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  • 1.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Arkenback, Charlotte
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ekström, Sara
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Ericsson, Elin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Aalborgs universitet.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Fuentes, Ana
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå Universitet.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Utterberg, Marie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education2019In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-4868, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly suggested that emerging technologies will revolutionize education. In this paper, two such emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and educational robots (ER), are in focus. The aim of the paper is to explore how teachers, researchers and pedagogical developers critically imagine and reflect upon how AI and robots could be used in education. The empirical data were collected from discussion groups that were part of a symposium. For both AI and ERs, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they operates, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they could preferably be used, and how the emergence of these technologies might affect the role of the teacher and the relationship between teachers and students, were outlined. Many participants saw more potential to use AI for individualization as compared with ERs. However, there were also more concerns, such as ethical issues and economic interests, when discussing AI. While the researchers/developers to a greater extent imagined ideal future technology-rich educational practices, the practitioners were more focused on imaginaries grounded in current practice.

  • 2.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Developing Computational Thinking Skills In K-12 Education Through Block Programming Tools2019In: 12th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville (Spain), 11-13 November 2019, Valencia (SPAIN), 2019, Vol. 12, p. 4865-4873Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequently mentioned reason for learning and integration programming in K-12 education is the development of computational thinking. However, there have been some differences in previous research concerning how computational thinking skills are developed through programming activities. An increasingly popular tool for programming in K-12 education is block programming. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss potential opportunities and challenges in developing computational thinking skills through the use of block programming tools in K-12 education.

    The study has been conducted as a literature review where findings have been gathered and structured according to facets from a computational thinking framework presented by Valerie J. Shute, Chen Sun and Jodi Asbell-Clarke (2017) in ‘Demystifying computational thinking. Educational Research Review, 22, 142-158'. The gathered data was further analysed through content analysis and with the use of deductive coding. In the literature search the following keywords where mainly used and combined with the Boolean operators ‘or’ and ‘and’: computational thinking, block programming, K-12, education, opportunities, challenges. The literature search where further filtered with a publication time frame between 2015 and 2019, with the exceptions of backward-searches.

    Findings show that there are both opportunities and challenges in using block programming tools to develop computational thinking skills. Where some are specific for the block programming approach, while other are more general. The conclusion of the study is that computational thinking skills should be targeted explicit in block programming activities for the desired development to occur. Author recommendation is that a variety of programming tools and approaches are used in computational thinking activities to encourage curiosity and progress.

  • 3.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Artificial Intelligence in Education - a Promise, a Threat or a Hype?2019In: Proceedings of the European Conference on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, EM-Normandie Business School Oxford, UK, 31 October-1 November 2019 / [ed] Paul Griffiths and Mitt Nowshade Kabir, England: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, p. 149-156, article id ECIAIR.19.005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of creating intelligent machines and artificial intelligence (AI) have been around for centuries, and can be traced back to at least to the 14th century. Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) is a much younger discipline, but during the last 25 years there have been achievements in a number of fields which have made impact on education. Critical voices have been raised against the over-optimism in contemporary AI research. Less have been written about the high expectation of AIED and its potential impact on education. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss AIED from the teacher perspective. 

    This study was carried out as a SWOT-analysis, with data gathered from a literature study. Main keywords in the literature search were: artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence in education, AIED, teacher perspective, education and teacher. Themes and patterns in the four main categories where further processed as a deductive-inductive thematic analysis. 

    Findings indicates that there are both promises and threats for the teacher in the contemporary AIED. In several aspects the field seems to be in a state of hype but as other hype areas there is a potential for maturing and with concrete applications in daily teaching and learning activities. Recommendations is to learn from traditional AI and to open up for an informative and nuanced discussion concerning the role of AI in education. Otherwise there is a risk for artificial education instead of artificial intelligence in education. 

  • 4.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Learning Analytics For Programming Education: Obstacles And Opportunities2019In: 12th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville (Spain), 11-13 November 2019, Valencia (SPAIN), 2019, Vol. 12, p. 6159-6166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years the field of Learning Analytics have been frequently mentioned in discussions of addressing challenges in education, as well as a means to analyse and draw upon students' strengths in educational contexts. Prognoses for the future labour market show an increasing need of programmers, yet studies show that programming education struggle with student dropout, poor academic performance and low pass rates. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss potential obstacles and opportunities in using learning analytics tools for forecasting student success in relation to course outcomes in programming education.

    This study was carried out as a literature review with a theorical framework for Learning Analytics presented by Yassine, Kadry and Sicilia (2016) in “A framework for learning analytics in moodle for assessing course outcomes”. In 2016 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) (pp. 261-266). IEEE.” as the basis for a content analysis with deductive coding. Main keywords in the literature search was: learning analytics, programming, education, course, tool, obstacles, opportunities. Keywords were combined with the Boolean operators “and” and “or”. The literature search was limited to recently published research (between years 2015 and 2019).

