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  • 1.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere.
    Designing an Information System for Open Innovation – Bridging the Gap between Individual and Organisational Creativity2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    History shows that those companies that continue to invest in their innovative capabilities during tough economic times are often those that prosper when growth returns. Recently, information systems (IS) have been harnessed to support innovation. Even with IS support, innovation campaigns and suggestion management systems often end up in failure. Employees and customers are reluctant to share their best ideas. Individuals interests, motivation, creativity and life-long learning are seldom adequately supported by companies. In the information systems research area there is very little research on creativity and creativity has traditionally been studied mainly within the decision support systems (DSS) research area. This DSS area has focused on rather mechanistic idea-generation processes lacking a focus on individuals and their creativity. Even in the emerging open innovation paradigm, individual and group levels have come in for little research. From these starting points, we became interested in ways to improve existing information systems and innovation practices. The research question here is: How to design an artefact to support learning and creativity within the open innovation paradigm. Since we are interested in building new artefacts, we will utilise design research methods, particularly the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) process model. Our three artefacts are the results of our work. The first artefact, the Mobile Personal Development Plan, is focused on extending development talks between an employer and employees within human resource management to support innovation. Curiosity and emerging interests are seen here as idea seeds and future competences. The second artefact, the iPortfolio, extends this with a life-long learning and problem-solving focus. The third artefact, the Brokering Platform for Open Innovation, finally focuses on collaboration with customers and crowds. The software development was time consuming in our work and only the first artefact is demonstrated as a functional software prototype. Our pilot in an SME company illustrates practical requirements and usability issues related to the software. Additionally, a Delphi study with international open innovation experts served to identify future related requirements. Given the lack of creativity research in the IS field, we claim that our work makes an appropriate contribution. To the design research literature our input is new usage cases of the previously mentioned DSRM process model. Our results apply to organisations, where the employees work in dispersed teams and need an information system to communicate their emerging ideas and interests for more systematic problem-solving. The managers in our study reported that there are plenty of ideas available, but the challenge is to ensure the commitment of external resources to the actual innovation building. The integration of learning into the innovation and problem-solving activity should be motivational. We therefore discuss human resource management in relation to creativity and innovation. Surprisingly, in our pilots we noticed difficulties in time management in mobile settings and the current health risk debate gradually changed our artefact design, so this work also provides a critical view on mobility and on the access anytime, anywhere phenomenon. Finally, we suggest improvements to existing innovation practices in organisations.

  • 2.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Designing to archive open data – Case: ISERV e-services project.2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Voltage transients measurements and power line communication2016Inngår i: 2016 57th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), IEEE, 2016, s. 1-4Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Power line communication (PLC) connects energy producers with energy consumers. In the European Union stricter guidelines are under development to limit disturbances in the 2-150 kHz frequency range, because devices utilising PLC do not work. This study measured voltage transients in 22 locations and identified sources for noise. Home environments and public buildings were measured. Measurements were conducted in the frequency range of 150 kHz-500 kHz (according to EN 55011 to EN 55022) and in the lower frequency range of 3 kHz to 95 kHz. Results indicate that voltage transients are generated mostly by switching mode power supplies, pumps, rectifiers, inverters and even low quality smart meters. Several of these devices exceeded PLC standard level, 122 dBμV. Additionally we demonstrate that basic power quality recordings do not provide enough information to mitigate PLC problems occurring within microseconds and frequency specific voltage transient measurements are needed.

  • 4.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hedendahl, Lena
    Independent Environment and Health Research Luleå, Sweden.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data2016Inngår i: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). In addition to the brain, another organ, the thyroid gland, also receives high exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type.

    METHODS: We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis.

