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  • 1.
    Abdalla, Munir A
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A CMOS APS for dental X-ray imaging using scintillating sensors2001In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 460, no 1, p. 197-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an integrating CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) circuit to be used with scintillator type X-ray sensors for intra oral dental X-ray imaging systems. Different pixel architectures were constructed to explore their performance characteristics and to study the feasibility of the development of such systems using the CMOS technology. A prototype 64×80 pixel array has been implemented in a CMOS 0.8 μm double poly n-well process with a pixel pitch of 50 μm. A spectral sensitivity measurement for the different pixels topologies, as well as measured X-ray direct absorption in the different APSs are presented. A measurement of the output signal showed a good linearity over a wide dynamic range. This chip showed that the very low sensitivity of the CMOS APSs to direct X-ray exposure adds a great advantage to the various CMOS advantages over CCD-based imaging systems.

  • 2.
    Abdalla, Munir A
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A new biasing method for CMOS preamplifier-shapers2000In: ICECS 2000: 7TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRONICS, CIRCUITS & SYSTEMS, VOLS I AND II, 2000, p. 15-18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abdalla, Munir A
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    An integrating CMOS APS for X-ray imaging with an in-pixel preamplifier2001In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 466, no 1, p. 232-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present in this paper an integrating CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) circuit coated with scintillator type sensors for intra-oral dental X-ray imaging systems. The photosensing element in the pixel is formed by the p-diffusion on the n-well diode. The advantage of this photosensor is its very low direct absorption of X-rays compared to the other available photosensing elements in the CMOS pixel. The pixel features an integrating capacitor in the feedback loop of a preamplifier of a finite gain in order to increase the optical sensitivity. To verify the effectiveness of this in-pixel preamplification, a prototype 32 x 80 element CMOS active pixel array was implemented in a 0.8 mum CMOS double poly, n-well process with a pixel pitch of 50 mum. Measured results confirmed the improved optical sensitivity performance of the APS. Various measurements on device performance are presented.

  • 4.
    Abdalla, Munir
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Dubaric, Ervin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A scintillator-coated phototransistor pixel sensor with dark current cancellation2001In: cecs2001: 8th IEEE international conference on electronics, circuits and systems, Vols. I-III, Conference Proceedings, 2001, p. 663-667Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Dubaric, Ervin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hjelm, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdallah, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, C.S.
    Monte Carlo simulations of the imaging properties of scintillator coated X-ray pixel detectors2000In: IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference: vol. 1, IEEE conference proceedings, 2000, Vol. 1, p. 6/282-6/285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The imaging properties of X-ray pixel detectors depend on the quantum efficiency for X-rays, the generated signal for each X-ray photon and the distribution of the generated signal between different pixels. In a scintillator coated device the signal is generated both by X-ray photons captured in the scintillator and by X-ray photons captured directly in the semiconductor. Hence, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the image is then a function of the number of photons captured in each of these processes, and the yield of each process, in terms of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) produced in the semiconductor. The full process from the absorption of the X-ray photon to the final signal read out from the detector has been simulated with a combination of the Monte Carlo program MCNP and the commercial carrier transport simulation tool MEDICI. An in house program calculating the light transport between the scintillator and the semiconductor serves as a link

  • 6.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, T.
    Eriksson, P.
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A power-line noise coupling estimation methodology for architectural exploration of mixed-signal systems2003In: Proceedings of the Southwest Symposium on Mixed-Signa Design, IEEE Press, 2003, p. 133-137, article id 1190412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents methods for early estimation of digital to analog noise coupling over the power distribution network in mixed-signal systems. The methods allow both behavioral verification of mixed-signal architectures and their sensitivity to noise coupling of the power distribution network. The behavioral level noise coupling simulation models are implemented as extensions to the SystemC system design language. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, we have estimated the power distribution network noise for a photon-counting X-ray pixel array and compared this with SPICE simulations.

  • 7.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ytterdal, Trond
    Eriksson, Patrik
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O´Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Behavioral Simulation of Power Line Noise Coupling in Mixed-Signal Systems using SystemC2003In: ISVLSI 2003: IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI, PROCEEDINGS - NEW TRENDS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR VLSI SYSTEMS DESIGN, IEEE , 2003, p. 275-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents methods for early quantification of digital to analog noise coupling at behavioral level. The methods enable designers to both verify the behavior of their mixed-signal architecture and its sensitivity to noise coupling. The high-level noise coupling simulation models are implemented as extensions to SystemC.

  • 8.
    Marchal, J
    et al.
    University of GLasgow.
    Al-Ajili, A
    Scott, J
    Doak, D
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gwilliam, R
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Shea, V
    University of GLasgow.
    Smith, K M
    University of Glasgow.
    Rahman, M
    A new pixel sensor for uniformity control in ion implantation2003In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 206, p. 462-466Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Marchal, J
    et al.
    University of Glasgow.
    Passmore, M S
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    van den Berg, J
    Nejim, A
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Shea, V
    Smith, K M
    Rahman, M
    Active pixel detector for ion beam profiling2002In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 487, no 1-2, p. 224-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Robust window discriminator for photon-counting pixel detectors2002In: IEE Proceedings - Optoelectronics, ISSN 1350-2433, Vol. 149, no 2, p. 65-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a robust and area-efficient way of designing window discriminators for photon-counting pixel detectors. For that, an all-digital window discriminator is proposed. It is event-driven and does not rely on any external or internal timing references, which makes it possible to use it over a wide range of specifications. In addition, it provides an overall area efficient implementation of the digital electronics in photon-counting pixel detectors. The transistor-level implementation of the circuit is presented with its circuit area and timing performance.

  • 11.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdalla, Munir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Low Digital Interference Counter for Photon Counting Pixel Detectors2002In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A, ISSN 0168-9002, Vol. 487, no 3, p. 323-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single photon-counting pixel sensors are widely used in radiation imaging because of their energy resolving capability and high dynamic range. However, the close integration of the analog and digital circuits in the small pixel area puts critical constraints on the mixed mode circuit design. This includes the design considerations regarding the noise injection from the digital circuits into the analog part due to the digital switching. In addition, the large number of components requires a pixel circuit with low power consumption. In this paper, we address these two design constraints. An event counter architecture that decreases the digital switching and power consumption in a pixel is presented. The counter has the same dynamic range for capturing events and hardware cost as the conventionally used counters. We present design rules for adopting the counter architecture to a certain application. These rules enable the trade-off between readout accuracy from the pixel vs. the current in the digital parts of the pixel. Simulation of a case study circuit shows a reduction of digital activity by a factor seven, and a significant reduction of power consumption.

1 - 11 of 11
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  • ieee
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
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  • text
  • asciidoc
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