodities just as they do for many other goods or services that they consume? With this question and further questions on environmental governance in mind, we reviewed the paradigm shift in natural resource management from the polluter pays principle (PPP), which focuses on polluters and enforcement of thresholds, to the principle of payments for ecosystem services (PES), which emphasizes provider-based economic approaches. Given that there are conflicts of interest over natural resources and ecosystem services (ESs), these conflicts could be resolved through rights and/or cost assignments via third-party intervention, i.e., by the "state," or through private compensation beyond initial regulation and state-initiated assignments of cost. Our analysis includes an in-depth literature review and a description of existing policies on ESs. We also examine the so-called Coase theorem based on a "neutral" situation where no rights or costs are distributed in advance. This theorem provides room for the PPP approaches and the provider-gets approaches. Both of these approaches should ensure, given certain assumptions, an economically efficient allocation of resources; however, they still ignore two indispensable issues, namely, the ecologically sustainable scale and inherent qualities of ecosystems and the distributional effects. With regard to the relationship between these two sets of approaches and their respective relationship to the legal framework, PES programs can evolve instead of PPP where no regulations are in place, existing regulations are deemed to be insufficiently formulated, or regulations are not enforced at all. We also further address some critical issues that can arise when PES programs evolve instead of PPP in practice, such as the general necessity of PES to coexist with basic rights and legal obligations, inappropriate lexicographic claims from providers of ESs, alongside claims for potential damages and the relationship of PES with the intrinsic motivation of service providers. Critically, insufficient attention has been paid to the fact that by replacing the earlier PPP doctrine with the "provider-gets" principle, rights are redistributed from the public to the service provider with important distributional implications for society. Therefore, the replacement of PPP with PES includes obstacles as well as opportunities, in particular for the relationship between rich and poor, and developing and developed countries. © 2013 by the author(s).

  • 41.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    Meiji University, Environmental Law Centre of the Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Environmental Research, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ichinose, T.
    Keio University, Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Endo 5322, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0882, Japan.
    Blackwell, B. D.
    UNE Business School and UNE Centre for Local Government, University of New England, Armidale 2351, NSW 6773, Australia.
    Willig, M. R.
    University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Center for Environmental Sciences & Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3107 Horsebarn Hill Road, Building 4 Annex, Storrs, CT, United States.
    Flint, C. G.
    Utah State University, Department of Sociology, Social Work & Anthropology, 0730 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, United States.
    Krause, M. S.
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socio-Economics, Eberswalder Str. 84, Müncheberg, 15374, Germany.
    Penker, M.
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute for Sustainable Economic Development/Regional Development Group, Vienna, Feistmantelstr. 4, Vienna, 1180, Austria.
    Underuse of social-ecological systems: A research agenda for addressing challenges to biocultural diversity2018In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 72, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation is often operationalized as a minimization of human intervention in nature. However, many social-ecological systems depend on human interventions to maintain characteristics of biological diversity. Therefore, reduced use or full abandonment of such systems can diminish rather than enhance biological diversity and its related cultural diversity (biocultural diversity). We link the definition of “underuse” with the extinction rate used in the planetary boundaries framework to support a more objective use of the term. We execute a structured cross-continental review of underuse in social-ecological systems of regions that contain more affluent countries to frame a global research agenda on underuse. Our working approach delineates causes, consequences, and strategies concerning underuse. Based on this comparative review, we identify causes of underuse that are similar in different continents, including globalization, and demographic or structural change in Europe, Japan and Oceania. Conservation paradigms emphasizing wilderness ideals in policies are characteristic of underuse in North America, whereas post-socialist transformation processes characterize underuse in Eastern Europe. Land abandonment and de-intensification of use are a common result, particularly in marginal and protected areas. Consequences of the loss of biocultural diversity include the loss of ecosystem services, traditional knowledge, or landscape amenities. We identified a pervasive gap in transcontinental comparative research that stymies the development of effective strategies to reduce underuse of biological diversity and thereby maintain related cultural diversity. We advocate for a global research agenda on governance approaches that address the challenges of underuse. Within this agenda, we emphasize the need for an international cross-case synthesis and a trans-continental mapping of state and civil society-based interventions and co-management approaches to re-establish humans as parts of ecological systems. Such comparative work on best practice cases in a real-world context should enhance adaptive management of biocultural diversity and prevent extinction caused by underuse. Thus, this innovative connection between underuse and the planetary boundary extinction rate, along with our new global research agenda on underuse, should initiate much needed support for policy makers and natural resource managers who must decide on appropriate types and levels of human intervention to implement, both inside and outside of protected areas.

  • 42.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Austria.
    Kim, R. E.
    Griffith Law School, Griffith University, QLD, Australia.
    Stevens, C.
    United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS), Japan.
