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  • 1.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Arkenback, Charlotte
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ekström, Sara
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Ericsson, Elin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Aalborgs universitet.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Fuentes, Ana
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå Universitet.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Utterberg, Marie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education2019In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-4868, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly suggested that emerging technologies will revolutionize education. In this paper, two such emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and educational robots (ER), are in focus. The aim of the paper is to explore how teachers, researchers and pedagogical developers critically imagine and reflect upon how AI and robots could be used in education. The empirical data were collected from discussion groups that were part of a symposium. For both AI and ERs, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they operates, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they could preferably be used, and how the emergence of these technologies might affect the role of the teacher and the relationship between teachers and students, were outlined. Many participants saw more potential to use AI for individualization as compared with ERs. However, there were also more concerns, such as ethical issues and economic interests, when discussing AI. While the researchers/developers to a greater extent imagined ideal future technology-rich educational practices, the practitioners were more focused on imaginaries grounded in current practice.

  • 2.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher Perception Of Obstacles And Opportunities In The Integration Of Programming In K-12 Settings2019In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings, Palma (Spain): The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, Vol. 11, p. 350-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The act of programming can be traced back to the 19th century and Ada Lovelace. In the context of history, the idea to combine programming with mathematics and technology is not strange. Today programming is a much more widespread phenomenon. But the relevance of programming in mathematics and technology is still very obvious. However, with the mandatory addition of programming in K-12 setting a debate has been sparked concerning the impact on teaching activities. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss possible obstacles and opportunities in integrating programming in K-12 settings from a teacher perspective. The two important main questions to answer were: 1) which are teachers' perceived obstacles and opportunities in the integration of programming in K-12 setting? 2) which are the differences and similarities in expectation between teachers with and without earlier programming experience?

    This study was carried out inspired of action research with the objective of improving an existing programming course for mathematic and technology teachers. Action research is a strategy that do not only strive to generate new knowledge but also has the aim to improve real world phenomena. Authors in this study had the double roles of being teachers and researchers, with the idea of establishing a cyclical process where course participants feedback should lead to extensions of the future course versions. Data were collected in the teacher training course and consist of 44 submitted essay answers on the question: In which aspects might programming be a positive and/or negative enhancement of you daily teaching? Collected data were grouped into categories with the use of content analysis.

    Results indicate that there are both perceived opportunities and perceived obstacles among teachers concerning integrating programming in mathematics and technology. An obvious finding was the mix of positive and negative attitudes in the vast majority of essays. In the category of obstacles many teachers brought up the risk of time trouble in both their professional development and in their teaching activities. In the category of opportunities several teachers mentioned the potential of programming as a new and motivating learning tool in their subjects. Finally, it seems important for the participants to get concreate takeaways from the course that could be used in their daily teaching activities.

  • 3.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Teacher Challenges And Choice Of Programming Tools For Teaching K-12 Technology And Mathematics2019In: Education and new developments (END2019) / [ed] Mafalda Carmo, Porto, Portugal: inScience Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 431-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current ongoing process in many countries today is to implement programming in K-12 education. With this comes challenges for the involved teachers on how to best teach and integrate programming in their subjects. On the other hand, the introduction of programming could also open opportunities for programming as a new and improved way of learning and understanding technology and mathematics. For Swedish K-12 teachers this should be rapidly implemented, but without any concrete guidelines for how or for which tools to use. The aim of this study was to explore teachers' perceptions of learning and integrating programming in technology and mathematics, and their preferences of programming tools. 

    The overall research strategy was a case study approach, with two instances of a programming course as the case study units. In both course instances the main choice has been between block programming with Scratch, and textual programming with Python. Data was collected in a combination of submitted essays, programming assignments and workshop observations. Findings from a content analysis of the submitted essays have been compared to workshop observations, and to the analysis of programming assignments. 

    Results suggests that the main challenge in learning and integrating programming is the perceived time trouble. In parallel, many teachers highlight the potential benefits of renewing their teaching and learning sessions with programming-based problem solving. Considering the choice between block programming and textual programming several teachers brings up the idea of combining the two rather than excluding one of them. Furthermore, there seems to be minor differences in the preferences of programming tools between teachers with different subjects and different age groups of students. Finally, the most positive finding is the improved self confidence that many teachers show, when their own ability to manage programming in their classrooms increase after learning the fundamentals of programming.  

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