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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Redesign and Evaluation of a Technology Enhanced Learning Environment for Thesis Supervision2017In: ICERI2017 PROCEEDINGS / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, Sevilla, Spain: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2017, Vol. 10, p. 636-643Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thesis supervision is an important activity in higher education with Bachelor's and Master's theses mandatory parts of university programmes. In traditional education, thesis supervision has been a face-to-face activity, but today, both the student groups and the learning environments are blended. This study describes and discusses the design and implementation of a blended learning environment for a student group at Mid Sweden University.  The research question that the study aims to answer is:  Which are the important factors in the design of a course for undergraduate students, to facilitate supervision of thesis projects in a technology enhanced environment? 

    This study employed a Design science research strategy with three phases for design, implementation and evaluation of a blended learning environment during thesis supervision. For the first phase, design requirements were specified based on document studies and a literature review. In the second phase (first part), the created design requirements were implemented as an instance in the Moodle virtual learning environment. Second phase (second part), the implemented instance was used as the online part of a blended learning course for students writing their Bachelor's thesis. In the third phase an evaluation was carried out with an online questionnaire were students gave their opinions on course design and teaching and learning sessions.

    Findings show that the learning outcomes were good and that the course aim and the learning objectives were clearly stated. Found important factors for a successful supervision were peer collaboration, multimodality, and technology enhanced interaction.  Remaining challenges are to improve course content and to motivate students for research in the field of Informatics. Most surprising positive finding was that peer situation occurred informally, which deepen their knowledge for thesis writing and presentation. 

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Critical Factors for Human Computer Interaction of eHealth for Older Adult2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 the 5th International Conference on e-Society, e-Learning and e-Technologies, Vienna: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, Vol. 5, p. 58-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The percentage of older adults increases globally with an increased need for medical care. To support the idea of successful active aging, e-health seems to be an interesting concept. This study was conducted as a systematic literature study, with the aim to identify and discuss determinant factors in the Human computer interaction of eHealth for older adults. The important main research question to answer was: What are the critical challenges to address for an improved human computer interaction in technology enhanced health care systems for older adults? Findings show that there are several critical factors to consider, with trust, personal integrity, technological acceptance, e-health literacy and accessibility of ICT as the most determinant. If the found challenges are addressed, it might be possible to achieve the identified aim of independent living. The recommendation is a human computer interaction that is elderly centred, and involves the elderly users in the design process. However, no ICT enhanced system will be user-friendly enough to take away the need for social and technological support.

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Testbed requirements for technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation to support independent living2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An identified global phenomenon is that, as the percentage of older adults increases, new challenges arise for medical care and rehabilitation. Several research studies have presented e-health as a promising concept to support the idea of independent living among patients with chronic diseases. The Mid Sweden region has a relatively old population and is a region where people live with long distances to the nearest hospital or health care centres. This study had a focus on defining testbed requirements for a technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation adapted to the specific region. The focal research question to answer in this study was: What are the requirements and their associated benefits and barriers of using technology-enhanced systems instead of traditional techniques for stroke rehabilitation in the Mid Sweden region? With Design Science as the overall research strategy, data was collected by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the field of stroke rehabilitation. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted where important themes were grouped into the four main requirement categories of: Technical, Human-computer-interaction, Clinic and Sustainability. Beside the more specific requirements, an interesting finding was the division of stroke rehabilitation into the categories motoric, cognitive and speech rehabilitation; also, how technology enhanced solutions might be used in these categories. Each category has a potential for a successful use of technology enhanced services, but as the standard procedure in traditional stroke rehabilitation each patient needs a personalised treatment.   

  • 4.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Jungselius, Albert
    Stockholms universitet.
    Boman, William
    Stockholms universitet.
    Chat yourself into the society: The development of an audio-visual online environment for the newly arrived2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, Vol. 13, p. 553-557Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large groups of refugees have arrived in Sweden during the last years with a peak in 2015 when there were around 1.3 million asylum applications. Many of the newly arrived are still not yet integrated into the Swedish society and language skills is a key factor for a successful inclusion and integration process. There is a need for new digital language learning tools, not least for informal self-learning. The aim of the study is to describe and discuss the development and evaluation of an audio-visual online tool for informal language learning as a complement to formal language training.

    The overall research strategy has been action research with a qualitative investigation where data were gathered in a mix of usability tests, observations and interviews. Main informants were 12 students from three separate courses on Swedish for newly arrived. Since the group of informants constitute an exposed group, personal details have been kept as anonymous as possible.

    Findings indicate that several design concepts were useful and appreciated by the test group, but several users wanted an alternative to the Facebook based login. Gamification seemed to be a promising way to increase motivation, and many participants perceived that a feature with direct translation of messages would be a good way to improve the language learning. Furthermore, there were requests for tool mechanisms to filter conversation partners by gender and by interests.

       

  • 5.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Qazi, Hadia
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Sundqvist, Ida
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Online Digital Mentorship: How Might a Digital Communication Tool Facilitate Informal Learning and Integration of Newly Arrived in Sweden2017In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on e-Learning - ECEL 2017 / [ed] Anabela Mesquita and Paula Peres, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017, Vol. 16, p. 178-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arrival of large groups of refugees is one of the great challenges in Europe today. In Sweden around 100 000 new immigrants is expected to arrive from Syria only during 2017 and there are large groups from various countries already staying in Sweden that are not properly integrated. There are no quick and smart solution to solve the inclusion of the large number of new citizens and the idea should rather be a holistic approach combining several initiatives. Lack of language skills is one of the underlying reasons for new arrivals exclusion from the labour market and social networks. Online informal language learning and digital mentorship with two way communication between New Arrivals and established Swedes might be a way to facilitate the inclusion and integration process.   The aim of the study was to examine to which extent a digital communication tool could act as a resource in order to make the integration process more effective for newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Research was carried out as a qualitative cross‐sectional study with data gathered by semi‐ structured interviews. Five educators who are actively working with newly arrived immigrants and refugees were interviewed with use of the Skype tool. A thematic analysis was conducted to find patterns and to create themes and categories that could answer the main research question: How might a digital communication tool be designed to facilitate the integration and inclusion of new arrived refugees in Sweden? The answers could be structured according to two overall themes: “Usable” and “Flexible”. The theme “Usable” consisted of three sub‐themes Ease of Access, Improved language skills and Integrity Facilitation, while the theme “Flexible” was divided into two subcategories Adaptable and Educational content.   The findings confirm that a digital communication tool would support integration of new arrivals by facilitating personal dialogues with established Swedes. The recommendation is to create an online platform that supports language learning and enables multi‐way digital mentorship in a social network with benefits for the established Swedes as well.  

