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  • 1.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Biomass-fired energy systems for space heating. Extended abstract.2004In: World Bioenergy Conference & Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Jönköping 2-4 June 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 2.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Energy conservation and conversion of electrical heating systems in detached houses2007In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 717-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a Swedish house built in 1974, heated with resistance heaters was analysed. Different options for changing the heating system and electricity production were compared for this type of detached house, assuming coal-based electricity production as a reference. Changes in the fuel used, the electricity production technology, the end-use heating technology and the heat demand were analysed. The aim was to show how these different parts of the energy system interact and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of reducing CO2 emission and primary energy use by different combinations of changes. The results showed that the CO2 emission and primary energy use could be reduced by 95 and 70%, respectively, without increased heating costs in a national economic perspective. The choice of end-use heating system had a greater influence than the energy conservation measures on the parameters studied. The energy conservation measures were less cost-effective in combination with the more energy-efficient heating systems, although the fact that they reduced the heat demand, and thus also the investment cost of the new heating system, was taken into account.

  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings2010In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the Life cycle energy use. The Life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO2 emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO2 emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO2 emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house.

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy use of multi-storey wood buildings in a life cycle perspective2008In: Passivhus Norden 2008, Trondheim, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building2010In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 230-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the life cycle primary energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building are analyzed. All life cycle phases are included, including acquisition and processing of materials, on-site construction, building operation, demolition and materials disposal. The calculated primary energy use includes the entire energy system chains, and carbon flows are tracked including fossil fuel emissions, process emissions, carbon stocks in building materials, and avoided fossil emissions due to biofuel substitution. The results show that building operation uses the largest share of life cycle energy use, becoming increasingly dominant as the life span of the building increases. The type of heating system strongly influences the primary energy use and CO2 emission; a biomass-based system with cogeneration of district heat and electricity achieves low primary energy use and very low CO2 emissions. Using biomass residues from the wood products chain to substitute for fossil fuels significantly reduces net CO2 emission. Excluding household tap water and electricity, a negative life cycle net CO2 emission can be achieved due to the wood-based construction materials and biomass-based energy supply system. This study shows the importance of using a life cycle perspective when evaluating primary energy and climatic impacts of buildings.

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Uddin, Noim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Large scale biomass-based heating systems and energy conservation2004In: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection : Second World Biomass Conference; proceedings of the world conference held in Rome, Italy, 10 - 14 May 2004; [held jointly with the 13th European Conference on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection]: World Conference on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection ; 2 (Rome) : 2004.05.10-14, Florens and Munich: ETA , 2004, p. 1978-1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy efficiency and CO2 mitigation in residential buildings2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to control climate change it is important to limit the atmosphericconcentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased energy efficiency, as well as ashift from fossil fuels to renewable resources can reduce net CO2 emission. Theenergy required for constructing and operating buildings is significant in manycountries, and it is thus important to design energy efficient buildings and energysupply systems.Improvements in existing buildings are needed in order to achieve short-termemission reductions. The Swedish building stock expanded greatly during the1960s and 1970s. The energy efficiency of these houses was often quite low, andmany of them were built with resistance heating. In this thesis increased energyefficiency in such buildings is studied, as well as conversions from resistanceheating to other heating systems, and various technologies and fuels for theproduction of electricity and heat. The effects of these measures are analysed withrespect to primary energy use, CO2 emission and societal cost. The studies wereperformed using process-based systems analysis in a life-cycle perspective. Thesystem boundaries include energy chains from the natural resources to the usefulelectricity and heat in the houses. The results show that the choice of heatingsystem in the house has a greater effect on the primary energy use than measureson both the house envelope and the energy supply chains. District heating basedon cogeneration of heat and electricity and bedrock heat pumps were found to beenergy-efficient systems. The net emission of CO2 is dependent on the fuel and theCO2 emissions from these systems are comparable to those from a wood pelletboiler, if biomass-based supply chains are used. Conversion from resistanceheating to any of the other heating systems studied is also profitable from a societaleconomic perspective.The decision to implement energy-efficiency measures or install a new heatingsystem in a detached house is taken by the house owner. In order for successfulimplementation the alternatives must either be sufficiently attractive or incentivesor policy instruments that affects this large, inhomogeneous group must beimplemented. In this thesis, the house owners’ economic situation when changingthe heating system and implementing energy-efficiency measures on the buildingenvelope is analysed. The economic analysis includes current Swedish policyinstruments, such as an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, anincome tax deduction for replacing windows, levying a consumer electricity tax

    and increasing real estate tax. House owners’ perceptions of different heatingsystems are analysed through the results of comprehensive questionnaires. Societaleconomy, private economy and individuals’ perceptions are compared. Theconversion subsidy provides some incentive to house owners to act according tothe national energy policy, as does the electricity tax, which has a significantinfluence on consumer costs. The use of economic instruments seems efficient inpromoting systems in line with environmental goals since environmental factorsare ranked much lower by the home owners. However, the effect on the annualcost of most of the policy instruments studied is smaller than the price variationsbetween different energy suppliers. Energy suppliers thus have considerableopportunity to influence house owners.To achieve long-term changes in the building sector new houses should beconstructed with as low primary energy use and emission as possible, seen overtheir entire life cycle. The primary energy use is analysed for both the productionand operational phase of several types of residential buildings. When the demandfor operational primary energy decreases, due to a high energy standard orenergy-efficient supply, the relative importance of the energy required forproduction will increase. The amount of primary energy required for theproduction of a new low-energy building is significant compared with the primaryenergy required for space heating. One way of reducing both primary energy useand CO2 emission in the production phase is to use constructions with woodframes instead of concrete.The energy supply system is nevertheless still important also for low energybuildings. A new house built to passive standard, heated with fossil-fuel-basedresistance heating gives rise to higher primary energy use and CO2 emission than aconventional detached house from the 1970s that is heated with an energy-efficientbiomass-based heating system. The results thus indicate that wood-framed houseswith a high energy standard, together with efficient energy supply systems, couldbe an option for sustainable residential construction.

