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  • 1.
    Skott, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    A Typology of Homicide in the Context of the Crime Drop2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Skott, Sara
    The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Changing Types of Homicide in Scotland and their Relationship to Changing Types of Wider Violence2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Skott, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Disaggregating Homicide: Changing trends in subtypes over time2019In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1650-1668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the heterogeneity of homicide, certain subtypes of homicide might have remained stable or even increased over time in the overall context of decline. Adding to the research attempting to identify a standardized classification system of homicide, this study used a novel, sophisticated statistical approach (multilevel latent class analysis [MLCA]) and an inductive theoretical stance to identify subtypes of homicide in Scotland and to examine how these types have changed over time. Using variables relating to the victim, offender, and the incident of homicide, four between-level types with three within-level classes of offenders in each type were identified. The findings showed that while all homicide types demonstrated an absolute decrease, domestic homicides had demonstrated a relative increase over time. Implications for policy, theory, and practice are discussed.

  • 4.
    Skott, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Mid Sweden University.
    Disaggregating Violence: Understanding the Decline2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although trends of violent crime have been examined for over a century, no previous study has examined the change of subtypes of violence over time. This study therefore aims to identify subtypes of violence in Scotland, where violence levels have decreased from one of the highest in Europe to one of the lowest, based on variables relating to the victim, offender, and incident, and to examine how these subtypes have changed over time. Four main types of violence were identified using multilevel latent class analysis on Scottish Crime and Justice Survey data: public no weapon, public weapon, work-related, and domestic. The findings show that although all types of violence have demonstrated an absolute decrease over time, Domestic and work-related violence have demonstrated relative increases over time. The findings are discussed in relation to the inequality of this decrease and propose guidelines for future prevention policies.

  • 5.
    Skott, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Mid Sweden University.
    Homicide and Violence in Scotland: Changing Subtypes over Time2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of information about the relationship between homicide and violence was identified as a gap in knowledge almost 30 years ago. Despite this, little research has been conducted worldwide regarding this relationship on a national level since then, and the results of that research have been very contradictory. This lack of research includes Scotland, despite its unenviable reputation of being the most violent country in the Western world. In order to fill this gap in research, this paper aims to examine the changing characteristics and patterns of homicide in Scotland and to determine the extent to which changes in homicide reflect the changing characteristics and patterns in wider violence.

    Due to the heterogeneity of homicide, certain subtypes of homicide and violence might have remained stable or even increased over time in the overall context of violence decline. In order to examine the relationship between homicide and violence in Scotland, subtypes of both homicide and violence were identified and compared over time, using a novel, sophisticated statistical approach (MLCA). Using variables relating to the offender, victim and the incident, the study identified four main types of homicide and four main types of violence. While there are some differences in the subtypes identified, the overall trends in these two crimes seem to follow a similar pattern over time. A key finding from this study is that the general decrease in both homicide and violence was driven by a reduction in the same type of violence, namely violence committed by young men in public places and involving the use of sharp instruments. However, this general decrease in violence masks a hidden relative increase in both lethal and non-lethal forms of domestic violence over time. This provides valuable insights for policy as well as increasing our understanding of the complexities of violent crime.

  • 6.
    Skott, Sara
    The University of Edinburgh.
    Homicide in Scotland – the need for a deeper understanding2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 25 years ago, the relationship between homicide and serious violence was identified as an area that required more research. Despite this, little research has been conducted regarding this relationship on a national level since then. It has furthermore not been examined in Scotland, despite Scotland’s unenviable reputation of being the most violent country in the developed world. Even so, many studies assume that there is a relationship between the trends in homicide and the trends in serious violence, considering homicide the extreme end of a violence spectrum. This might be potentially problematic if homicide is not representative of the levels of violence within a country.This paper presents the initial steps towards examining the relationship between homicide and serious violence, including sexual violence, in Scotland. The comparison of the trends and patterns of homicide and serious violence holds important implications for both policy as well as theory. Comparative research regarding homicide and serious violence can have profound implications for the effective distribution of resources, violence reduction and policy making. Furthermore, this research highlights the need of disaggregation of homicide as well as providing a deeper understanding of how different violent crimes are interconnected within a society.