  • 6.
    Hellerstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    From Comenius to Counter-Strike: 400 years of Game-based learning as a didactic foundation2018In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2018) / [ed] Dr Mélanie Ciussi, Sophia Antipolis, France: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, Vol. 12, p. 232-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Czech philosopher John Amos Comenius has been presented as the father of modern didactics. He also favoured learning by doing and believed in "the art of turning all our schools into games".  Furthermore, Comenius had the idea of a flipped classroom with a four-hour school day, divided into two hours in the morning and two hours in the afternoon. The time in between is recommended to be spent on preparation, play and to explore nature. Comenius saw play as an important didactic strategy since play is an imitation of life itself. Most importantly, Comenius wished games/play and learning to be integrated. He envisioned "a school in which the serious and the fun are mixed" (Comenius, 1657B, [xviii]).

    This study has been carried out as a central and comparative literature review. Central in the sense of reviewing a body of literature that is central to the chosen topic, and comparative in the sense that texts describing ideas from the Comenius era have been compared to contemporary ideas. The historical texts were studied using a contextual method, viewing Comenius's works as moves in an argument, as described by Skinner (1996). 

    The comparison reveals both similarities and differences. The concepts of learning by doing, 'facilitas' and to flip the classroom, are all didactic ideas aligned to game-based learning today. Some examples of learning initiatives and schools fundamentally built upon the idea of 'learning by gaming' were found, but the idea still seems radical to most educators. Comenius would probably have loved the rich abundance of games and gamification today, but certainly not shooting games like Counter-Strike. Comenius’s vision was more one of a peaceful utopia with enlightened citizens. Finally, it is hard to tell if Comenius, alive today, would find the 21st century digital games to support or to interfere his Epicurean idea of a 'direct vision'.

  • 7.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Arkenback, Charlotte
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ekström, Sara
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Ericsson, Elin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Aalborgs universitet.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Fuentes, Ana
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå Universitet.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Utterberg, Marie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education2019In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-4868, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly suggested that emerging technologies will revolutionize education. In this paper, two such emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and educational robots (ER), are in focus. The aim of the paper is to explore how teachers, researchers and pedagogical developers critically imagine and reflect upon how AI and robots could be used in education. The empirical data were collected from discussion groups that were part of a symposium. For both AI and ERs, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they operates, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they could preferably be used, and how the emergence of these technologies might affect the role of the teacher and the relationship between teachers and students, were outlined. Many participants saw more potential to use AI for individualization as compared with ERs. However, there were also more concerns, such as ethical issues and economic interests, when discussing AI. While the researchers/developers to a greater extent imagined ideal future technology-rich educational practices, the practitioners were more focused on imaginaries grounded in current practice.

  • 8.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher Perception Of Obstacles And Opportunities In The Integration Of Programming In K-12 Settings2019In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings, Palma (Spain): The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, Vol. 11, p. 350-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The act of programming can be traced back to the 19th century and Ada Lovelace. In the context of history, the idea to combine programming with mathematics and technology is not strange. Today programming is a much more widespread phenomenon. But the relevance of programming in mathematics and technology is still very obvious. However, with the mandatory addition of programming in K-12 setting a debate has been sparked concerning the impact on teaching activities. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss possible obstacles and opportunities in integrating programming in K-12 settings from a teacher perspective. The two important main questions to answer were: 1) which are teachers' perceived obstacles and opportunities in the integration of programming in K-12 setting? 2) which are the differences and similarities in expectation between teachers with and without earlier programming experience?

    This study was carried out inspired of action research with the objective of improving an existing programming course for mathematic and technology teachers. Action research is a strategy that do not only strive to generate new knowledge but also has the aim to improve real world phenomena. Authors in this study had the double roles of being teachers and researchers, with the idea of establishing a cyclical process where course participants feedback should lead to extensions of the future course versions. Data were collected in the teacher training course and consist of 44 submitted essay answers on the question: In which aspects might programming be a positive and/or negative enhancement of you daily teaching? Collected data were grouped into categories with the use of content analysis.

    Results indicate that there are both perceived opportunities and perceived obstacles among teachers concerning integrating programming in mathematics and technology. An obvious finding was the mix of positive and negative attitudes in the vast majority of essays. In the category of obstacles many teachers brought up the risk of time trouble in both their professional development and in their teaching activities. In the category of opportunities several teachers mentioned the potential of programming as a new and motivating learning tool in their subjects. Finally, it seems important for the participants to get concreate takeaways from the course that could be used in their daily teaching activities.

  • 9.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Teacher Challenges And Choice Of Programming Tools For Teaching K-12 Technology And Mathematics2019In: Education and new developments (END2019) / [ed] Mafalda Carmo, Porto, Portugal: inScience Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 431-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current ongoing process in many countries today is to implement programming in K-12 education. With this comes challenges for the involved teachers on how to best teach and integrate programming in their subjects. On the other hand, the introduction of programming could also open opportunities for programming as a new and improved way of learning and understanding technology and mathematics. For Swedish K-12 teachers this should be rapidly implemented, but without any concrete guidelines for how or for which tools to use. The aim of this study was to explore teachers' perceptions of learning and integrating programming in technology and mathematics, and their preferences of programming tools. 

    The overall research strategy was a case study approach, with two instances of a programming course as the case study units. In both course instances the main choice has been between block programming with Scratch, and textual programming with Python. Data was collected in a combination of submitted essays, programming assignments and workshop observations. Findings from a content analysis of the submitted essays have been compared to workshop observations, and to the analysis of programming assignments. 

    Results suggests that the main challenge in learning and integrating programming is the perceived time trouble. In parallel, many teachers highlight the potential benefits of renewing their teaching and learning sessions with programming-based problem solving. Considering the choice between block programming and textual programming several teachers brings up the idea of combining the two rather than excluding one of them. Furthermore, there seems to be minor differences in the preferences of programming tools between teachers with different subjects and different age groups of students. Finally, the most positive finding is the improved self confidence that many teachers show, when their own ability to manage programming in their classrooms increase after learning the fundamentals of programming.  

