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  • 1.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Forskningsläget kring leder för rekreation - en litteraturstudie2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En litteraturstudie om forskningsläget kring leder för rekreation i icke-urbana områden, där 194 engelskspråkiga akademiska artiklar i nätbaserade databaser granskades. Resultaten från litteraturstudien visar att den geografiska spridningen på forskningen om rekreationsleder är begränsad, där forskningen koncentreras på Nordamerika och Australien. Studier om leder för rekreation handlar främst om naturvetenskapliga aspekter av leder, så som miljömässiga konsekvenser av led-baserade aktiviteter och det finns generellt lite forskning på samhällsvetenskapliga aspekter av leder.

  • 2.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Paths to collaboration? A Study on Multifunctional Mountain Trails2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trails in natural areas constitute an essential resource in tourism as they provide infrastructure for both tourists and tourism companies. Trails allow access to nature and increase safety for visitors by guiding them to the appropriate route, where places of danger are avoided and the risk of damaging ecologically sensitive areas minimized. Even so, touristic activities in natural settings are today increasing and are more diversified as there are many ‘new’ activities becoming accessible for more people, for example mountain biking, trail-running and mountaineering. These trends and changes in tourism and outdoor recreation have resulted in an increase of trail-use, which in turn entails more trail-based conflicts. Conflicts occur between different recreational activities that use the same trail, but also between trail-based recreationists and other land-use interests. Thus, planners and managers of natural areas increasingly have to handle conflicts related to trail-use. Although conflicts relating to trails are becoming more common, research on trails as a conflict management tool is limited. Research has mainly focused on conflicts between trail-based recreation activities, and not on how the trail itself can be used to handle conflicts between land-use interests. As a number of land-use interests use the trail for various purposes, it can be argued that the multi-faceted features and flexible characteristics that constitute a trail can be helpful in handling such conflicts. The point of departure for this licentiate thesis is the assumption that trails in the natural landscape can function as a conflict management tool. Through the recreational trail, dialogue and discussions are made possible among stakeholders. Trails can therefore function as facilitators for communication, and thus enhance the possibilities of building trust and promoting collaboration between actors.

    The results of this thesis derive from a case study of the southern Jämtland mountains in Sweden, an area where conflicts of interests exist. There are several different interests and perspectives on how the mountain landscape should be used, perspectives including those of tourism companies, reindeer herding, nature conservation interests and local population. The trails in the area are, however, important to all stakeholder groups, and collaboration around the trails is therefore examined in this thesis as an applied example where stakeholders communicate and negotiate.

    Data for this thesis was collected by working closely with stakeholders in the area and by organizing workshops where different interests could meet and discuss issues relating to trails. Results show that creating platforms for collaboration and dialogue are important for increasing the understanding between different interests represented within stakeholder groups. Such platforms can therefore be highly valuable in handling conflicts regarding land-use.

    This licentiate thesis contributes to increased knowledge on the multi-faceted roles of trails intended for tourism and outdoor recreation. This is achieved by the examination of international trail research to identify research gaps, together with the analysis of trails as a tool for collaboration and communication to handle land-use conflicts. The thesis contributes to the existing literature on handling multiple land-use interests, and adds to previous knowledge by taking on a rather new approach; that of the recreational trail as a facilitator for communication.

  • 3.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Dahlberg, Annika
    Stockholm University.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Negotiating improved multifunctional landscape use: trails as facilitators for collaboration among stakeholders2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 13, article id 3511Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trails are significant features in landscapes, and many ancient pathways have developed into routes of great importance for recreation and tourism in contemporary societies. Nevertheless, international research on recreational trails has hitherto mainly focused on managerial and environmental aspects of trails and less on trails from a social science perspective, such as conflict management. This study explores the role of recreational trails as a potential tool for managing conflicts in a multifunctional landscape. The findings originate from a case study of the southern Jamtland mountain region in Sweden, an area where land-use conflicts exist and where tourism is a major concern. The study examines the recreational trail as an applied example where actors in the mountain landscape negotiate and collaborate. through the recreational trail, dialogue and discussions are made possible among stakeholders. Findings show that trails can function as facilitators for communication and can thus enhance the possibilities of building trust and promoting collaboration between actors. This research contributes to the existing literature on handling multiple land-use interests and adds to previous knowledge by taking on a rather new approach, where the recreational trail becomes a facilitator for communication.

