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  • 1.
    Ascorti, Leonardo
    et al.
    Pepperl+Fuchs, Sulbiate, Italy.
    Savazzi, Stefano
    Institute of Electronics, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering, Milano, Italy.
    Soatti, Gloria
    Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Nicoli, Monica
    Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Galimberti, Stefano
    Pepperl+Fuchs, Sulbiate, Italy.
    A Wireless Cloud Network Platform for Industrial Process Automation: Critical Data Publishing and Distributed Sensing2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 592-603, article id 7851047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technologies combined with advanced computing are changing industrial communications. Industrial wireless networks can improve the monitoring and the control of the entire system by jointly exploiting massively interacting communication and distributed computing paradigms. In this paper, we develop a wireless cloud platform for supporting critical data publishing and distributed sensing of the surrounding environment. The cloud system is designed as a self-contained network that interacts with devices exploiting the time synchronized channel hopping protocol (TSCH), supported by WirelessHART (IEC 62591). The cloud platform augments industry-standard networking functions as it handles the delivery (or publishing) of latency and throughput-critical data by implementing a cooperative-multihop forwarding scheme. In addition, it supports distributed sensing functions through consensus-based algorithms. Experimental activities are presented to show the feasibility of the approach in two real industrial plant sites representative of typical indoor and outdoor environments. Validation of cooperative forwarding schemes shows substantial improvements compared with standard industrial solutions. Distributed sensing functions are developed to enable the autonomous identification of recurring cochannel interference patterns.

  • 2.
    Barile, Gianluca
    et al.
    University of l'Aquila, Via Gronchi, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Ferri, Giuseppe
    University of l'Aquila, Via Gronchi, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Parente, Francesca Romana
    University of l'Aquila, Via Gronchi, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Stornelli, Vincenzo
    University of l'Aquila, Via Gronchi, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    University of l'Aquila, Via Gronchi, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    A standard CMOS bridge-based analog interface for differential capacitive sensors2017In: PRIME 2017 - 13th Conference on PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics, Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, p. 281-284, article id 7974162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes an analog electronic interface, based on a modified De Sauty AC bridge, performing a differential capacitive sensor estimation. A suitable feedback loop tunes a Voltage Controlled Resistor to balance the bridge. The electronic circuit has been designed in a standard integrated CMOS technology (AMS 0.35μm) with a low supply voltage (±1.5 V) and a reduced power consumption (lower than 4mW). PSpice simulation results show a very good agreement with theoretical expectations. The output voltage accuracy shows a 0.03V maximum absolute error for a range of ±50% of sensor variations from its baseline value. Very small baseline values are allowed (tens of μF). 

  • 3.
    Barile, Gianluca
    et al.
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Ferri, Giuseppe
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Parente, Francesca Romana
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Stornelli, Vincenzo
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Linear Integrated Interface for Automatic Differential Capacitive Sensing2017In: Proceedings, Volume 1, Eurosensors 2017, 2017, Vol. 1, no 4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the authors introduce a new full-analog front-end for differential capacitance sensors which provides a DC output voltage, directly proportional to the measurand variations. The readout circuit architecture is based on a De Sauty bridge as core of the capacitive sensing whereas the feedback circuitry performs the bridge autobalancing operation by means of changes in a multiplier output. The circuit is designed in a standard CMOS technology (AMS 0.35 µm) so is suitable for portable systems. Simulated results have shown a good agreement with the theoretical model being the percentage relative error less than 2.5%. Interface sensitivity is constant and values around 0.055 V/mm for the considered application.

  • 4.
    Bonafini, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    Univeristy of Brescia, Italy.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Pasetti, Marco
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Rinaldo, Stefano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. University of Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Exploiting localization systems for LoRaWAN transmission scheduling in industrial applications2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm contaminated industrial world, allowing for innovative services. The wireless communications seem to be particularly attracting, especially when complement indoor and outdoor Real Time Location Systems (RTLS) for geo-referencing smart objects (e.g. for asset tracking). In this paper, the LoRaWAN solution is considered for transmitting RTLS data. LoRaWAN is an example of Low Power Wide Area Network: it tradeoffs throughput with coverage and power consumption. However, performance can be greatly improved with limited changes to the standard specifications. In this work, a scheduling layer is suggested above the regular stack for allocating communication resources in a time slot channel hopping medium access strategy. The main innovation is the time synchronization, which is obtained opportunistically from the ranging devices belonging to the RTLSs. The experimental testbed, based on commercially available solutions, demonstrates the affordability and feasibility of the proposed approach. When low-cost GPS (outdoor) and UWB (indoor) ranging devices are considered, synchronization error of few microseconds can be easily obtained. The experimental results show the that time reference pulses disciplined by GPS have a maximum jitter of 180 ns and a standard deviation of 40 ns whereas, if time reference pulses disciplined by UWB are considered, the maximum jitter is 3.3 μs and the standard deviation is 0.7 μs.

