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  • 1.
    Joelsson, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB.
    High strength paper from high yield pulps by means of hot-pressing2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    High Yield Pulp (HYP), i.e. TMP, SGW or CTMP, is normally used in printing papers (News, SC and LWC) or in a middle layer on cardboard i.e. in products that either have high demands on printability and runnability in fast printing presses or contribute to high bulk in cardboards in order to minimize pulp consumption at a certain sheet stiffness. Tensile strength as a function of density is significantly higher for HYP compared to chemical pulps such as sulphate and sulphite pulps. However, chemical pulp is mainly used in packaging materials that require very high tensile strength, while at the same time allowing the density of the paper to be high. By utilizing the softening properties of high-yielding lignin-rich fibres by hot-pressing technology, it is possible to significantly increase sheet density and thereby strength closer to the level of chemical pulps. Furthermore, due to the presence of high levels of lignin, it was shown that considerably higher wet strength can be achieved compared to chemical pulp without the addition of strengthening agents. The study focuses on the softening of stiff and lignin-rich fibres in papers based on HYP with sufficiently high moisture contents, when hot-pressing at temperature levels significantly above the softening temperature (Tg) of lignin Hot-pressing increases the density of the sheet which increases the contact surface between the fibres in the paper structure. The high pressing temperature can be said to induce a viscous flow of lignin, which also increases the potential for fibre-fibre bonding. It is conceivable that covalent bonds are obtained via condensation reactions and partly that interdiffusion between the lignin in the fibre walls can be obtained as they come close enough to each other during the hot-pressing. The research also shows that hot-pressing greatly improves properties in the form of dry and wet strength as well as hydrophobicity for HYP and for lignin-rich kraft paper. The first part of the study shows the effect of hot-pressing on strength properties of paper sheets based on CTMP, HT-CTMP, TMP, NSSC, SCPal and NBSK. The second part includes a study on how and to what extent different amounts of residual lignin in the pulp contribute to the dry and wet strength of the sheets of paper during hot-pressing as a function of increasing temperature. To demonstrate this, pilot scale cooking of unbleached pulp to various lignin levels was carried out. In all experiments in parts one and two, laboratory sheets with a surface weight of 150 g/m2 and a dry content of 50% were made with a Rapid Köthen (RK) sheet former, after which the sheets were hot-pressed in a cylinder press at temperatures up to 200°C, constant high pressure of about 7 MPa, nip pressure dwell time of 1.5 sec and production speed 1 m/min. The third part includes a study on the optimization of variables in a new design of a dynamic cylinder press for hot-pressing technology. This design is based on previous research at Mid Sweden University combined with key knowledge of steel band technology within IPCO AB. The new pilot machine is based on heating of a steel belt with infrared heat (IR) up to 300°C, a maximum line load of 15 kN/m in two press nips and a dwell time of 23-240 ms in the nip depending on the production speed which is up to 5 m/min. The experiments in part three were based on RK paper sheets with 100 g/m2 and approximately 63% dry content made by HT-CTMP. The results confirm that hot-pressed HYP-based paper sheets enable permanent densification by softening lignin, which provides a very high dry tensile strength and a remarkable improvement in wet tensile strength compared to bleached kraft pulp without the need for wet strength agents. A tensile index of 75 kNm/kg, compression strength index (SCT) of 45 kNm/kg and wet tensile strength index of 16 kNm/kg were obtained, which can be compared with the corresponding values for bleached kraft pulp based paper sheets of 85 kNm/kg, 35 kNm/kg and 5 kNm/kg respectively, all with the same density after hot-pressing at 200°C. The NSSC reached the highest tensile strength index of 92 kNm/kg. The study with the unbleached kraft pulps showed that the lignin content had a significant effect on both the dry and wet tensile strength indices. The pulps showed a linear relationship between wet strength and lignin content. The increase in lignin content from 0% to 12% improved the dry tensile index by 20% and SCT by 35% and gave a very significant increase in the wet strength index from 3 to 23 kNm/kg after hot-pressing. All lignin-rich paper samples exhibit good wet stability for at least 24 hours and an improved surface hydrophobicity by increasing the pressing temperature and lignin content.