  • 10.
    Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Professional development as a collaborative endeavour of networked learning in higher educational settings: Dissemination of knowledge among teacher training professionals2018In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Networked Learning 2018 / [ed] Bajić, M, Dohn, NB, de Laat, M, Jandrić, P & Ryberg, T, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers continue to strive to take up mobile and blended learning technologies in their teaching practices and universities continue to support this work through professional development courses for university teachers. At Mid Sweden University, two projects have recently been carried out with the objective to develop higher education practices supported by mobile and blended learning technologies in teaching in practice. Professional development for university teachers was expected take place using an iterative design comprising five features: participating in a competence development course, planning trials, conducting trials, evaluating teaching and participating in a pedagogical seminar. In this paper, the preliminary results of the final interviews with 12 teacher educators will be presented. The interviews were carried out to explore beliefs regarding changes in teaching practices, following the completion of teacher professional development project. The results showed that the teacher educators in this study experienced change in the use of mobile and blended learning in their teaching through dialogue, collaboration, dissemination and networked learning. Three themes were identified. The first theme was collaboration. Here, the teacher educators expressed beliefs which could be related to collaboration for learning to use mobile and blended learning technologies in their teaching, supporting conditions for networked learning. This involved working and planning new technologies in new courses together. In the second theme, sharing is caring, the teachers in the study expressed helping each other out and supporting each other in the work to learn and use new technologies in their teaching. Support through pep talks and taking on learning new technologies as a group was one example of gaining knowledge about new technologies. In the third and final theme, the teacher educators’ expressed beliefs regarding dissemination as a way to share knowledge and experiences. Beliefs expressed here included learning through seeing what others were working with and exchanging knowledge. The teacher educators’ in this study also expressed the need for continued learning through collaboration and dissemination, as networked learning in their community of practice. How universities continue to provide professional development to support teachers’ continued work together in communities of practice through networked learning will be of importance. These efforts in professional development will provide possibilities to push forward change in teachers’ use of mobile and blended learning in their teaching practices.

  • 11.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson Bergström, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Applying mobile devices and game-based learning in formal educational settings: Playing Pokémon Go as a tool for learning in a Swedish elementary school2017In: Recent Trends in the Digitalization of the Nordic K-12 Schools / [ed] Ola Lindberg, Anders D: Olofsson, Umeå, 2017, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson Bergström, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Orchestrating learning as an emergent practice in the use of location-based games with mobile devices2019In: Emergent practices and material conditions in learning and teaching with technologies / [ed] Teresa Cerratto Pargman and Isa Jahnke, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, p. 163-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses the inclusion of location-based games and mobile devices in an educational setting that embraces both indoor and outdoor sessions. The study was built on a framework including learning as a social and collaborative phenomenon. Two case units, in terms of a 5th grade Social Science class and a 6th grade Mathematics class, were included in the study. Each case unit embraced an indoor preparing session, an outdoor session including mobile devices and the location-based game Pokémon GO, and an indoor follow-up session. The chapter aims at contributing to the understanding of how students and teachers together, in an emergent practice of orchestrating learning, apply mobile devices and location-based games in their educational setting. From this aim, the following research question unfolds: How could location-based games and mobile devices be applied by students and teachers to orchestrate learning in middle school settings? Data were gathered by semi-structured group interviews and video recordings with 20 students and two teachers. Moreover, documents such as lesson plans were included in the dataset. In the study, it was found that students and teachers participated in a shared and emerging practice of orchestrating learning and teaching. In this practice students and teachers acted as co-designers to orchestrate the application of location-based games and mobile devices in the educational setting. Findings suggest that an orchestration including a combination of a collaborative approach to learning, location-based games and activities that embrace outdoor and indoor sessions has the potential to vitalise and enhance traditional classroom-based education. However, there is not a guarantee that all students will concentrate on the given task, and just as in an ordinary classroom setting, teaching and learning also require careful orchestration. 

  • 13.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teachers’ beliefs about professional development: Supporting emerging networked practices in higher education2019In: Networked professional learning: Emerging and equitable discourses for professional development / [ed] Littlejohn, Allison; Jaldemark, Jimmy; Vrieling-Teunter, Emmy and Nijland, Femke, Springer, 2019, p. 147-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades society has gone through changes related to social and technological development. These changes have impacted higher education. This has led to emerging networked practices that professionals and the organisations they work within need to respond to. An answer to this challenge to higher education is efforts in professional development. This chapter discusses teachers’ beliefs about such professional development. Particularly, it focuses on how networked practices in higher education are supported and fostered by professional development projects. The study was based at a Swedish university and included the dissemination of beliefs of teachers from three different departments that participated in two development projects. The data materials were collected by using semi-structured interviews from a sample of 19 teachers. The results revealed that professional development concerns beliefs on both individual and collective levels. Within these levels teachers related their professional development to both social and technological networks.

  • 14.
    Malliarakis, Christos
    et al.
    University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Tomos, Florica
    University of South Wales, United Kingdom.
    Shabalina, Olga
    Volgograd State Technical University, Russia.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Andragogy and E.M.O.T.I.O.N.: 7 key factors of successful serious games2018In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2018) / [ed] Mélanie Ciussi, Sophia Antipolis, France: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, Vol. 12, p. 371-378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital games have the potential to create active and engaging learning environments, supporting problem-solving, and learning through practice. As educators struggle to motivate the learners in their classroom, games provide a great opportunity to enrich the education curriculum. Students nowadays are characterized as the “Nintendo Generation”, because they spend significant amounts of their everyday lives from a very young age interacting with the computers by playing games. However, using games for learning requires a rethinking of the learning objectives, another  model for ownership of tasks, complex structures for support of students, new ways of assessing students, and a host of technological integration issues that have to be undertaken. So, how might one create effective learning games?

    Digital games are a deviation from the normal pedagogy.  They are instead embedded within the field of Andragogy. The main principle follows that the educational digital games encourage self-directness and independency.  Moreover, the Andragogy of educational digital games provides substance to the learning process through active experimentation.