  • 5.
    Crema, C.
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, A.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, A.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Haslwanter, T.
    University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Linz, Austria.
    Salzmann, S.
    University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Linz, Austria.
    IMU-based solution for automatic detection and classification of exercises in the fitness scenario2017In: SAS 2017 - 2017 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, article id 7894068Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Causal relationship between physical activity and prevention of several diseases has been known for some time. Recently, attempts to quantify dose-response relationship between physical activity and health show that automatic tracking and quantification of the exercise efforts not only help in motivating people but improve health conditions as well. However, no commercial devices are available for weight training and calisthenics. This work tries to overcome this limit, exploiting machine learning technique (particularly Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA) for analyzing data coming from wearable inertial measurement units, (IMUs) and classifying/counting such exercises. Computational requirements are compatible with embedded implementation and reported results confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach, offering an average accuracy in the detection of exercises on the order of 85%.

  • 6.
    Crema, Claudio
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Vezzoli, Angelo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Bellagente, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Virtual Respiratory Rate Sensors: An Example of A Smartphone-Based Integrated and Multiparametric mHealth Gateway2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 2456-2463, article id 7949106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, several wearables appeared in the market, for fitness and healthcare applications. Such smart devices have been proposed as a possible solution for lowering the costs of healthcare, leading to the mHealth revolution. In the typical scenario, each wearable, embedding sensors, processing units and communication modules, adopts a smartphone for data collection, data displaying, and remote communication. In this paper, authors modify this paradigm simplifying the wearables (e.g., relying only on simple analog front ends and communication interfaces) and exploiting the (relatively large) computational capability of the smartphone, not only for implementing gateway features but also for processing raw biosignals as well. Several experiments verify the feasibility of the proposed approach and demonstrate that 'local' biosensor virtualization is possible, expanding possibilities of mHealth. In particular, tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance of hearth rate computation and respiratory rate virtual sensor, starting from a single-lead electrocardiogram signal. 

  • 7.
    De Angelis, Alessio
    et al.
    University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Carbone, Paolo
    University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Performance Assessment of Chirp-Based Time Dissemination and Data Communications in Inductively Coupled Links2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 2474-2482, article id 7930481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advantages of inductively coupled links for short-range communications are well known. Recently, they gained popularity as a viable solution for wireless power transmission. Interesting to notice that data communication capability is required as well, mainly for coordinating the transfer process. In this paper, the authors address the use of chirp signaling over inductively coupled links for both time dissemination and data communications. Such an approach extends field of applications, including data acquisition and instrumentation that are used in industrial automation. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified with extensive simulations and using a proof-of-concept prototype. Despite the prototype simplicity, jitter on the synchronizing reference signal is in the order of few microseconds and the bit error rate, over a short distance, is negligible.

  • 8.
    Ferrari, P.
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Brandão, D.
    University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Rocha, M.
    University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Evaluation of communication latency in industrial IoT applications2017In: 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Measurement and Networking, M and N 2017 - Proceedings, 2017, article id 8078359Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of Industry 4.0 includes the concept of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) that is the possibility for industrial devices to have Internet connection and share data. Huge amount of data are stored and analyzed in the Cloud to extract meaningful information to be sold as 'services'. Today, many Industry 4.0 scenarios do not require a short latency between data collection and output reaction, but it is expected that short latency services would be seen by the market as a distinctive quality. This paper deals with the estimation of latency in transferring data from the field (where the production takes place) to the Cloud and then back to field. Since IIoT natively refers to worldwide applications, the paper analyzes some cases where interacting nodes are deployed in different continents. The experimental results show that simple solutions based on widely accepted lightweight protocols (e.g. MQTT) and inexpensive industrial grade IoT devices are feasible. From the performance point of view, when using free access Cloud servers, they can achieve round trip latency down to 300 ms with standard deviation of about 20 ms over one-week observation time. 

