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  • 1.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Performance predicting factors in prolonged exhausting exercise of varying intensity2007In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 423-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several endurance sports, e.g. road cycling, have a varying intensity profile during competition. At present, few laboratory tests take this intensity profile into consideration. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic value of heart rate (HR), lactate (La−1), potassium (K+), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) performance at an exhausting cycling exercise with varying intensity. Eight national level cyclists performed two cycle tests each on a cycle ergometer: (1) a incremental test to establish VO2max, maximum power (W max), and lactate threshold (VO2LT), and (2) a variable intensity protocol (VIP). Exercise intensity for the VIP was based upon the VO2max obtained during the incremental test. The VIP consisted of six high intense (HI) workloads at 90% of VO2max for 3 min each, interspersed by five middle intense (MI) workloads at 70% of VO2max for 6 min each. VO2 and HR were continuously measured throughout the tests. Venous blood samples were taken before, during, and after the test. Increases in HR, La-, K+, and RER were observed when workload changed from MI to HI workload (P < 0.05). Potassium and RER decreased after transition from HI to MI workloads (P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between time to exhaustion and decrease in La- concentration during the first MI (r = −0.714; P = 0.047). Furthermore, time to exhaustion correlated with VO2LT calculated from the ramp test (r = 0.738; P = 0.037). Our results suggest that the magnitude of decrease of La−1 between the first HI workload and the consecutive MI workload could predict performance during prolonged exercise with variable intensity

  • 2.
    de Bruijn, Robert
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Richardson, Matthew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Haughey, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    High hemoglobin levels in divers may be a result of apnea induced EPO-production2005In: FASEB JOURNAL, 2005, p. A211-A212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen storage capacity is important for apneic duration and affects performance in endurance sports. We studied if hemoglobin concentration (Hb) was different in divers compared to endurance athletes and untrained subjects and if any differences could be connected to training-induced erythropoietin (EPO) -production. We first compared Hb in 3 groups of subjects: 13 elite apneic divers (35±4 years), 13 elite cross-country skiers (20±1 years) and 23 untrained subjects (29±1 years) with similar weight and height. After 20 min of horizontal rest blood samples were drawn and analysed for Hb using standard methods. In a second experiment, we compared EPO levels before and after a series of 15 maximal apneas in air in 9 previously untrained volunteers (302 years). Apneas were spaced by 2 minutes, the last minute with hyperventilation to produce durations long enough to induce hypoxia. Values were also compared to the EPO levels of a control day without apneas. The apneic divers had higher Hb than untrained subjects (P<0.05) and skiers (P<0.01). After apnea training in untrained subjects EPO levels increased in all subjects, with a mean peak value after 3 h, where the increase was 135 % of the pre apnea value (P<0.05). No increase was observed during the same time period of the control day. We concluded that higher Hb levels in apneic divers may be a result of enhanced EPO-production due to the apnea training.

  • 3.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Performance predicting factors during prolonged non-steady state cycling2006In: Book of Abstracts of the 11th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science in Lausanne, Switzerland from 5-8 July 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Richardson, Matthew
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    de Bruijn, Robert
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reimers, J.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    CORRELATION BETWEEN SPLEEN SIZE AND HEMATOCRIT DURING APNEA IN HUMANS2006In: Proceedings of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society/Divers Alert Network 2006 June 20-21 Workshop. Durham, NC, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
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