    The study shows that learning analytics tools, if thoughtfully used, is an opportunity to forecast student success and improve educational design, both from the student perspective and from the teacher perspective. Learning analytics tools does not necessarily have to build on quantitative big data analyses only. From a teacher perspective it could be more valuable with a mixed method approach in the strive to improve existing course design. As pointed out in several research studies students’ and teachers’ integrity have to be respected. Today’s virtual learning environments provide huge amounts of learning data, but as in all other types of research, this should build on informed consent. Finally, in a new approach of learning analytics the analyses preferably should include some teaching analytics as well, to better improve course design and learning outcomes.

  • 5.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher Perception Of Obstacles And Opportunities In The Integration Of Programming In K-12 Settings2019In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings, Palma (Spain): The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, Vol. 11, p. 350-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The act of programming can be traced back to the 19th century and Ada Lovelace. In the context of history, the idea to combine programming with mathematics and technology is not strange. Today programming is a much more widespread phenomenon. But the relevance of programming in mathematics and technology is still very obvious. However, with the mandatory addition of programming in K-12 setting a debate has been sparked concerning the impact on teaching activities. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss possible obstacles and opportunities in integrating programming in K-12 settings from a teacher perspective. The two important main questions to answer were: 1) which are teachers' perceived obstacles and opportunities in the integration of programming in K-12 setting? 2) which are the differences and similarities in expectation between teachers with and without earlier programming experience?

    This study was carried out inspired of action research with the objective of improving an existing programming course for mathematic and technology teachers. Action research is a strategy that do not only strive to generate new knowledge but also has the aim to improve real world phenomena. Authors in this study had the double roles of being teachers and researchers, with the idea of establishing a cyclical process where course participants feedback should lead to extensions of the future course versions. Data were collected in the teacher training course and consist of 44 submitted essay answers on the question: In which aspects might programming be a positive and/or negative enhancement of you daily teaching? Collected data were grouped into categories with the use of content analysis.

    Results indicate that there are both perceived opportunities and perceived obstacles among teachers concerning integrating programming in mathematics and technology. An obvious finding was the mix of positive and negative attitudes in the vast majority of essays. In the category of obstacles many teachers brought up the risk of time trouble in both their professional development and in their teaching activities. In the category of opportunities several teachers mentioned the potential of programming as a new and motivating learning tool in their subjects. Finally, it seems important for the participants to get concreate takeaways from the course that could be used in their daily teaching activities.

  • 6.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher-supported AI or AI-supported teachers?2019In: Proceedings of the European Conference on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, EM-Normandie Business School Oxford, UK, 31 October-1 November 2019 / [ed] Paul Griffiths and Mitt Nowshade Kabir, England: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 157-164, article id ECIAIR.19.007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, AI has a rapid dissemination and is becoming involved in many new areas. One of these areas is education, with AI in education (AIED) as an emerging research topic. When AIED will be applied in educational settings, would AI be implemented as a teacher support, or will the teachers support the AI systems? The aim of this study was to analyse contemporary research on AIED and discuss its possibilities and challenges. 

    This study was carried out as a literature review, where found themes and patterns have been categorised in a thematic analysis. Important main keywords in the search where: human-compatible AI, teachers, education, human-supported AI, AI-supported humans, AI in education. Keywords have been combined with Boolean operators to find articles containing information that was important to answer the research question. 

    In the deductive analysis found themes and patterns where grouped into the categories: teacher-supported AI, AI-supported teachers, teacher-compatible AI. Findings indicate that many studies lack a clear distinction between teacher-supported AI and AI-supported teachers. The recommendation is teacher-compatible AI, and that the combination of humans and AI is stronger than just one of them.

  • 7.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    On the Role of Unplugged Programming in K-12 Education2019In: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on e-Learning, ECEL / [ed] Rikke Ørngreen, Mie Buhl and Bente Meyer, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, p. 224-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of programming in K-12 setting is a global phenomenon with different implementations in different countries. In Sweden this is a rapid process where programming should be a part of K-12 mathematic and technology with an implementation during 2018 and 2019. The time frame has been narrowly defined, but there are few directives considering which types of programming that should be used. Three main programming types are textual programming, block programming and unplugged programming, this study has a focus on unplugged programming. The research question to answer was: Which are K-12 teachers attitudes on the role of unplugged programming in education? 

    The research study has been a qualitative cross-sectional study with the aim to collect teachers' attitudes towards unplugged programming halfway through their introductory programming course. Cross-sectional study is an approach to capture snapshots of an ongoing process at a given point in time. Data were collected from discussions and online postings during a workshop in the above-mentioned programming course. Participants postings have been grouped into categories in a content analysis based on the frequency of occurrence and relevance for answering the research question. 