    RESULTS: In women, the incidence increased statistically significantly during the whole study period; average annual percentage change (AAPC) +1.19 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) +0.56, +1.83 %). Two joinpoints were detected, 1979 and 2001, with a high increase of the incidence during the last period 2001-2013 with an annual percentage change (APC) of +5.34 % (95 % CI +3.93, +6.77 %). AAPC for all men during 1970-2013 was +0.77 % (95 % CI -0.03, +1.58 %). One joinpoint was detected in 2005 with a statistically significant increase in incidence during 2005-2013; APC +7.56 % (95 % CI +3.34, +11.96 %). Based on NORDCAN data, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries during the same time period. In both women and men a joinpoint was detected in 2006. The incidence increased during 2006-2013 in women; APC +6.16 % (95 % CI +3.94, +8.42 %) and in men; APC +6.84 % (95 % CI +3.69, +10.08 %), thus showing similar results as the Swedish Cancer Register. Analyses based on data from the Cancer Register showed that the increasing trend in Sweden was mainly caused by thyroid cancer of the papillary type.

    CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied. The design of our study does not permit conclusions regarding causality.

  • 5.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk2017Inngår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 60, nr 5, s. 494-503Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO.

    Methods

    Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (T). Cumulative exposure (T-years), average exposure (T), and maximum exposed job (T) were calculated.

    Results

    Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the time window 1-14 years odds ratio (OR)=1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-2.6, p linear trend <0.001, and in the time window 15+ years OR=0.9, 95%CI=0.6-1.3, p linear trend=0.44 in the highest exposure categories 2.75+ and 6.59+ T years, respectively.

    Conclusion

    An increased risk in late stage (promotion/progression) of astrocytoma grade IV for occupational ELF-EMF exposure was found.

  • 6.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Case-Control Study on Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and the Association with Meningioma2018Inngår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikkel-id 5912394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain tumors during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 we assessed lifetime occupations in addition to exposure to different agents. The INTEROCC ELF-EMF Job-ExposureMatrix was used for associating occupations with ELF-EMF exposure (mu T) with meningioma. Cumulative exposure (mu T-years), average exposure (mu T), and maximum exposed job (mu T) were calculated. Results. No increased risk for meningioma was found in any category. For cumulative exposure in the highest exposure category 8.52+ mu T years odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.2, and.. linear trend = 0.45 were calculated. No statistically significant risks were found in different time windows. Conclusion. In conclusion occupational ELF-EMF was not associated with an increased risk for meningioma.

  • 7.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Örebro Universitet.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Institute of Environmental Health and Safety,Tallinn, Estonia.
    Hedendahl, Lena
    Independent Environment and Health Research Luleå.
    Radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden and some medical aspects on public exposure to RF fields2016Inngår i: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 1315-1324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden was investigated for public radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure. The exposimeter EME Spy 200 was used to collect the RF exposure data across the railway station. The exposimeter covers 20 different radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5,850 MHz. In total 1,669 data points were recorded. The median value for total exposure was 921 µW/m2 (or 0.092 µW/cm2; 1 µW/m2=0.0001 µW/cm2) with some outliers over 95,544 µW/m2 (6 V/m, upper detection limit). The mean total RF radiation level varied between 2,817 to 4,891 µW/m2 for each walking round. High mean measurements were obtained for GSM + UMTS 900 downlink varying between 1,165 and 2,075 µW/m2. High levels were also obtained for UMTS 2100 downlink; 442 to 1,632 µW/m2. Also LTE 800 downlink, GSM 1800 downlink, and LTE 2600 downlink were in the higher range of measurements. Hot spots were identified, for example close to a wall mounted base station yielding over 95,544 µW/m2 and thus exceeding the exposimeter's detection limit. Almost all of the total measured levels were above the precautionary target level of 3-6 µW/m2 as proposed by the BioInitiative Working Group in 2012. That target level was one-tenth of the scientific benchmark providing a safety margin either for children, or chronic exposure conditions. We compare the levels of RF radiation exposures identified in the present study to published scientific results reporting adverse biological effects and health harm at levels equivalent to, or below those measured in this Stockholm Central Railway Station project. It should be noted that these RF radiation levels give transient exposure, since people are generally passing through the areas tested, except for subsets of people who are there for hours each day of work.