    Taking the above into consideration, this paper aims to introduce and elaborate on a holistic framework based on 7 key factors that should be considered in creating a successful serious game. This framework is named “E.M.O.T.I.O.N” and stands for “Engaging game”, “Motivation”, “Opportunity of mastery”, “Theme and story”, “Intriguing learning”, “Objectives” and “Natural flow between learning and fun”. “E.M.O.T.I.O.N” is a framework that underlines the necessity of not disassociating instructional content from emotional context. In other words, we should not create sterile bulleted lists of rules. We should not assume players make decisions about adhering to policy based on rational algorithms and not normal human emotions. We should not strip learning modules of humanity and replace it with policy, terminology, and models, but fill a player with emotions ranging from frustration to elation, from sadness to anger to enthusiastic happiness. Serious games should embrace and encourage human emotion. It would be a breath of fresh air if our learning modules borrowed from games and put the critical element of emotion back into learning. The main message of this paper is that humans are quite adept at recalling learning when the learning is tied to strong emotions.

  • 15.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Constructionism and Game-Based Learning as Didactic Strategies in Programming Education2017In: Progress in Education.: Volume 49 / [ed] Roberta V. Nata, Hauppauge, New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2017, 49, p. 147-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructionism is like constructivism built upon the idea of learning by actively creating knowledge structures “in a context where the learner is consciously engaged in constructing a public entity, whether it’s a sand castle on the beach or a theory of the universe” (Seymour Papert). Like students learning French by living in France, Papert had a vision that math students should live and construct their own knowledge in Mathland. This chapter describes and discuss the idea of university students learning to program by constructing computer games in Gameland.

    The overall research strategy has been a case study of seven instances of a summer course on multimedia programming and game construction. Like in constructionism the didactic idea has been student-centred and with the emphasis on discovery learning with teachers more taking the role as programming coaches and facilitators of students’ learning. Teachers’ aim has also been to visualise the process of learning to program, and to engage students in concrete way through construction and deconstruction of digital games. This course was designed and implemented at a department of computer science in 2009. In the summer of 2016 the course is given for the seventh time and the study is based on seven versions of the course with course batches from 60 up to 400 participants.

    Data has been collected from course documents, course evaluation questionnaires and postings in discussion fora in the virtual learning platform Moodle. Furthermore, there have been analyses of students’ submitted solutions of a mini-project where digital games have been designed and implemented in the Python programming language with the use of the add-on library PyGame.

  • 16.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Furnishing Active Learning Classrooms for Blended Synchronous Learning2018In: Progress in Education. Volume 54 / [ed] Roberta V. Nata, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2018, 54Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology enhanced learning has been a rapidly expanding field in the 21st century, while most university classrooms and lecture halls look the same as they did one hundred years ago. A new classroom concept that seem to have potential to renew education is the so called Active learning classrooms (ALCs). The fundamental idea for ALCs is to furnish for active group learning with technology enhancement such as computers, digital screens, whiteboards and Internet connection.Today higher education settings are not only technology blended, but also blended in other ways. In the standard definition of blended learning the blend consists of traditional face-to-face education and technology enhanced online sessions.  A subclass of blended learning is blended synchronous learning (BSL), a blend where on-campus students work together with distance students in common synchronous teaching and learning activities. The BSL concept should also build on active and collaborative learning in groups with participants from both the described student groups.  The aim of the study was to analyse and discuss how active group learning in BSL settings are depending on the ALC furnishing and the technology.

    The study for this chapter was conducted with a case study approach with two active learning classrooms as the investigated case units. Nine teachers and three persons from the service staff focus group were interviewed. Answers from the semi-structured interviews were analysed by use of the qualitative data analysis tool Atlas.ti. The more technical parts of the evaluation were analysed with the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical framework.

    A result from the analysis was that there was not only one BSL model but two. The first one is more dependent on furnishing than on technology enhancement and the recommendation is here to choose a low-cost and low-tech 'light version'. Regarding the second BSL model with a synchronous mix of on-campus and distance students the recommendation is to go for high-tech equipment and- rich-media communication and communication tools. Finally, it seems difficult to reach any consensus regarding the spatial design, and the recommendation, for both BSL models, is a flexible design with movable furniture and enhanced communication and collaboration technology.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-12-01 10:37
  • 17.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Game-Construction Students Experiences of Educational Games: Gaming Outcomes and Learning Outcomes2018In: International Journal of Information and Communication Technology in Education, ISSN 1805-3726, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based learning has been a rapidly expanding field in the 21th century, with research reports praising the motivational effects and learning outcomes of games. At the same time there have been doubts on the learning outcomes of even the most seriously designed learning games. The generation that today enrols for university programmes is in general a gaming generation, and game construction students are often so called hard core gamers. What are the game construction students’ experiences of educational games, and what are their perceived learning outcomes?

    This study is based on student essays on gaming habits and game-based learning outcomes, written by students taking a course on game-based learning. Essays from four course batches have been thematically analysed to answer the two research questions. Findings show that students have a rich experience of various kinds of games, but that they do not make any clear distinction between games developed for educational purposes, and other games. Students also perceive that there are cognitive, behavioural as well as affective learning outcomes from both standard entertainment games, and more serious learning games.

  • 18.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    It is getting better, a little better – female application to higher education programmes on Informatics and System science2018In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Gender Research: ICGR 2018 / [ed] Ana Azevedo and Anabela Mesquita, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 245-254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ongoing digitalisation, the Swedish IT industry is rapidly expanding. It has been estimated by the Labour office that around 40 000 new system developers need to be recruited only in the coming four years. Salaries are high and companies ask for female system developers, but in higher education the majority of students on computer science programmes are male. University programmes on Informatics and System science are less technical and have a tradition of a higher female percentage. In earlier discussions, colleagues from universities in the north of the country brought up that the application figures has gone down, while persons working at other universities claim that the number of female students applying actually has increased. Who are right, who are wrong?     

    The aim of the study is to analyse and discuss the official application statistics that are published by the Swedish Council for Higher Education. Application statistics from 2012 to 2017 have been analysed and compared for ten programmes at eight universities. The selection of universities has a nation-wide spread but was mainly based on their outline of programmes on Informatics and System science.

    Findings show that both opinions seem to be right, but the main tendency is an increase in female applications for the made selection. On the other hand, a slight decrease can be found for the northern universities where the programmes are given in a dual mode. The on-campus groups have a surprisingly higher percentage of males than the distance versions, when programmes with identical syllabuses were compared. More technical computer science programmes have fewer female students while the highest percentages of female students can be found in programmes on Web development, Web design and Interaction design.         