  • 7.
    Skott, Sara
    University of Edinburgh.
    Homicide in Scotland: The need for a deeper understanding2015In: Scottish Justice Matters, ISSN 2052-7950, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Skott, Sara
    The University of Edinburgh.
    Homicide in Scotland: The need for a deeper understanding2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the devastating impact homicide and serious violence has on society as well as on the community, very little research has been conducted about the relationship between these two crimes over time. Despite this lack of research, scholars however still make unsupported assumptions regarding this relationship.This is problematic since these assumptions are used to underpin theoretical explanations of the decline in both homicide as well as other crime, without any reliable knowledge of the nature of this relationship. If an effective explanation of the decline in homicide is to be obtained, it is vital that the relationship between the trends in homicide and serious violence is examined further. This paper presents the initial steps towards gaining a deeper understanding for trends in homicide and violence over time in Scotland. The paper will be examining initial, descriptive findings and underlining the need for disaggregation of homicide, as well as violence. Research has demonstrated that homicide would be more adequately measured by a multidimensional construct, and that such disaggregation can reveal counter-trends in the data that were previously hidden. If homicide and violence are operationalized as multidimensional constructs, differences and similarities between these two types of crimes could be revealed that were previously obscured. Not only would this provide more detailed information regarding both homicide and violence, but this would also greatly enhance the knowledge regarding how these two crimes are related over time. While some types of homicide might have decreased in line with the aggregate trend of homicide in Scotland, some types of homicide or serious violence might have remained stable or even decreased. In order to examine this relationship further and to get a deeper understanding of homicide, both homicide and violence therefore need to be disaggregated into subtypes before being compared over time.

  • 9.
    Skott, Sara
    The University of Edinburgh.
    Homicide in Scotland: Changing subtypes over time2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of information about the relationship between homicide and violence was identified as a gap in knowledge almost 30 years ago. Despite this, little research has been conducted worldwide regarding this relationship on a national level since then, and the results of that research have been very contradictory. This lack of research includes Scotland, despite its unenviable reputation of being the most violent country in the Western world. In order to fill this gap in research, this paper aims to examine the changing characteristics and patterns of homicide in Scotland and to determine the extent to which changes in homicide reflect the changing characteristics and patterns in wider violence.

    Due to the heterogeneity of homicide, certain subtypes of homicide and violence might have remained stable or even increased over time in the overall context of violence decline. In order to examine the relationship between homicide and violence in Scotland, subtypes of both homicide and violence were identified and compared over time, using a novel, sophisticated statistical approach (MLCA). Using variables relating to the offender, victim and the incident, the study identified four main types of homicide and four main types of violence. While there are some differences in the subtypes identified, the overall trends in these two crimes seem to follow a similar pattern over time. A key finding from this study is that the general decrease in both homicide and violence was driven by a reduction in the same type of violence, namely violence committed by young men in public places and involving the use of sharp instruments. However, this general decrease in violence masks a hidden relative increase in both lethal and non-lethal forms of domestic violence over time. This provides valuable insights for policy as well as increasing our understanding of the complexities of violent crime.

  • 10.
    Skott, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Maskulinitet och våld i förändring: Vertigo of Masculinity2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Skott, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Sexual Homicide Targeting Children: Exploring Offender, Victim, and Modus Operandi Factors2019In: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, ISSN 0306-624X, E-ISSN 1552-6933, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 1663-1680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual child homicides are rare, even among sexual homicides, and no previous study has compared sexual child homicide with nonsexual child homicides. To address this gap in research, this study aims to compare sexual child homicide offenders (n = 8) with two comparison groups: sexual adult homicide offenders (n = 89) and nonsexual child homicide offenders (n = 176) regarding victim, offender, and modus operandi factors. Using bivariate analysis, the results show that although sexual child homicide offenders appear more similar to other sexual homicide offenders than to homicide offenders, sexual offenders targeting children differ from both groups on certain variables. Sexual child homicide offenders more often used strangulation as a method of killing, had intoxicated victims, used multiple locations, and destroyed evidence after the murder. The study concludes that sexual homicide offenders targeting children should be considered distinct from other offenders and that the salient characteristics linked to sadism and instrumentality should be further examined.