  • 4.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Trails for Tourism and Outdoor Recreation: A Systematic Literature Review2017In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 488-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trails are important elements in the natural and cultural landscape, and many ancient pathways have developed into routes of great significance for recreation and tourism in contemporary societies. By conducting a systematic quantitative literature review, this paper report on the status of international trail research and analyzes some of the key content with focus on trails for tourism and outdoor recreation in non-urban settings. For this purpose, we reviewed 195 research papers published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Results show that research on trails for tourism and outdoor recreation is primarily from English-speaking Western countries. The most studied trail-based activity is hiking, but there has been an increase in the number of studies researching multiple activities. Results also show that international trail research to a large extent is based on the natural sciences, and focus on environmental and managerial aspects of trail use. This review identifies gaps in trail research, especially in a socio-cultural context on topics such as heritage and public health. Research on conflicts between different recreational trail-based activities is also relatively scarce, as well as studies concerning conflicts between trail-based recreation interests and other land-use interests. We also identify a need for an exploration of the trail concept, as research has not yet articulated a clear definition of what a trail is. The paper also includes analyses of changes in trail-related research over time.

  • 5.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    (In) equality in the outdoors: gender perspective on recreation and tourism media in the Swedish mountains2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates participation and visibility of women in outdoor recreation, by looking at the case of mountain areas in Sweden. We examined gender differences in participation in various outdoor recreation and tourism activities in the Swedish mountain region, and how these activities are portrayed from a gender perspective on the websites of five major tourist destinations. Investigating participation in outdoor recreation from a gender perspective is important, as spending time in nature has been linked to better health and well-being. It can therefore be argued that if men have better opportunities and more encouragement to participate in nature-based activities, women risk exclusion from important elements connected to quality of life.

    Remote mountain areas and Northern landscapes have traditionally been imagined and marketed as wild and untamed and, thus, oriented towards the male tourist gaze. Tourist activities such as shopping, spa, spending time with family are however, most often marketed towards women, perpetuating stereotypes of beauty, motherhood and care in leisure. In order to better understand and possibly counteract persistent gender norms in participation and representation of outdoor recreation, an analysis of tourist media visualizations becomes particularly relevant.

    This study aims to contribute to the research on gender representations in tourism media by focusing on promotional images of mountain destinations, grounded in statistical data on outdoor recreation participation in Sweden. The study adopts a mixed-methods research design, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data analysis aims to find out if there are gender differences in the modes of participation in outdoor recreation among the Swedish population, based on a national survey. The qualitative analysis of images in tourism websites aims to understand how outdoor recreation is represented in promotional media from a gender perspective. The results from both data sources are subsequently integrated.

    Results from the quantitative analysis show statistically significant association between gender and type of outdoor activity in a number of the activities included in the survey. Results from the qualitative image analysis revealed that traditional gender norms were present in the website images, such as portraying women in calm environments and men in action-filled environments. Women were also more often portrayed as passive landscape admirers. Findings also show connections between activity participation and gender display, as, for example, significantly more men were engaged in mountain biking, and more men were portrayed participating in this activity.

    Persistence of gender norms in the outdoors is problematic on several levels. Perpetuating women’s roles as passive participants undermines their aspirations for leadership positions in the outdoor context and reinforce the notion of women as outsiders in this environment. Moreover, portraying men as adrenaline-seeking adventurers place exaggerated expectations on men as conquers of the outdoors. Stereotypical display of outdoor recreation activities can therefore be argued to negatively affect both women’s and men’s relationship with the outdoors, as it can limit both genders in their choice of activity.

  • 6.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    (In) equality in the outdoors: gender perspective on recreation and tourism media in the Swedish mountains2018In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines gender differences in participation in various outdoor recreation and tourism activities in the Swedish mountain region, and how these activities are portrayed from a gender perspective on the websites of five major tourist destinations. Spending time in nature has been linked to better health and well-being, and this article contributes to research on the unequal opportunities women and men have in taking part of such advantages. Results show that there is a gender difference in both participation and in representation of outdoor recreation. The observed gender difference is not only in line with the traditional heteronormativity but also suggests that new trends in outdoor recreation are further favoring traditionally masculine modes of engagement with nature. This suggests the need for re-thinking not only gender norms but also human relationships with nature in general.

  • 7.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Negotiating co-existence in multifunctional landscapes: trails as facilitators for communication2018In: Abstract book, 2018, p. 108-109Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Ankre, Rosemarie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Accessible and inclusive tourism and recreation: practices of universal design in Sweden2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of accessibility limits participation in tourism and outdoor activities for people with disabilities. Previous research has recognized that the tourism industry does little to identify and accommodate the specific demands and preferences of people with disabilities. Through universal design, products, communications and physical environments can be used, accessed and understood by all people regardless of age, ability or disability. Disability is a social construction where social and physical contexts act towards excluding persons with disabilities. It remains a challenge for both public and private actors to make tourism environments and products conducive toward disabilities. 