  • 19.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Problems Affecting Successful Implementation of Blended Learning in Higher Education: the Teacher Perspective2017In: International Journal of Information and Communication Technologies in Education, ISSN 1805-3726, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased use of blended learning environments in higher education has been an emerging trend in the 21st century. Sometimes the definition of blended learning has been so broad that it makes it hard to find any learning environment in higher education that would not be included. Many research studies have been reporting the pros and cons of blended learning from the university perspective and the learner perspective. There are less studies on the teacher view of blended learning environments. This study had the aim to explore, analyse and discuss teachers' perceived problems and barriers to a successful implementation of blended learning at university level.

    The used research strategy was a qualitative cross-sectional study where data has been collected with semi-structured interviews. Six teachers that all are subject matter experts and instructional designers for courses on computer science were interviewed. In a computer assisted thematic analysis found codes and keywords was grouped together to create themes.

    Four themes or problematic areas were found, and that they combined could give an explanation to what teachers experience as problems when implementing blended learning environments. First theme is documentation and support, where teachers find the scarcity of documentation in their virtual learning environment a problem for implementing extension modules. Second theme is introduction and training, where teachers find it problematic that they rarely get a proper introduction or further training on the use of tools and modules. Third theme is the time aspect, teachers suffer from the lack of time to implement blended learning thoroughly in their courses.  Last found theme is didactics, where teachers do not feel that they have the required knowledge or skills to apply the appropriate instructional design for blended learning environments.  

  • 20.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Teaching The Teachers To Teach Programming: On Course Design and Didactic Concepts2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, Sevilla: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, Vol. 11, p. 8031-8037Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving computer programming in primary and secondary school is an urgent issue in many countries, and in Sweden this should be rapidly implemented during 2018. First subjects that should implement programming in the teaching and learning activities are mathematics and technology. Some teachers have earlier experiences of programming, but for many primary and secondary school teachers programming is a new discipline. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss how requirements have been gathered and implemented in a course for teacher training on programming for mathematics and technology in K-12 education. The study was carried out as two phases of a development process inspired by design science. In the first phase requirements were gathered and discussed in a brainstorming workshop were the course developers tried to align learning outcomes with didactic ideas. In the second phase the requirements from the first phase were implemented in the actual course development. Conclusions are that the idea of teaching the teachers needs a different course outline than how traditional design of programming courses. Higher education have a tradition of training students for system development in the industry. Teacher training should have a focus on didactic concepts that later could be reused in courses on mathematics and technology in K-12 settings. Examples of such didactic concepts are, computational thinking, pair programming, visualisation and game-based learning.

  • 21.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Eriksson Bergström, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning by Walking - Pokémon Go and Mobile Technology in Formal Education2017In: ICERI2017 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, Valencia, Spain: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2017, Vol. 10, p. 1172-1179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripatetic group learning has a long history that dates back to the walking sessions that Plato and Aristotle led in the Lyceum of Athens. Other teachers in ancient Greece also frequently used play and physical training didactically. Pokémon Go has a relatively short history (starting in the summer of 2016), but this location-based game had a faster global spread than anyone could have imagined. In the first week after its release, the game became the most downloaded app in history. In Pokémon Go, the players use real-world maps on which buildings, roads and water are correctly indicated. The game is played on mobile devices; the Pokémon figures pop up on maps and can be captured with virtual balls. To catch the Pokémon figures, players must physically move to the place where the figure is located; thus, unlike most other digital games, Pokémon Go involves outdoor activities such as long walks.

    With its high degree of physical activity, Pokémon Go has attracted researchers’ attention for use as an exergame. Several researchers are also looking at Pokémon Go’s use as an augmented-reality game. In this study, the focus is on Pokémon Go’s use as a mobile-learning game and on the potential for outdoor activities in formal education. In this study, two primary school classes used the game for learning sessions in mathematics and social science. The aim of this study is to discuss students’ expressions regarding how a location-based game such as Pokémon Go could be used as a tool for outdoor activities in formal education.

    Each primary school class was divided into groups of three to four students each for planned lessons that included walks. Each group had one or two smartphones to stimulate collaboration between students. The walks included PokéStops where teachers conducted planned sessions; later, the teachers followed up on the outdoor lessons within a traditional classroom setting. Data were gathered from group interviews with the students who participated in the outdoor sessions involving Pokémon Go. The collected data were then analysed and categorised via a thematic analysis.

    The findings show that Pokémon Go can be seen as a learning-stimulating game that could augment traditional teaching sessions in formal education. Students reported that they enjoyed catching the Pokémon figures the most, but some students also mentioned that they appreciated the math assignments and liked learning about the statues that they passed during the walkings. The most positive findings were that there were concrete learning outcomes and that this mobile, game-based educational setting seemed to encourage students to engage in collaborative learning. However, Pokémon Go is not an all-encompassing solution for the ongoing digitalisation of primary school. The conclusion is rather that location-based games have the potential to vitalise formal education, provided that they are carefully integrated into the curriculum.

  • 22.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Eriksson Bergström, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Location-based games as a key to unlock the classroom2018In: Proceedings of the the 12th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2018, Sophia Antipolis, France, 2018, Vol. 12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around a century ago John Dewey (2015) questioned the idea of schooling with a mandatory focus on classroom based studies only. Today, after a century of rapid technological development and vivid didactic discussions the classroom focus still remains. New portable, interconnected and omnipresent 21st century technology opens up possibilities for a spatial independent ubiquitous learning in the spirit of Dewey (Cope & Kalantzis, 2010). This study had the aim to explore and discuss the potential of using location-based games as a catalyst for outdoor activities in formal education. In what ways might a location-based and augmented reality unlock the constraint of traditional classrooms?

     

    The overall research strategy has been the case study approach where data has been gathered by spy glasses, hand-held video cameras and group interviews. Two outdoor teaching and learning activities were the two main case units. In the walking sessions K12 students played Pokémon Go to learn about local history and mathematics. Around 1 TB of video clips have been thematically analysed with the use of the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software tool NVivo. Patterns and themes found in the video analysis have been compared to themes in the answers from the group interviews.