  • 12.
    Skott, Sara
    The University of Edinburgh.
    The Relationship between Homicide and Serious Violence: The Need for Further Examination2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of information about the relationship between homicide and violence was identified as a gap in knowledge over 25 years ago. Despite this, little research has been conducted regarding this relationship on a national level since then. It has not been examined in Scotland either, despite Scotland’s apparent reputation of being the most violent country in the developed world. Even so, many studies assume that there is a relationship between the trends in homicide and the trends in serious violence, considering homicide the extreme end of a violence spectrum. However, this might be potentially problematic if homicide is not representative of the levels of violence within a country. This paper presents the initial steps towards examining the relationship between homicide and serious violence, including sexual violence, in Scotland. The comparison of the trends and patterns of homicide and serious violence holds important implications for several reasons. Not only is comparative research regarding homicide and serious violence important since these two crimes have profound implications regarding stress placed on emergency systems, as well as the health of the family and community, but if homicide could be regarded as representative of serious violence in a country, it could have valuable insights for organisations such as the police and policy makers. This information could have beneficial implications in terms of directing policy or resources to where they are most needed, as well as making the distribution of these resources more efficient. Additionally, there are valuable substantive insights to be gained from knowing the extent to which homicide is representative of serious violence in a country, since it provides a deeper understanding of how different violent crimes are interconnected within a society.

  • 13.
    Skott, Sara
    The University of Edinburgh.
    The Relationship between Homicide and Serious Violence: The need for further examination2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Skott, Sara
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Beauregard, Eric
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Darjee, Raj
    Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.
    Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study2019In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher’s exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs.

  • 15.
    Skott, Sara
    et al.
    The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Beauregard, Eric
    Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada.
    Darjee, Raj
    Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.
    Sexual and Nonsexual Homicide in Scotland: Is There a Difference?2018In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a number of previous studies have compared sexual homicides to nonlethal sexual offenses, there have been few studies comparing sexual and nonsexual homicides. This study examines whether sexual homicide offenders differ from nonsexual homicide offenders in Scotland regarding characteristics of the offender, the victim, and the homicide incident. Unlike previous studies, only homicides committed by males against females were examined. Data from a national police database were used to compare 89 male sexual homicide offenders who killed adult females with 306 male nonsexual homicide offenders who had also killed adult females using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses. The findings revealed not only some similarities between the two groups, particularly regarding some victim variables, but also significant bivariate and multivariate differences. Sexual homicides appeared to be associated with indicators of instrumentality and sexual deviance. We conclude that sexual homicide offenders might be considered a distinct group of homicide offenders, more similar to sexual offenders than to other homicide offenders.

  • 16.
    Skott, Sara
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh.
    Beauregard, Eric
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Darjee, Raj
    University of Edinburgh.
    Sexual Homicide in Scotland2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Skott, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Beauregard, Eric
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Darjee, Rajan
    Swinburne University of Technology, Alphington, Australia.
    Martineau, Melissa
    Canadian Police College, Polygraph Training Unit, Ottawa, Canada.
    The consistency of sexual homicide characteristics and typologies across countries: a comparison of Canadian and Scottish sexual homicides2019In: Journal of Sexual Aggression, ISSN 1355-2600, E-ISSN 1742-6545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although similar subtypes of sexual homicide have been described crossnationally, no study has directly examined whether two samples from different jurisdictions are comparable. This study therefore aimed to examine whether any substantively meaningful subtypes of sexual homicide cases could be identified in each sample, and if so, whether these subtypes were similar across jurisdictions. Two samples of male sexual homicide offenders were compared: a Scottish sample (n=89) and a Canadian sample (n=150). Subtypes were identified in each sample using LCA, identifying a 3-class solution in each sample. Despite differences between samples on the bivariate level, two very similar subtypes (Controlled-Organized and Diverse) emerged in both samples. Despite differences at the bivariate level, the similarities at the multivariate level indicate similarities in underlying offence pathways which underpin heterogeneity in sexual homicide offenders. The similarities between the subtypes identified suggests potential universality of types of sexual homicides cross-nationally.

  • 18.
    Skott, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    McVie, Susan
    University of Edinburgh.
    Reduction in homicide and violence in Scotland is largely explained by fewer gangs and less knife crime2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 18 of 18
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