  • 8. Khurana, Vini G
    et al.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Everaert, Joris
    Bortkiewicz, Alicja
    Carlberg, Michael
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations2010Inngår i: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 263-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

  • 9.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile networking in motor-cars2015Inngår i: Bulgarian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1313-860X, Vol. 7, nr 2 Suppl. 1, s. 24-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of the study is prescribed by the rapid development in mobile computer and wireless data transmission technologies. The levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields that the population is exposed to have increased likewise. This article investigates the levels of exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile networking in motor-cars. The object of the study is...

  • 10.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Devices used for Learning and Working2013Inngår i: Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN 1392-1215, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 65-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of this article can be described by two developments intrinsic to the digital age: the wide-spread use of the mobile devices with wireless connectivity and the exponential increase of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in past years. The aim of this article is to determine the field strengths of popular mobile devices and to analyse their compliance in light of both legal safety limits and third-party precautionary limits. The importance of minimizing the exposure to the electromagnetic fields where possible is stressed by recent scientific evidence and also by the high level European bodies. The measurements are conducted using a novel 14-point measurement model, covering the entire body of the user. The measurement results show that the strongest fields are produced by a tablet PC, a smartphone and a netbook when they are connected to the network via EDGE or GPRS technologies. Significantly less exposure is obtained from the devices that utilize WLAN network connection or 3G within excellent network reception. At the same time, the least strong radiofrequency electromagnetic field is produced when using the e-reader or desktop PC. Based on the results, solutions are suggested to minimize the users’ field exposure while retaining the network connectivity.

  • 11.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    The Shielding of Inbound Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields at Workplaces2014Inngår i: Safety of Technogenic Environment, E-ISSN 2451-313X, Vol. 5, s. 29-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of new technologies and increased use of wireless voice and data transmissions has increased the human exposure to the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Effective reduction measures of these fields have become more relevant in risk management at workplaces. Not only occupational health, but also counter-espionage and low electromagnetic interference are important arguments for RF EMF mitigation. This study investigates the most commonly used mitigation materials and methods of RF EMFs. The materials investigated in this study included: a graphite based paint; a wire netting; a foil paper; a metalized fabric; a transparent conductive film and other solutions. The study undertook two kinds of measurements: 1) a semi-controlled environment was created to test the mitigation materials/methods under equal conditions, 2) measurements were conducted before and after the implementation of the intervention measures in the actual living and working environments. The results revealed great differences in various mitigation materials and methods: under semicontrolled conditions the best shielding capability was achieved by metallized fabric, followed by iron wire netting and foil paper. Iron bars produced moderate screening whereas graphite paint and metallic frame proved to have little effect.

  • 12.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Vilcāne, Inese
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Reducing Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Networking with Laptop Computers2014Inngår i: 55th International Riga Technical University Conference SCEE’2014 “Scientific Conference on Economics and Entrepreneurship”, Latvia, Rīga, 14-17 October, 2014, Riga: RTU Press , 2014, s. 1-2Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile modems are used with laptops to connect Internet wirelessly. Recently several organisations, including the WHO IARC and the European Union have emphasised health risk-management practices related to wireless devices. We present here radio frequency (RF) power density measurements when a wireless modem is 30 cm, 1 m and 5 m from a user. Our results indicate that by using a USB cable and adding distance between a user and a wireless modem, there is a substantial reduction of exposure. Additionally we noticed a great difference in GSM/EDGE versus 3G/HSDPA radiation power density levels. Therefore, precautionary principle and USB-cable related risk-management practise is recommended when utilising wireless modems with laptops.

  • 13.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vilcane, Inese
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informationssystem och -teknologi.
    50 Hz magnetic field affects heart rate variability - An experimental study2018Inngår i: EMF-Med 2018 - 1st EMF-Med World Conference on Biomedical Applications of Electromagnetic Fields and COST EMF-MED Final Event with 6th MCM, IEEE, 2018, artikkel-id 8526072Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study exposed subjects (N=108) to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field at 4 μT. The test was done under blind test conditions, consisting of five stages, including control and exposure stages, each lasting for two minutes. The exposure took place in two stages. The results show, the average heart rate increased due course of the test (p=0.003). In addition, the total power of the heart rate variability (HRV) was statistically significantly lower during exposure stages than control stages. High frequency component of HRV decreases due course of the entire test (p = 0.014). 

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