  • 8.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    A life cycle energy perspective on the passive house concept2008In: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILDING ENERGY AND ENIVRONMENT, PROCEEDINGS VOLS 1-3 / [ed] Liu, JJ; Zhang, TF; Zhai, ZQ, Dalian, China: Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, p. 549-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When low-energy houses are being built the focus is often to minimize the final (purchased) energy in the operation phase. However, the primary energy is more relevant when evaluating buildings from an environmental perspective. As the. energy for operation decreases, the relative importance of the other life cycle phases increases and influences an optimization aiming at minimizing the life-cycle energy use. We have studied the primary energy use for production and operation of four types of buildings, when using different types of energy supply systems for the heating. We show that a house from the 1970s after refurbishment and change of heating supply system had about the same primary energy use as a so-called passive house. The CO2 emissions were 64% lower, when a biomass-based heating system was used. We also illustrate the higher relative importance of the production phase for a building with low energy demand and efficient heat supply systems for operation.

  • 9.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A systems perspective on heat pumps and district heating for energy efficiency in the residential sector2005In: Proceedings of Heat Transfer in Components and Systems for Sustainable Energy Technologies, 2005, p. 429-434Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Biomass-based heating systems and energy conservation in detached houses2004In: Proceedings. 2nd World Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection 10–14 May 2004, Rome, Italy, Florence and Munich: ETA-Florence and WIP-Munich , 2004, p. 1985-1988Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO2 emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m2. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO2 emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO2 emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures.

  • 12.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy efficiency measures and conversion of fossil fuel boiler systems in a detached house2010In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emissions from the Swedish building stock. Here detached houses heated by oil, natural gas or electric boilers were assessed. CO2 emissions, primary energy use and heating costs were evaluated before and after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to more efficient heating systems and changes to biomass fuel use. The study included full energy chains, from natural resources to usable heat in the houses. The aim was to evaluate the societal economic cost effectiveness of reducing CO2 emission and primary energy use by different combinations of changes. The results demonstrated that for a house using an electric boiler, a conversion to a heat pump combined with house envelope measures could be cost efficient from a societal economic perspective. If the electricity was based on biomass, the primary energy use was at the same time reduced by 70% and the CO2 emission by 97%. Large emission reductions were also seen for conversions from oil and gas boilers to a biomass-based system. However, for these conversions the heating cost increased, leading to a mitigation cost of around €50/tonne C avoided. The price of oil and natural gas greatly influenced the competitiveness of the alternatives. House envelope measures were more cost-effective for houses with electric boilers as the cost of energy for this system is high. The results are specific to a Swedish context, but also give an indication of the potential in other regions, such as northern European and large parts of North America, which have both a cold climate and a widespread use of domestic boilers.

  • 13.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    House owners: perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing residential areas2006In: 2006 ACEEE Summer study on Energy efficiency in buildings: proceedings, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Implementation of Energy efficiency in residential areas - public policies versus energy suppliers2008In: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILDING ENERGY AND ENIVRONMENT, PROCEEDINGS VOLS 1-3, Dalian, China: Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, p. 2070-2077Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to realise the potential for energy efficiency in residential areas it requires influencing the many individual house owners that make the decisions. We compare how Swedish energy policy and Swedish energy suppliers influence the house owners in taking decisions about heating systems and house envelope measures. An economic analysis shows how energy policy and electricity cost affects the house owners' economic situation. The house owners' perception is analysed through comprehensive questionnaires, sent out both before and after the implementation of a heating system conversion subsidy and a district heating marketing campaign by an energy supplier. We conclude that a heating system conversion subsidy and electricity tax give relevant incentives to act according to the national policy. We show that the effect on the annual cost of most of the studied policy measures was smaller than the price variations between different energy suppliers. The energy supplier can largely influence both the economic situation and the perceptions of the customers.

  • 15.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Implementing energy efficiency in Sweden's existing building stock2007In: (The European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy ) eceee Summer studies 2007, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Multi-storey Wood Buildings in a Life Cycle Primary Energy Perspective2008In: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILDING ENERGY AND ENIVRONMENT, PROCEEDINGS VOLS 1-3, 2008, p. 255-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For houses with low operational energy demand, the relative importance of the other life cycle phases is larger than in standard buildings. For such buildings the choice of material becomes more important. Studies have shown that buildings constructed with wood require less energy during the lifecycle, compared to other materials. We have compared the primary energy use for production and operation of a wood building and a concrete building, traditionally constructed, and a low-energy concrete building. We also evaluate the effects of energy efficiency measures applied to the wood building and of different energy supply systems. We show the importance of both material choice and energy supply systems when optimizing life-cycle energy use of buildings.

  • 17.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 84-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO2. Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part of the country has the opposite effect. Also, the increase in real estate tax when implementing energy-efficiency measures gives a contradictory message. The price differences between energy suppliers has a larger impact on the house owners' economic conditions than both subsidies and tax rate changes, and possibly also affect the house owner's attitudes towards various systems.

  • 18.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The need for a life cycle energy perspective on the passive house concept2008In: Passivhus Norden 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 18 of 18
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