    When implementation works: A comparison of Ramsar Convention implementation in different continents2015In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, Vol. 51, p. 95-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the processes that shape implementation of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) in multilevel governance? In an attempt to address this question, we move from a top-down view of implementation as compliance with international rules to viewing it as a dynamic process shaped by action at various levels. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands offers an important context to understand the mechanisms that shape multilevel implementation outcomes. We examine Ramsar Convention implementation in Austria, Mexico, and the Republic of Korea in order to identify relevant processes that define multilevel implementation. These cases represent three different types of government, and shed light on the ways in which international law is implemented by respective governments. The Austrian case, a federal government, illustrates the ways in which subnational authorities (the provinces) are influenced by binding regional institutions (EU-rules) to create a more robust context for protection in terms of designation of Ramsar sites. The Mexican case, a semi-federal government, shows how spurred involvement by local NGOs, states, and scientists can result in significant expansion of efforts. The Korean case, a unitary government, demonstrates the ways in which aligning institutional interests (in this case local governments with national ministries) can lead to strong implementation. Analysis of these cases provides two robust findings and one deserving additional study. First, overlapping governance efforts where activity has ties with multiple regional and international biodiversity efforts tend to see cumulative implementation. Second, institutional and organizational complexity can provide opportunities for local actors to drive the implementation agenda through a mix of processes of coordination and contentious politics. A third, more tentative finding, is that multilevel funding sources can ease implementation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 43.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Austria.
    Larssen, C.
    Centre de Droit International, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, Brussels, B-1050, Belgium.
    Judicial perspectives from the European Union for Public Participation in Environmental Matters in East Asia2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 52, p. 552-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide judicial perspectives for Public Participation in Environmental Matters in East Asia based on the example of the European Union (EU). This is done both by means of an in-depth literature review which covers research papers, legislative documents and court decisions, and by means of a comparative analysis of court cases. The focus is on the implementation by the EU of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention, which applies and details Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration. The assessment starts by providing an overview of several legislative documents issued by the EU for different policy sectors and briefly describes the contents regarding the implementation of the Aarhus Convention. Based thereon, the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union is analysed. Seventeen judgements enforcing the Aarhus Convention for the EU level are described and their significance to a regional integration process is outlined. This provides valuable information to a region such as East Asia which plans to enter soon into a stronger regional integration process and which has the clear potential for improvement toward increased Public Participation in Environmental Matters based on the globally applicable Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 44.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Vienna, Austria.
    Laza, I.
    University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Vienna, Austria.
    How do ecosystem services perform in enforceable law?: Potentials and pitfalls within regional and national integration2018In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 29, p. 260-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services have constituted a highly discussed topic especially since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. This is in particular valid for the literature in environmental sciences and related economic sciences. The topic has gained less attention in other social sciences and up until now legal scholars have hardly taken up the issue for an in-depth analysis. Moreover in the legal practice the term has not played any substantial role apart from its inclusion in soft law documents that lack concrete and effective implementation including enforcement mechanisms. This paper addresses the issue of inclusion of the term ecosystem services in legislative documents with such mechanisms. Starting from a neutral position, it discusses the potentials and pitfalls of such an inclusion in the light of the ongoing contradictory discourse about the concept of ecosystem services. This is done by an in-depth review of existing academic literature as well as by empirical quantitative research on EU-law, and by a case study. This case study concerns the on-going assessment of the inclusion of the term ecosystem services into a binding legal act of regional integration on the example of the Regulation of the European Union (EU) on Invasive Alien species. The analysis also covers primary data derived from questionnaires and interviews completed by a wide range of stakeholders from two member states of the EU. The results provide an overview of opportunities and challenges of the inclusion of the term ecosystem services in this particular context of binding and enforceable regional integration law based also on a practical example. The ongoing implementation of this EU-Regulation can provide a blueprint for similar situations of coordinated legislative procedures between different levels of law-making and its implementation including enforcement. These situations can occur beyond a nation's borders or within. Similar research has not been implemented yet according to the knowledge of the authors. Therefore, the results of this contribution provide innovative insights into an ongoing legislative procedure with binding rules on ecosystem services and useful hinds for similar other prospective attempts worldwide.

  • 45.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Studies, Yokohama, Japan.
    Nyacuru, F.
    State attorney's office, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Biodiversity, migratory species and natural heritage2015In: Routledge Handbook of Global Environmental Politics / [ed] Harris, P.G, Taylor and Francis Inc. , 2015, p. 481-493Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Rupo, Daniela
    Univ Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Tarquinio, Lara
    Univ Pescara, Pescara, Italy.
    Special issue: Law and sustainable development2020In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Schindler, S.
    et al.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    Kropik, M.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    Euller, K.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    Bunting, S. W.
    Essex Sustainability Institute, School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, United Kingdom.
    Schulz-Zunkel, C.
    Department of Conservation Biology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig, 04318, Germany.