     

    Analysis themes related to location-based gaming were Discussions, Outdoor activities and Gaming and gender. Findings indicate that the use of a location-based game can be motivating and a way to unchain students’ sit-down 'enchairment'. However, game-based outdoor activities seem to have more reliable learning outcomes if they are combined with follow-up activities in the classroom. Physically active students also tend to have more active discussions than sitting students in a classroom. Finally, boys and girls seem to have different collaboration patterns during the gaming sessions.                                                                                                                        

  • 23.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Fagerström, Andreas
    Stockholm University.
    Söderquist, Max
    Stockholm University.
    Motivating factors and tangential learning for knowledge acquisition in educational games2017In: Electronic Journal of e-Learning, ISSN 1479-4403, E-ISSN 1479-4403, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based learning has been a strong emerging trend in the 21st century but several research studies on game-based learning reports that the educational potential of games has not been fully realised. Many education games do not combine learning outcomes with entertaining gameplay. At the same time as there is a tendency to digitise and personalise education by the use of digital games there still exists a lack of knowledge about efficient educational game design. To identify design factors that are important for players' learning motivation this study has analysed three popular entertainment games that were selected for their educational values.

    The aim of the study is to explore, analyse and discuss if and how motivating factors and intrinsic integration of knowledge in educational games might be related to players' perceived knowledge acquisition. Test players with experience of the selected digital games were recruited from online gaming forums where a questionnaire also was used to collect data. Lepper's and Malone's set of heuristics for intrinsic motivation in interactive learning environments were used in a combination with Habgood's and Ainsworth's theory of intrinsic integration to examine the relationship between these factors in the educational games. Beside the direct acquisition of knowledge from gaming there was also an analysis of the concept of tangential learning.

    Results from a t-test showed that tangential learning was significantly more important for two of the tested games. Correlation analysis revealed several relationships between factors, where intrinsic integration was pointed out as particularly interesting for knowledge acquisition and tangential learning. Results showed weak or no relationships for Lepper and Malone factors, but with some tendencies for control, imagination and competition.

  • 24.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson Bergström, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Augmented Education: Location-Based Games for Real-World Teaching and Learning Sessions2019In: Augmented Reality Games I / [ed] Vladimir Geroimenko, Springer, 2019, p. 217-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-equipped smartphones have enabled the construction of location-based games. In augmented reality (AR), fantasy worlds are mapped to real-world settings. Two location-based AR games that use historical markers as points of interest are Ingress and Pokémon GO. This chapter describes and discusses how PokéStop statues in Pokémon GO can be used in primary school outdoor sessions. A case study was conducted on how fifth-grade students learned about local history, social sciences and humanities during game sessions. Findings suggest that AR could be an inspiring  extension in educational settings, if activities are aligned to the surroundings and learning objectives and outdoor gaming activities are followed up in more traditional classroom sessions.

  • 25.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers’ beliefs about professional development and the use of collaborative online tools in higher educational settings2018In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Networked Learning 2018 / [ed] Bajić, M, Dohn, NB, de Laat, M, Jandrić, P & Ryberg, T, 2018, Vol. 11, p. 361-364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching in higher education beyond the boundaries of face-to-face education is an evolving practiceincluding the integration of various technologies to support collaboration between learners andteachers. From a historical perspective the integration of such technologies in this practice hasafforded different time- and location-related conditions for collaboration. This development hasbrought new conditions for the practice of teaching in higher education. From being a practice mainlylocated at the university, teaching is possible to occur elsewhere; e.g., on the move, or from the homesetting. It has paved the way to introduce so called blended learning practices of teaching in highereducation. Such practice has been an emerging trend in the 21st century with an overall impact on thedesign of university courses. Applications, devices and networks that initially were used inexperimental distance education have later become natural parts of mainstream education, withblended learning as a standard concept in higher education. The rich plethora of information andcommunication technologies applied as tools to mediate learning and support teaching have created aneed for teachers’ professional development. The aim of this study is to present and discuss universityteachers’ perceptions and beliefs about how the supplementary training should be organised. Datawere gathered by semi-structured interviews at a department for Computer and System Science whereall seven interviewees teach in blended synchronous educational settings. The empirical material wereanalysed inductively by applying a thematic analysis method. Findings show that all courses have abasic common toolbox as well as an extended specific toolbox that both are continuously changing.This can be stressful and the formal teacher professional development is far from satisfying. Teacherscope with problems by consulting the collegium, a peer group where colleagues share experiences andassist each other in problem solving. Despite the constant pressure many teachers have creative ideasfor a further development of the blended synchronous learning concept. Many of the teachers in thisstudy see the continual attempts to implement these tools and experimenting with these tools in theirteaching as possibilities in their teaching as well as a source of professional development.

  • 26.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.
    Factors to consider when using learning games for learning programming in K-9 education2018In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL 2018) / [ed] Mélanie Sciussi, Sophia Antipolis, France: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018, Vol. 12, p. 447-452Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based learning is an emerging field with learning games played for various learning objectives

    In different educational contexts. One context where several research studies have reported on positive outcomes is for programming education. In the wide variety of games for learning to program this study reviews games and gamified concepts that have been developed for K-9 students to learn basic programming concepts. The aim of the study was to identify important factors to consider in the use of learning games for K9 programming education.

    The study was designed and carried out inspired by the six step method described by Machi and McEvoy (2016): The six steps were: 1) To define a topic, 2) To search and select literature, 3) Organising the literature, 4) Reviewing the literature, 5) Discussion and critique of literature, and finally 6) Writing the review. The type of literature study could be described as an exhaustive with selective citation, with the aim of considering all the relevant sources, but only describing a selected sample.

    Findings show that there is a wide variety in the use of games on basic programming concepts and also different game types. In a thematic analysis best and worst practices in recent research have been grouped into categories.  Found main categories to consider in the implementation of learning games for programming in K9 setting were: Computational thinking and problem solving, Challenges, Immersion and Flow, Gender differences, Game types, Teacher involvement, and Game construction with puzzle programming.

