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  • 1.
    Aydogan, Emre
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Yilmaz, Selim
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Sen, Sevil
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    A Central Intrusion Detection System for RPL-Based Industrial Internet of Things2019Inngår i: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, artikkel-id 8758024Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Internet-of-Things (IoT) is revolutionizing the IT sector, it is not mature yet as several technologies are  still being offered to be candidates for supporting the backbone of this system. IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is one of those promising candidate technologies to be adopted by IoT and Industrial IoT (IIoT). Attacks against RPL have shown to be possible, as the attackers utilize the unauthorized parent selection system of the RLP protocol. In this work, we are proposing a methodology and architecture to detect intrusions against IIoT. Especially, we are targeting to detect attacks against RPL by using genetic programming. Our results indicate that the developed framework can successfully (with high accuracy, along with high true positive and low false positive rates) detect routing attacks in RPL-based Industrial IoT networks.

  • 2.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy / [ed] Paolo Mori, Steven Furnell and Olivier Camp, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2019, Vol. 1, s. 623-630Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is in the booming age of its growth, therefore a vast amount of applications, projects, hardware/software solutions, and customized concepts are being developed. The proliferation of IoT will enable location-based services to be available everywhere for everyone, and this will raise a large number of privacy issues related to the collection, usage, retention, and disclosure of the user’s location information. In order to provide a solution to this unique problem of IoT, this paper proposes Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things (LPA-IoT) scheme, which uses the concepts of Mix-Zone, location-obfuscation along with context-awareness. To the authors’ best knowledge, the proposed LPA-IoT scheme is the first location-based privacy-preserving scheme for IoT that provides flexible privacy levels associated with the present context of the user.

  • 3.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Pereira, Nuno
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18)., ACM Digital Library, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRa and the LoRaWAN specification is a technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) designed to allow connectivity for connected objects, such as remote sensors. Several previous works revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft) and these led to improvements included in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on Oct 11, 2017. In this work, we provide the first look into the security of LoRaWAN v1.1. We present an overview of the protocol and, importantly, present several threats to this new version of the protocol. Besides, we propose our own ramification strategies for the mentioned threats, to be used in developing next version of LoRaWAN. The threats presented were not previously discussed, they are possible even within the security assumptions of the specification and are relevant for practitioners implementing LoRa-based applications as well researchers and the future evolution of the LoRaWAN specification.

  • 4.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Pereira, Nuno
    School of Engineering (DEI/ISEP), Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Security Risk Analysis of LoRaWAN and Future Directions2019Inngår i: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRa (along with its upper layers definition—LoRaWAN) is one of the most promising Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies for implementing Internet of Things (IoT)-based applications. Although being a popular technology, several works in the literature have revealed vulnerabilities and risks regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st specification draft). The LoRa-Alliance has built upon these findings and introduced several improvements in the security and architecture of LoRa. The result of these efforts resulted in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on 11 October 2017. This work aims at reviewing and clarifying the security aspects of LoRaWAN v1.1. By following ETSI guidelines, we provide a comprehensive Security Risk Analysisof the protocol and discuss several remedies to the security risks described. A threat catalog is presented, along with discussions and analysis in view of the scale, impact, and likelihood of each threat. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this work is one of the first of its kind, by providing a detailed security risk analysis related to the latest version of LoRaWAN. Our analysis highlights important practical threats, such as end-device physical capture, rogue gateway and self-replay, which require particular attention by developers and organizations implementing LoRa networks.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Sari, Alparslan
    Department of Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Security Implications of Fog Computing on the Internet of Things2019Inngår i: International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), IEEE, 2019, artikkel-id 8661909Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the use of IoT devices and sensors has been rapidly increased which also caused data generation (information and logs), bandwidth usage, and related phenomena to be increased. To our best knowledge, a standard definition for the integration of fog computing with IoT is emerging now. This integration will bring many opportunities for the researchers, especially while building cyber-security related solutions. In this study, we surveyed about the integration of fog computing with IoT and its implications. Our goal was to find out and emphasize problems, specifically security related problems that arise with the employment of fog computing by IoT. According to our findings, although this integration seems to be non-trivial and complicated, it has more benefits than the implications. Index Terms—IoT, IIoT, vulnerabilities, trust, end-device, confidentiality, integrity, availability.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Detecting Intrusions in Cyber-Physical Systems of Smart Cities: Challenges and Directions2019Inngår i: Secure Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Cities / [ed] Riaz Ahmed Shaikh, Hershey, USA: IGI Global, 2019, s. 74-102Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacing the smart cities with cyber-physical systems (CPSs) improves cyber infrastructures while introducing security vulnerabilities that may lead to severe problems such as system failure, privacy violation, and/or issues related to data integrity if security and privacy are not addressed properly. In order for the CPSs of smart cities to be designed with proactive intelligence against such vulnerabilities, anomaly detection approaches need to be employed. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the security vulnerabilities in CPSs of smart cities. Following a thorough discussion on the applicability of conventional anomaly detection schemes in CPSs of smart cities, possible adoption of distributed anomaly detection systems by CPSs of smart cities will be discussed along with a comprehensive survey of the state of the art. The chapter will discuss challenges in tailoring appropriate anomaly detection schemes for CPSs of smart cities and provide insights into future directions for the researchers working in this field.