    Hermann, A.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    Hainz-Renetzeder, C.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    Kanka, R.
    Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences (ILE SAS), Štefánikova 3, Bratislava, 81499, Slovakia.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), Nishiku, Yokohama, 220-8502, Japan.
    Gasso, V.
    Dnipropetrovsk National University, prospekt Gagarina 72, 49010, Dnipropetrovsk, DSP-10, Ukraine.
    Krug, A.
    Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Konstantinstraße 110, Bonn, 53179, Germany.
    Lauwaars, S. G.
    Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, Rijkswaterstaat, Griffioenlaan 2, LA Utrecht, 3526, Netherlands.
    Zulka, K. P.
    Environment Agency Austria (EAA), Spittelauer Lände 5, Vienna, 1090, Austria.
    Henle, K.
    Department of Conservation Biology, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig, 04318, Germany.
    Hoffmann, M.
    Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, Brussels, 9500, Belgium.
    Biró, M.
    Ökológiai És Botanikai Intézet, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Ökológiai Kutatóközpont, Alkotmány u. 2-4., Budapest, 2163, Hungary.
    Essl, F.
    Service Conseil Zones Alluviales, Rue des Pêcheurs 8A, Yverdon les Bains, 1400, Switzerland.
    Jaquier, S.
    Service Conseil Zones Alluviales, Rue des Pêcheurs 8A, Yverdon les Bains, 1400, Switzerland.
    Balázs, L.
    Ökológiai És Botanikai Intézet, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Ökológiai Kutatóközpont, Alkotmány u. 2-4., Budapest, 2163, Hungary.
    Borics, G.
    Ökológiai És Botanikai Intézet, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Ökológiai Kutatóközpont, Alkotmány u. 2-4., Budapest, 2163, Hungary.
    Hudin, S.
    Fédération des Conservatoires d'Espaces Naturels, 6 rue Jeanne d'Arc, Orléans, 45000, France.
    Damm, C.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Geography and Geoecology, Division WWF-Institute of Floodplain Ecology, Josefstrasse 1, Rastatt, 76437, Germany.
    Pusch, M.
    Department of Limnology of Shallow Lakes and Lowland Rivers, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 301, Berlin, 12587, Germany.
    Van Der Sluis, T.
    Department of Landscape Ecology, Alterra, Wageningen UR P.O. Box 47, Wageningen, 6700 AA, Netherlands.
    Sebesvari, Z.
    Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehlers-Str.10, Bonn, 53113, Germany.
    Wrbka, T.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    Floodplain management in temperate regions: Is multifunctionality enhancing biodiversity?2013In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Floodplains are among the most diverse, dynamic, productive and populated but also the most threatened ecosystems on Earth. Threats are mainly related to human activities that alter the landscape and disrupt fluvial processes to obtain benefits related to multiple ecosystem services (ESS). Floodplain management therefore requires close coordination among interest groups with competing claims and poses multi-dimensional challenges to policy-makers and project managers. The European Commission proposed in its recent Biodiversity Strategy to maintain and enhance European ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructure (GI). GI is assumed to provide multiple ecosystem functions and services including the conservation of biodiversity in the same spatial area. However, evidence for biodiversity benefits of multifunctional floodplain management is scattered and has not been synthesised. Methods/design: This protocol specifies the methods for conducting a systematic review to answer the following policy-relevant questions: a) what is the impact of floodplain management measures on biodiversity; b) how does the impact vary according to the level of multifunctionality of the measures; c) is there a difference in the biodiversity impact of floodplain management across taxa; d) what is the effect of the time since implementation on the impact of the most important measures; and e) are there any other factors that significantly modify the biodiversity impact of floodplain management measures? Within this systematic review we will assess multifunctionality in terms of ESS that are affected by an implemented intervention. Biodiversity indicators included in this systematic review will be related to the diversity, richness and abundance of species, other taxa or functional groups. We will consider if organisms are typical for and native to natural floodplain ecosystems. Specific inclusion criteria have been developed and the wide range of quality of primary literature will be evaluated with a tailor-made system for assessing susceptibility to bias and the reliability of the studies. The review is intended to bridge the science-policy interface and will provide a useful synthesis of knowledge for decision-makers at all governance levels. © 2013 Schindler et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 48.
    Schindler, S.
    et al.
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Division of Conservation Biology, Vegetation Ecology and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    O’Neill, F. H.
    Botanical Environmental & Conservation Consultants Ltd., Dublin, Ireland.
    Biró, M.
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Centre for Ecological Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Vácrátót, Hungary.
    Damm, C.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Gasso, V.
    Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.
    Kanka, R.
    Institute of Landscape Ecology SAS, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    van der Sluis, T.
    Alterra, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Krug, A.
    Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), Bonn, Germany.
    Lauwaars, S. G.