  • 27.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Olsson, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Learning to Program by Building Learning Games2017In: Proceeedings of European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Maja Pivec & Josef Gründler, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017, Vol. 11, p. 448-455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital games and digital gaming have had a fast expansion in the 21st century and today the vast majority playsome kind of digital games. From a teacher’s perspective an interesting type of games are the so called learning games andthe didactic idea of Game-based learning (GBL). In the last decade GBL has been an emerging field and several researchershave pointed out its strong learning potential. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss the idea of learning to programby game construction. The overall research strategy has been action research where the case study approach has beencombined with a content analysis of submitted learning games. Data has been collected from course evaluationquestionnaires, postings in online discussion fora and game analyses. Involved informants have been kept totally anonymousand game analyses are also presented with respect for personal integrity. Findings show that game construction can be anappreciated as well as stimulating way of designing course assignments, especially in programming courses involvingmultimedia and graphical user interfaces. The quality of students’ submissions show a wide variety and are stronglydependent on students pre-knowledge. Some of the student built learning games were found to have a potential for reuseas additional learning tools in introductory programming courses. However, to what degree and how needs to be assessedin a future study.

  • 28.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Furnishing for the future - teacher experiences of Active Learning Classrooms2018In: INTED 2018 PROCEEDINGS / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, Valencia: IATED , 2018, Vol. 12, p. 3115-3123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the rapid technological development most classrooms looks the same as they did one hundred years ago. In the 21st century education has become technology enhanced and blended in various ways. In blended synchronous learning on-campus students participate in the same teaching and learning sessions as distance students with the idea of active and collaborative learning. The aim of this study is to evaluate and discuss how active learning classrooms best should be designed and equipped to support blended synchronous learning.

    The overall research strategy has been a case study approach with two active learning classrooms as the cases. Nine teachers with experiences from the two active learning classrooms have been interviewed. Questions were based on a question scheme constructed at the Office of information technology at the University of Minnesota. Answers to the semi-structured interviews have been thematically analysed with the qualitative data analysis tool Atlas.ti.

    Results from the analysis show that furnishing is a crucial issue and that there are several reasons to carefully consider how active learning classrooms should be designed and equipped. Teachers had different ideas on how the classrooms should better be furnished to support active group learning, but they were in general surprisingly satisfied with the technology and the technical support. Except for minor hardware problems in the inception phase the reported technical problems have mainly been software based. Some informants had not been able to always book the classrooms and recommended further investment in the construction of more active learning spaces. 

  • 29.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ulfenborg, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Persson, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher Attitudes Towards The Integration Of Programming In Middle School Mathematics2019In: INTED 2019 Proceedings, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 701-706Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving computer programming in primary school is an urgent issue in many countries, and in Sweden this should be done during 2018. In Mathematics this will a rapid and mandatory process for teachers that often lack programming proficiency. There are several studies conducted on the student impact of programming and the potential learning outcomes. Less has been published on the teacher attitudes and the teacher perspective of programming in primary school. The aim of this study was to explore and discuss teacher attitudes towards the introduction of programming in middle school.

    The study was carried out as a qualitative cross-sectional study with the idea of capturing the attitudes and beliefs amongst middle school teachers during the second half of the 2018 spring semester. Eight Mathematic teachers were selected for semi-structured interviews that were carried out by distance with rich media communication tools. Audio-recorded answers were analysed and divided into five predefined categories in a deductive thematic analysis. Interviewees have been kept as anonymous as possible through the process, and they all participated on a voluntary basis with the option to quit the interviews immediately at any moment.

    A main finding was that the majority of teachers are positive about the introduction of programming in middle school mathematics, although some challenges and shortcomings were identified. Furthermore, the interviewed teachers’ beliefs are that computer programming could have a positive impact on students’ mathematic skills through improved their problem-solving ability and improved their logical thinking. Some teachers also brought up the idea of programming as a way of creating energy and motivation in middle school mathematics. However, the fast introduction of programming will probably create stress on teachers without earlier programming experience. Teachers’ recommendation for facilitating and coping with stress is to provide courses in fundamental programming as soon as possible.

  • 30.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Play‐based learning for programming education in primary school: The Östersund model2017In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on e-Learning ECEL 2017 / [ed] Anabela Mesquita and Paula Peres, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017, Vol. 16, p. 375-383Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to program has been classified as problematic learning with high drop‐outrates and low motivation at university level. Like the learning of a natural language thelearning of syntax and basic techniques in a programming language is easier and more naturalif started at a younger age. This study is based on an evaluation of a pilot project for studentsin a Primary school where computational thinking and programming concepts have beenintroduced as play‐based learning. Students have learnt concepts such as ‘Bubble sort’ byplaying the algorithm without any computer. Later the learnt concepts and algorithms havebeen implemented with Scratch and the Python programming language as main tools.The aim of the study is to describe and discuss a model for implementing computationalthinking and programming for fifth grade students by play‐based learning. As the overallresearch strategy the case study approach was used to evaluate this pilot project. Data hasbeen collected in a combination of observations, interviews and group discussions during a 15session pilot course and three workshops on teacher training. Findings have been analysedthematically and presented using the SWOT framework to identify and discuss strengths,weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the Östersund model.Learning outcomes of the pilot were promising but with individual variations in the studentgroup. The idea of introducing programming and computational thinking as early as in primaryschool seems like a good idea, but the recommendation is to keep sessions play‐based andwith enjoyment as the key feature to engage primary school students. Conducted sessions inthe pilot are worth replicating and so are the teacher training workshops. However, thechallenge that remains is to create a sustainable and scalable implementation of the describedmodel including primary school teachers’ professional development.

  • 31.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    A Framework For Evaluating And Orchestrating Game Based learning That Fosters Computational Thinking2018In: EDULEARN18 Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, Vol. 10, p. 1305-1310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some years now many teachers around the world have explored programming with their pupils inK-9 education. Research has shown that educational games of different kinds are often utilized byteachers as a mean for teaching programming and developing computational thinking. However,teaching and learning programming and computational thinking trough educational games isassociated with a number of challenges.One of those challenges are related to that teachers are presented with an ever increasing amount ofeducational games, and not supported with tools that, one the one hand, can help them evaluate thedidactical affordances and potentials of specific games so they can select curriculum appropriategames, and on the other hand, that can help them design and orchestrate game-based learningactivities. It is against such a background this paper presents a framework for the evaluation andorchestration of game-based learning activities that fosters computational thinking.The framework consists of two dimensions, namely game mechanics and learning mechanics. Thesetwo dimensions consists of a number of aspects that teachers and researchers can take into accountin order to evaluate and design activities, reaping the benefits of the didactical affordances of thegames and the available scaffolding resources built inside games and available outside of them.