    Findings show that most teachers see a benefit of unplugged programming as a means to learn the fundamental programming concepts in their teaching and learning activities. However, there are different opinions on when this unplugged introduction should occur. Some teachers also pointed out that unplugged programming could be used as an alternative to block programming and textual programming when the digital environment lacks or fails. Conclusions are that unplugged activities are a valuable complement to block programming and textual programming, but teachers have different opinions on the optimum age group for unplugged programming activities. The recommendations for K-12 teachers is to seriously consider the unplugged complement, both for pedagogical reasons and as a never-failing analogue backup. 

  • 8.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Teacher Challenges And Choice Of Programming Tools For Teaching K-12 Technology And Mathematics2019In: Education and new developments (END2019) / [ed] Mafalda Carmo, Porto, Portugal: inScience Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 431-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current ongoing process in many countries today is to implement programming in K-12 education. With this comes challenges for the involved teachers on how to best teach and integrate programming in their subjects. On the other hand, the introduction of programming could also open opportunities for programming as a new and improved way of learning and understanding technology and mathematics. For Swedish K-12 teachers this should be rapidly implemented, but without any concrete guidelines for how or for which tools to use. The aim of this study was to explore teachers' perceptions of learning and integrating programming in technology and mathematics, and their preferences of programming tools. 

    The overall research strategy was a case study approach, with two instances of a programming course as the case study units. In both course instances the main choice has been between block programming with Scratch, and textual programming with Python. Data was collected in a combination of submitted essays, programming assignments and workshop observations. Findings from a content analysis of the submitted essays have been compared to workshop observations, and to the analysis of programming assignments. 

    Results suggests that the main challenge in learning and integrating programming is the perceived time trouble. In parallel, many teachers highlight the potential benefits of renewing their teaching and learning sessions with programming-based problem solving. Considering the choice between block programming and textual programming several teachers brings up the idea of combining the two rather than excluding one of them. Furthermore, there seems to be minor differences in the preferences of programming tools between teachers with different subjects and different age groups of students. Finally, the most positive finding is the improved self confidence that many teachers show, when their own ability to manage programming in their classrooms increase after learning the fundamentals of programming.  

  • 9.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Programmering i matte och teknik2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att introducera programmering i grund- och gymnasieskola är en pågående process i många länder. I Sverige ska detta inledningsvis ske som en del av matematik och teknik där programmering är tänkt att användas som ett verktyg för problemlösning. Flera forskningsstudier har presenterat vilka fördelar detta skulle kunna föra med sig, men det är svårare att hitta riktlinjer för hur det ska genomföras. Till exempel, hur och när yrkesverksamma lärare ska fortbilda sig inom grundläggande programmering.

    Författarna till den här artikeln är samtliga undervisande lärare på en programmeringskurs på Mittuniversitetet som riktar sig specifikt till yrkesverksamma lärare i matematik och teknik på grund- och gymnasienivå.

    I samband med att denna kurs har gått så har forskning bedrivits utifrån två huvudsakliga frågor: 1) Vilka hinder och möjligheter ser lärare i att integrera programmering i matematik och teknik? 2) Vilka styrkor och svagheter ser lärare med att använda textbaserad, block- och analog programmering som verktyg i matematik och teknik?

    Resultaten från dessa studier har publicerats på internationella konferenser. Nedan följer en kortare introduktion till några centrala begrepp inom forskningsfältet samt en sammanfattning av de mest framträdande resultaten från vår forskning.

  • 10.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Lessons learnt from teacher professional development in programming2020In: Proceeedings of the 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torre, Valencia, Spain: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2020, Vol. 14, p. 3903-3908Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As pointed out by Seymour Papert, teaching teachers might be more complex and difficult than otherforms of adult learning. In Sweden, as in many other countries, the introduction of computerprogramming in compulsory education is an ongoing process that involves teacher professionaldevelopment. Results from the first generation of teacher training in fundamental programmingindicates that motivation and high pass rates are not always the case. The aim of the study is toanalyse and discuss success factors and lessons learnt in teacher professional development.This study was conducted with a case study approach, with data collected from various data sources.All the courses where data have been gathered are part of a nation-wide training program formathematics and technology teachers in K-12 education. The data triangulation and themethodological triangulation were built around course evaluations, group discussions with courseparticipants, and a survey directed to the subject matter experts of the teacher training courses. Athematic analysis was filtered through the theoretical assumptions of communities of practise andadult learning.Four interesting main findings are, 1) the relevance of study groups, 2) course participants’appreciations of concrete workshop sessions, 3) teachers’ perception of a two-folded time trouble, and4) teachers’ expectations of reusable takeaways from the course. Finally, the recommendation is tofree more time for teachers to participate in collaborative hands-on activities and collegial reflection.

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