    Rijkswaterstaat Centre for Infrastructure, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sebesvari, Z.
    Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, Bonn, Germany.
    Pusch, M.
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin, Germany.
    Baranovsky, B.
    Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.
    Ehlert, T.
    Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), Bonn, Germany.
    Neukirchen, B.
    Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), Bonn, Germany.
    Martin, J. R.
    Botanical Environmental & Conservation Consultants Ltd., Dublin, Ireland.
    Euller, K.
    Gloria Project, Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Institute of Advanced Studies, United Nations University, Yokohama, Japan.
    Wrbka, T.
    Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Division of Conservation Biology, Vegetation Ecology and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, Vienna, 1030, Austria.
    Multifunctional floodplain management and biodiversity effects: a knowledge synthesis for six European countries2016In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1349-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floodplain ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots and supply multiple ecosystem services. At the same time they are often prone to human pressures that increasingly impact their intactness. Multifunctional floodplain management can be defined as a management approach aimed at a balanced supply of multiple ecosystem services that serve the needs of the local residents, but also those of off-site populations that are directly or indirectly impacted by floodplain management and policies. Multifunctional floodplain management has been recently proposed as a key concept to reconcile biodiversity and ecosystem services with the various human pressures and their driving forces. In this paper we present biophysics and management history of floodplains and review recent multifunctional management approaches and evidence for their biodiversity effects for the six European countries Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Slovakia, Hungary and the Ukraine. Multifunctional use of floodplains is an increasingly important strategy in some countries, for instance in the Netherlands and Hungary, and management of floodplains goes hand in hand with sustainable economic activities resulting in flood safety and biodiversity conservation. As a result, biodiversity is increasing in some of the areas where multifunctional floodplain management approaches are implemented. We conclude that for efficient use of management resources and ecosystem services, consensual solutions need to be realized and biodiversity needs to be mainstreamed into management activities to maximize ecosystem service provision and potential human benefits. Multifunctionality is more successful where a broad range of stakeholders with diverse expertise and interests are involved in all stages of planning and implementation.

  • 49.
    Schindler, S.
    et al.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Sebesvari, Z.
    United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany.
    Damm, C.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Geography and Geoecology, Division WWF-Institute of Floodplain Ecology, Josefstrasse 1, 76437 Rastatt, Germany.
    Euller, K.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), 6F International Organizations Center Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, 220-8502, Japan.
    Schneidergruber, A.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Biró, M.
    Centre for Ecological Research, Institute of Ecology and Botany, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Alkotmány u. 2-4., 2163 Vácrátót, Hungary.
    Essl, F.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Kanka, R.
    Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences (ILE SAS), Štefánikova 3, 81499 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Lauwaars, S. G.
    Rijkswaterstaat, Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, Griffioenlaan 2, 3526 LA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Schulz-Zunkel, C.
    Department of Conservation Biology, UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.
    van der Sluis, T.
    Alterra, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Kropik, M.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Gasso, V.
    Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Gagarin Avenue 72, Dnipropetrovsk, 49010, Ukraine.
    Krug, A.
    Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Konstantinstraße 110, 53179 Bonn, Germany.
    Pusch, M. T.
    Department of Ecosystem Research, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin, Germany.
    Zulka, K. P.
    Environment Agency Austria (EAA), Spittelauer Lände 5, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
    Lazowski, W.
    Hainz-Renetzeder, C.
    Technisches Büro für Ökologie, Kagraner Anger 22/7/2, 1220 Vienna, Austria.
    Henle, K.
    Department of Conservation Biology, UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.
    Wrbka, T.
    Department of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Multifunctionality of floodplain landscapes: Relating management options to ecosystem services2014In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of green infrastructure has been recently taken up by the European Commission for ensuring the provision of ecosystem services (ESS). It aims at the supply of multiple ESS in a given landscape, however, the effects of a full suite of management options on multiple ESS and landscape multifunctionality have rarely been assessed. In this paper we use European floodplain landscapes as example to develop an expert based qualitative conceptual model for the assessment of impacts of landscape scale interventions on multifunctionality. European floodplain landscapes are particularly useful for such approach as they originally provided a high variety and quantity of ESS that has declined due to the strong human impact these landscapes have experienced. We provide an overview of the effects of floodplain management options on landscape multifunctionality by assessing the effects of 38 floodplain management interventions on 21 relevant ESS, as well as on overall ESS supply. We found that restoration and rehabilitation consistently increased the multifunctionality of the landscape by enhancing supply of provisioning, regulation/maintenance, and cultural services. In contrast, conventional technical regulation measures and interventions related to extraction, infrastructure and intensive land use cause decrease in multifunctionality and negative effects for the supply of all three aspects of ESS. The overview of the effects of interventions shall provide guidance for decision makers at multiple governance levels. The presented conceptual model could be effectively applied for other landscapes that have potential for a supply of a high diversity of ESS. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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