  • 32.
    Olsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Learning to Program by Playing Learning Games2017In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Maja Pivec & Josef Gründler, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017, Vol. 11, p. 498-506Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based learning is an emerging field that has become a part of university education and several researchersdescribe its strong learning potential. For several subjects there is a rich flora of learning games and commercial-of-the-shelfgames available, but for programming education in general and Python programming in particular, the situation is different.There exists an economical aspect as well and to develop learning games for programming education, might not interest themainstream game industry and most universities do not have the resources needed to develop their own tailor-madelearning games. Digital gaming in general has had a fast expansion during the last decade and the generation that now isentering the universities has a habit of regular gaming. At the same time there are several studies reporting about lowmotivated students in introductory programming courses. In a time when commercial games for programming educationare rare, universities must look for affordable ways to construct appropriate learning games. This study has investigated theidea of using learning games developed by university students as additional learning tools in an introductory programmingcourse. Five student constructed games for learning to program in Python have been analysed. Eventually two learninggames were selected and tested as part of a five week introductory programming course. The overall strategy has beenaction research with the aim to improve an existing programming course. A group of students have played the games in twoworkshops where data has been collected in a mix of questionnaires, observations and group discussions. Findings indicatethat the general idea seems to work, but as for all kind of course content, there need to be a thorough assessment anditerative refinement. Despite some found bugs and interface flaws the games had a challenging gameplay as well as learningoutcomes. The game-based workshops also had a catalytic effect and created energy as well as curiosity among theparticipants. To what degree the games and the workshops contributed to concrete learning outcomes will be furtheranalysed after the second examination deadline.

  • 33.
    Shabalina, Olga
    et al.
    Volgograd State Technical University, Russia.
    Malliarakis, Christos
    University of Macedonia, Greece.
    Tomos, Florica
    University of South Wales, UK.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Game-Based Learning for Learning to Program: From Learning Through Play to Learning Through Game Development2017In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Maja Pivec & Josef Gründler, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017, Vol. 11, p. 571-576Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is approaching game-based learning as a creative act. Furthermore, creativity receives a holistic interpretation and is regarded as a three-dimensional term. Consequently, the authors will debate the research topic of game-based learning from three perspectives: teacher, student and learning process. On the other hand, computer programming is still hard to learn; as many researchers show that students fail vastly in programming courses, game-based learning seems to be a motivational solution that overcomes the basic difficulties that students face in this field. In the emerging field of game-based learning, there are several approaches that have been tested in programming courses at university level. Three of them are a) Learning to program by playing games, b) Learning programming through game development and c) Learning to program by the development of games for learning programming. This study has been carried out as a comparative analysis of these three approaches. Data has been collected from course evaluation questionnaires, online discussion fora and from discussions with students and teachers involved in programming courses at three different universities. Findings show that all three approaches seem to have a promising potential but there are also some identified minor problems. The recommendation is to blend these approaches and to combine them with traditional instructional design for programming education. The outcome of the study is the design of a model of learning for students in programming education

  • 34.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Design of Active Learning Spaces for Blended Learning Groups - the Teacher Perspective2017In: International Forum on Active Learning Classrooms, Minnesota, MN, August 9-11 2017 / [ed] Langley, D., Baepler, P., & Wright, R., University of Minnesota Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of blended learning environments in higher education has rapidly increased in the 21st century, but if the term also should include blended student groups there is a need for redesign of existing learning spaces. Today many universities give courses and programmes for a mix of campus students and distance participants. There are several research studies reporting on the benefits of blended learning environments for universities and students, while there are less reports on the teacher view of blended learning design.

    This study has the aim to describe, evaluate and discuss the design of selected active learning spaces from a teacher perspective. The main research question to answer is: “How should the new learning spaces be designed to support a student centred instructional design for blended student groups?”.   The overall research strategy was a case study gathering data in a mix of observations, semi-structured interviews and document studies.

    Findings indicate that the new design of classrooms and lecture halls is a step in the right direction opening up new possibilities for active learning. However, there still exist needs for further refinement and teacher training.

  • 35.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Active Learning Classrooms to Support Collaborative Group Learning in Higher Education - the Teacher Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the same time as most learning and teaching activities today are technology enhanced to some degree (Watson, 2008; Davies et al, 2017), a majority of classrooms are designed the same way as they were a hundred years ago. Several studies indicate that we have to redesign our classrooms to open up for more flexible learning sessions and to support collaborative learning (Cotner et al., 2013; Bernade, 2017). A promising concept seems to be technology enhanced active learning classrooms where the furnishing is meant to facilitate group based activities (Charles & Whitaker, 2015; Cotner et al., 2013; Vercellotti, 2017). This study is an evaluation of two active learning classrooms equipped with Internet connected computers where students can be divided into groups of up to six students, each group with a separate digital screen and a separate whiteboard.

    These classrooms are inspired by the active learning classrooms that have been built at the University of Minnesota and the evaluation of the classrooms was also based on an interview schedule from the same university (see Note 1 in Baepler & Walker, 2014). At the university where this study was conducted blended synchronous learning is frequently used. An educational blend that can be defined as the mix of on-campus and distance students participating synchronously in common learning and teaching activities. Research studies have highlighted the importance of bridging the gap between these two groups and create equivalent learning conditions (Turoff, 2000; Popov, 2009). The aim of the study was to analyse and discuss if and how the technology equipped and group work furnished classrooms might support university teachers’ work with various types of collaborative learning. Traditional classrooms are furnished for traditional lecture-based rostrum teaching, this study explores how classrooms that better supports student centred learning should be designed.  

    As theoretical frameworks for the analysis, Gibsons concept of affordances (Gibson, 1979; Hutchby, 2001; John & Sutherland, 2005) and instructional proxemics (McArthur, 2015) was used. The concept of affordances can be defined as ”functional and relational aspects which frame, while not determining, the possibilities for agentic action in relation to an object” (Hutchby, 2001, p. 444), and was useful for discussing how the room, the ICT equipment and, its furnishing affects teaching and learning activities. Instructional proxemics, defined as “[e]ducational space and the use of space in the classroom” (McArthur III, 2008, p. 4) was used to discuss the impact of physical space on student behaviour.

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