  • 7.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Preserving location privacy in cyber-physical systems2019Inngår i: 2019 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS), IEEE, 2019, s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The trending technological research platform is Internet of Things (IoT)and most probably it will stay that way for a while. One of the main application areas of IoT is Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), in which IoT devices can be leveraged as actuators and sensors in accordance with the system needs. The public acceptance and adoption of CPS services and applications will create a huge amount of privacy issues related to the processing, storage and disclosure of the user location information. As a remedy, our paper proposes a methodology to provide location privacy for the users of CPSs. Our proposal takes advantage of concepts such as mix-zone, context-awareness, and location-obfuscation. According to our best knowledge, the proposed methodology is the first privacy-preserving location service for CPSs that offers adaptable privacy levels related to the current context of the user.

  • 8.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Song, Houbing
    Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL, USA.
    Security of the Internet of Things: Vulnerabilities, Attacks, and Countermeasures2020Inngår i: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 616-644, artikkel-id 8897627Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) constitute one of the most promising third-millennium technologies and have wide range of applications in our surrounding environment. The reason behind the vast adoption of WSNs in various applications is that they have tremendously appealing features, e.g., low production cost, low installation cost, unattended network operation, autonomous and longtime operation. WSNs have started to merge with the Internet of Things (IoT) through the introduction of Internet access capability in sensor nodes and sensing ability in Internet-connected devices. Thereby, the IoT is providing access to huge amount of data, collected by the WSNs, over the Internet. Hence, the security of IoT should start with foremost securing WSNs ahead of the other components. However, owing to the absence of a physical line-of-defense, i.e., there is no dedicated infrastructure such as gateways to watch and observe the flowing information in the network, security of WSNs along with IoT is of a big concern to the scientific community. More specifically, for the application areas in which CIA (confidentiality, integrity, availability) has prime importance, WSNs and emerging IoT technology might constitute an open avenue for the attackers. Besides, recent integration and collaboration of WSNs with IoT will open new challenges and problems in terms of security. Hence, this would be a nightmare for the individuals using these systems as well as the security administrators who are managing those networks. Therefore, a detailed review of security attacks towards WSNs and IoT, along with the techniques for prevention, detection, and mitigation of those attacks are provided in this paper. In this text, attacks are categorized and treated into mainly two parts, most or all types of attacks towards WSNs and IoT are investigated under that umbrella: 'Passive Attacks' and 'Active Attacks'. Understanding these attacks and their associated defense mechanisms will help paving a secure path towards the proliferation and public acceptance of IoT technology. 

  • 9.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Pereira, Nuno
    Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), Porto, Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Formal security analysis of LoRaWAN2019Inngår i: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 148, s. 328-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) protocols are receiving increased attention from industry and academia to offer accessibility for Internet of Things (IoT) connected remote sensors and actuators. In this work, we present a formal study of LoRaWAN security, an increasingly popular technology, which defines the structure and operation of LPWAN networks based on the LoRa physical layer. There are previously known security vulnerabilities in LoRaWAN that lead to the proposal of several improvements, some already incorporated into the latest protocol specification. Our analysis of LoRaWAN security uses Scyther, a formal security analysis tool and focuses on the key exchange portion of versions 1.0 (released in 2015) and 1.1 (the latest, released in 2017). For version 1.0, which is still the most widely deployed version of LoRaWAN, we show that our formal model allowed to uncover weaknesses that can be related to previously reported vulnerabilities. Our model did not find weaknesses in the latest version of the protocol (v1.1), and we discuss what this means in practice for the security of LoRaWAN as well as important aspects of our model and tools employed that should be considered. The Scyther model developed provides realistic models for LoRaWAN v1.0 and v1.1 that can be used and extended to formally analyze, inspect, and explore the security features of the protocols. This, in turn, can clarify the methodology for achieving secrecy, integrity, and authentication for designers and developers interested in these LPWAN standards. We believe that our model and discussion of the protocols security properties are beneficial for both researchers and practitioners. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents a formal security analysis of LoRaWAN.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain2018Inngår i: 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings, IEEE, 2018, s. 218-223, artikkel-id 8428344Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We see a shift from todays Internet-of-Things (IoT)to include more industrial equipment and metrology systems,forming the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, thisleads to many concerns related to confidentiality, integrity,availability, privacy and non-repudiation. Hence, there is a needto secure the IIoT in order to cater for a future with smart grids,smart metering, smart factories, smart cities, and smart manufacturing.It is therefore important to research IIoT technologiesand to create order in this chaos, especially when it comes tosecuring communication, resilient wireless networks, protectingindustrial data, and safely storing industrial intellectual propertyin cloud systems. This research therefore presents the challenges,needs, and requirements of industrial applications when it comesto securing IIoT systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Fortuna, P.
    et al.
    Jscrambler, Porto, Portugal.
    Pereira, N.
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi. Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri, Turkey.
    A framework for web application integrity2018Inngår i: ICISSP 2018 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy, SciTePress , 2018, s. 487-493Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their universal accessibility, interactivity and scaling ease, Web applications relying on client-side code execution are currently the most common form of delivering applications and it is likely that they will continue to enter into less common realms such as IoT-based applications. We reason that modern Web applications should be able to exhibit advanced security protection mechanisms and review the research literature that points to useful partial solutions. Then, we propose a framework to support such characteristics and the features needed to implement them, providing a roadmap for a comprehensive solution to support Web application integrity. 

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