     

    In this project, access to different types of Swedish recreational outdoor environments for people with disabilities are studied to outline key aspects for improving accessible tourism strategies among outdoor recreation companies and public authorities. The project also includes an in-depth study of Östersund municipality to increase knowledge about accessibility, recreation and health for people with disabilities, with a focus on how social inclusion can be strengthened locally. The project will discuss examples of solutions for eliminating barriers in order to allow equal participation.

     

    This presentation includes a literature review relating to obstacles to participation, mobility, accessibility and inclusion in tourism and outdoor recreation. We will also present initial ideas on data collection but also stakeholder collaboration between people with disabilities, experts on accessibility and universal design, public and private actors, and researchers. This will enable us to identify promising practices of how actors can collaborate and develop products by making environments more accessible.

  • 9.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    The Multi-functional Trail: An International Literature Review and the Case of Trails in Southern Jämtland Mountains, Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of international research on recreational trails, and presents results from a Swedish case study on trails in the southern Jämtland mountains.

    The report consists of three parts, beginning with a literature review on recreational trails in non-urban areas in international research. In this section, a quantitative literature review was conducted and 195 papers on recreational trails published in academic journals were reviewed and categorized, in order to gain insights on where there is research on trails, what trails have been assessed and what methods have been used, what trail activities and trail functions have been researched, and where research gaps remain. Results from the literature review reveal that research on recreational trails has been given increased attention within the academia, as the majority of the reviewed papers were published between 2000 and 2016. Results also show that research is geographically uneven, with a majority of the studies being conducted in the USA and Australia and little research has been conducted in Asia, Africa and South- and Central America. The literature review also reveal that research on different trail types and trail functions is limited, with a majority of the studies researching the trail types traditional backcountry trail and wilderness track, i.e. trails in natural settings and/or remote wilderness areas. Research was primarily based on natural sciences with an emphasis on environmental and ecological aspects of trails, such as erosion and wear and tear on the surrounding environment, and there was less research on social aspects of recreational trails, such as conflict management and public health. The trail-based activity dominating research is hiking, although there appears to be an increase in studies researching multiple activities.  Based on the findings of the literature review, it is suggested that future research on recreational trails should stimulate studies in under-represented regions, and a need for more studies on winter use is recognized. Also, there is a need for studies looking at the opportunities and challenges of multiple-use trails, as well as studies looking at conflicts associated with trail use.

     

    The second part of this report concerns the case study area and visitors’ trail use. Findings from an on-site visitor survey from the summer of 2013 is presented. This visitor survey was conducted in the study area to collect information on visitor attitudes, experiences and preferences, and for this report, only questions about trail usage and attitudes towards trails have been used in the analysis. For this report, analysis of the questions regarding trails in the survey aimed to capture Swedish and international recreationists’ and tourists’ use and perceptions about trail management and conditions of trails. Some survey questions are also compared with a previous visitor survey done in the same area in 1999 to capture if there are any changes over time regarding Swedish visitors’ attitudes. Results show that the availability of marked trails is important to both Swedish and international visitors, and that these two visitor-groups have similar thoughts regarding the importance of the availability of marked trails. Just above 80 % think that the availability of marked trails is an important factor when they decided to visit the area. Results from the on-site visitor survey also show that the majority of the visitors use trails during their visit. A majority of the respondents also think the quality of the marked trails is good or very good. Only 4% of the international and the Swedish respondents respectively, state that trail quality is bad.

     

    The third part of the report concerns stakeholders’ perceptions of trails in the case study area. Results from this section is based on answers from a web-based survey about trails in the southern Jämtland mountains that was distributed to stakeholders in the case study area, and a two-day workshop that was organized among stakeholders with the purpose of discussing current and future use/management of trails in the southern Jämtland mountains. Stakeholders represent Sami organizations, tourism organizations and entrepreneurs, local service providers and lodges, and public authorities, both from Norway and Sweden. The survey concerned questions regarding the role of trails in general and potential conflicts associated with trails, marked trails in the area, historical trails and unmarked trails, and the respondents own use of trails in the study area. Topics discussed during the workshop included definitions of trails, how they are used and their importance; if current trails fulfil the intended purpose; management and information; and conflicts associated with trails in the area. Future needs were also discussed, as well as new trails and changes in the trail system; future challenges in trail management, finance and responsibility; future challenges and solutions; and future co-operation between Sweden and Norway regarding trails. Key findings from the survey and workshop among the stakeholder group in the southern Jämtland mountains, reveal that trails are an important feature for successful management of this area. Their role to facilitate accessibility and visitor experiences, channel usage, protect nature, provide guidance and interpretation, facilitate reindeer herding, support nature protection and increase safety are important according to the stakeholders in the area.

  • 10.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Dahlberg, Annika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Svensson, Daniel
    KTH och Chalmers.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH.
    Godtman Kling, Kristin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Vägar till mångfunktionella landskap: En pilotmodell i Jämtlandsfjällen2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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