  • 9.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Rinaldi, Stefano
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Rizzi, Mattia
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    On the use of LPWAN for EVehicle to grid communication2017In: 2017 AEIT International Annual Conference, IEEE, 2017, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected diffusion of EVehicles (EVs) to limit the impact of fossil fuel on mobility is going to cause severe issues to the management of electric grid. A large number of charging stations is going to be installed on the power grid to support EVs. Each of the charging station could require more than 100 kW from the grid. The grid consumption is unpredictable and it depends from the need of EVs in the neighborhood. The impact of the EV on the power grid can be limited by the proper exploitation of Vehicle to Grid communication (V2G). The advent of Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) promoted by Internet Of Things applications offers new opportunity for wireless communications. In this work, an example of such a technology (the LoRaWAN solution) is tested in a real-world scenario as a candidate for EV to grid communications. The experimental results highlight as LoRaWAN technology can be used to cover an area with a radius under 2 km, in an urban environment. At this distance, the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is about -117 dBm. Such a result demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  • 10.
    Flammini, Alessandro
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. University of Brescia, Italy.
    Tramarin, Federico
    National Research Council of Italy.
    IEEE 802.11s performance assessment: From simulations to real-world experiments2017In: 2017 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), IEEE, 2017, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we aim at providing an initial analysis of the IEEE802.11s amendment that introduced support for mesh networking to Wireless LAN specifications. Indeed, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of IEEE 802.11-based wireless systems also in the field of Distributed Measurement Systems (DMSs). Nonetheless, in such a scenario it is necessary to investigate the obtainable performance, in terms of latency, reliability and throughput. Toward this goal, we firstly considered the public available ns-3 IEEE 802.11s model, highlighting some details of the implemented design and also showing some of the unsupported features and open issues. Subsequently, we also leveraged on the mac80211 network emulation features embedded within the Linux kernel to test the mesh extensions included in Linux systems. Finally, using low-cost COTS hardware, exploiting the same mesh stack, we developed a real-world test bench allowing an experimental performance assessment. Results obtained from the presented setups are thus compared, and some open issues are finally discussed.

  • 11.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Han, Song
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saifullah, Abusayeed
    Wayne State University, USA.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Guest Editorial From Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks to Industrial Internet of Things2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 2194-2198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Rizzi, Mattia
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Evaluation of the IoT LoRaWAN Solution for Distributed Measurement Applications2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 12, p. 3340-3349, article id 8036410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is based on data collection, where billions of sensors sample the real world; in other words, the IoT includes a giant distributed measurement system (DMS). A question still requiring an answer is: Are the IoT technologies usable to enhance traditional measurement systems, since they have been developed for a very similar objective? In this paper, the use of a long-range (LoRa) technology, originally developed for IoT, is investigated with the aim of implementing DMSs. After the conclusion that LoRa and LoRa wide area network architectures show a good match with measurement systems, this paper focuses on the characterization of time-related performance indicators that are important for distributed systems. The experimental results show the capability of low-cost transceiver to schedule the transmission of frames with a standard uncertainty less than 3 μs; and an acceptable long-term clock stability (Allan Deviation) of commercial available devices (nodes and packet forwarders) for application such as smart metering, smart building, and process industry. 

  • 13.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    et al.
    University of Brescia.
    Saifullah, Abusayed
    Wayne State University, USA.
    Han, Song
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Industrial Internet of Things: Challenges, Opportunities, and Directions2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 4724-4734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging domain that promises ubiquitous connection to the Internet, turning common objects into connected devices. The IoT paradigm is changing the way people interact with things around them. It paves the way to creating pervasively connected infrastructures to support innovative services and promises better flexibility and efficiency. Such advantages are attractive not only for consumer applications, but also for the industrial domain. Over the last few years, we have been witnessing the IoT paradigm making its way into the industry marketplace with purposely designed solutions. In this paper, we clarify the concepts of IoT, Industrial IoT, and Industry 4.0. We highlight the opportunities brought in by this paradigm shift as well as the challenges for its realization. In particular, we focus on the challenges associated with the need of energy efficiency, real-time performance, coexistence, interoperability, and security and privacy. We also provide a systematic overview of the state-of-the-art research efforts and potential research directions to solve Industrial IoT challenges.

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