    Optimization of the new steel belt based press machine showed that high nip pressure and two press nips had a great effect on density and strength. Whereas high temperature, well above Tg of lignin, and long pressing time were more important to achieve high wet strength. The highest wet strength index value, 27 kNm/kg, was reached when the pressing temperature was 290°C, the nip pressure about 8 MPa, the pressing time in the press nip 40 ms and the dwell time in contact with the steel belt 23.5 sec. It was also noted that no delamination occurred in these tests.

    In order to obtain both high dry and wet strength, it is important to have high lignin content, high temperature, high nip pressure and sufficiently long pressing time

  • 2.
    Joelsson, Tove
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Svedberg, Anna
    MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    High strength paper from high yield pulps by means of hot-pressing2020In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis is that it should be possible to modify papermaking conditions in line with the softening properties of high yield pulp fibres and achieve similar strength properties to conventional chemical pulp based paper. We therefore investigated the rheological and physical properties of high yield pulp based papers during hot-pressing. Our results confirm that increased temperature combined with sufficient pressure enables permanent densification by softening of lignin, producing very high tensile strength. This treatment also significantly improved the wet tensile strength in comparison to bleached kraft pulp without using wet strength agents. The high yield pulps used here were spruce based thermomechanical pulp, chemi-thermomechanical pulp, and high temperature chemi-thermomechanical pulp, and birch-aspen based neutral sulphite semi chemical pulp, with spruce-pine based bleached kraft pulp as reference. Rapid Köhten sheets of 150 g/m 2 150\hspace{0.1667em}\text{g}/{\text{m}{2}} and 50 % dryness were hot-pressed in a cylinder-press at 20-200 C, 7 MPa, and 1 m/min. The mechanical properties showed great improvements in these high yield pulp papers, with tensile index increased to 75 kNm/kg and compression strength index to 45 kNm/kg; levels close to and better than bleached kraft. Wet strength increased to 16 Nm/g compared to 5 Nm/g for bleached kraft.

  • 3.
    Joelsson, Tove
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Svedberg, Anna
    MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Improved paper wet-strength by increasing lignin content and hot-pressing temperature2020In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Joelsson, Tove
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Svedberg, Anna
    MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Unique steel belt technology for hot-pressing of wood-containing papersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Samuelsson, Tove
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Svedberg, Anna
    MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Development of strong and water resistant packaging materials from high yield pulps – fundamental aspects2018In: IMPC 2018, Trondheim, Norway, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is focused on fundamental aspects of the densification of paper sheets during hot-pressing under conditions where the lignin in the fibre walls is softened. In this study light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were used to reveal the mechanisms in the fibre network structure within the paper sheets that arises due to densification and the impact of lignin. UV and staining methods and spectrometric observations of the ultrastructure of cross section of paper sheets and fibre surfaces will highlight the changes that occur in the fibre structures. This study improves the understanding of how fibres collapse and how internal fibre-fibre bonds in lignin-rich mechanical pulp affect the physical properties of the final paper sheet. To demonstrate this, paper sheets from five different pulps containing different concentration of natural lignin were produced. Handsheets of 150 g/m2 were prepared in a Rapid Köthen (RK) laboratory sheet former, where the sheets were press-dried at 100 kPa and ca 90oC to a dry content of 45-50% d.c. After 24 hours in room temperature the hand sheets were hot-pressed in a temperature interval from 20 – 200oC at a constant pressure in a cylinder-press at a speed of 1 m/min. The results show that remarkable improvements on paper sheets, based lignin-rich pulps, can be achieved in terms of increased tensile index (up to 85 kNm/kg), compression strength, SCT, (up to 38 kNm/kg) and wet strength (up to 10 kNm/kg), which depends on the densification of the fibre structure at high temperature and pressure in the load nip. It is concluded that this to a major extent is related to that the lignin rich fibres are compressed at high enough temperature to both softened and develop tacky surfaces so that the fibres are locked into their positions within the highly densified sheets. The SEM evaluation shows how the surface structure get dense at pressing at 200oC for the CTMP based paper sheets. The light microscopy studies of the sheet cross sections reveal how the fibres collapse in the case of CTMP based sheets while fibres from bleached kraft pulp based sheets are quite well collapsed already at room temperature.

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