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  • 1.
    Ekenberg, Love
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thorbiornson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Second-order decision analysis2001In: International Journal of Uncertainty Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, ISSN 0218-4885, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 13-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to provide theoretical foundations of, as well as some computational aspects on, a theory for analysing decisions under risk, when the available information is vague and imprecise. Many approaches to model unprecise information, e.g., by using interval methods, have prevailed. However, such representation models are unnecessarily restrictive since they do not admit discrimination between beliefs in different values, i.e., the epistemologically possible values have equal weights. In many situations, for instance, when the underlying information results from learning techniques based on variance analyses of statistical data, the expressibility must be extended for a more perceptive treatment of the decision situation. Our contribution herein is an approach for enabling a refinement of the representation model, allowing for an elaborated discrimination of possible values by using belief distributions with weak restrictions. We show how to derive admissible classes of local distributions from sets of global distributions and introduce measures expressing into which extent explicit local distributions can be used for modelling decision situations. As will turn out, this results in a theory that has very attractive features from a computational viewpoint.

  • 2.
    Ekenberg, Love
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thorbiornson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Baidya, Tara
    Value Differences using Second Order Distributions2005In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 81-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most decision models for handling vague and imprecise information are unnecessarily restrictive since they do not admit for discrimination between different beliefs in different values. This is true for classical utility theory as well as for the various interval methods that have prevailed. To allow for more refined estimates, we suggest a framework designed for evaluating decision situations considering beliefs in sets of epistemically possible utility and probability functions, as well as relations between them. The various beliefs are expressed using different kinds of belief distributions. We show that the use of such distributions allows for representation principles not requiring too hard data aggregation, but still admitting efficient evaluation of decision situations.

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