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  • 1. Boethius, G.
    et al.
    Landahl, M.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Operation tobacco-free: Offering pre-operative tobacco cessation support to patients a in county-scale projekt - Feasibility aspects2006In: The 13th World Conference on Tobacco and Health: July 12-15, 2006, Washington, DC, 2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 2. Boëthius, Göran
    et al.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Operation Tobaksfri: Avvänjningsstöd till patienter som ska genomgå operation2005Report (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Krook, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Atrium in residential buildings – a design to enhance social interaction in urban areas in Nordic climates2018In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018: Sustainable Buildings in Cold Climates / [ed] Dennis Johansson, Hans Bagge, Åsa Wahlström, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 773-789Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria receive growing popularity in  both commercial and service buildings all over the world, but still not common in the residential sector. This study used a psychological framework to examine if building design with enclosed heated atria in apartment buildings can enhance sense of community and social interactions in Nordic climates. A qualitative study was conducted to understand the perception of residents living in apartment buildings with heated atrium. One of the few examples in Sweden. This was compared to the experience of residents in a “traditional” apartment building without an atrium. The questionnaire was comprised of six parts: (i) socio-demographic aspects; (ii) information about the apartment; (iii) social activities within the building; (iv) social interaction with neighbours; (v) information about principles in life; and (vi) sense of community linked to their homes.

    The results showed significant social differences between the residents of the atrium and “traditional” buildings, which could not be explained solely by differences in preferences and principles in life. A large proportion of the social differences between the buildings could be explained by the building design, as the common and semi-private areas within the atrium building provide opportunities to establish social interactions. The residents in the atrium building was found to have greater sense of community and higher frequency of interactions, which are both parts of social sustainability.

  • 4.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krook, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Atria: en design för hållbara bostäder i ett nordiskt klimat2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 47-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krook, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Atrium in residential buildings – a design to enhance social sustainability in urban areas2017In: Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Regional Development: Design, sustainability and its impact on social community and cultural/creative development / [ed] Daniel Laven, Wilhelm Skoglund, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 153-155Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Behavior Change Towards a Sustainable Lifestyle – Effects of Interventions and Psychological Factors on Pro-Environmental Behaviors2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes due to human-caused global warming are serious challenges for the planet. Changes in individual human behavior towards more pro-environmental actions are thus highly necessary. Human behavior is complex, however, and promoting behavior change requires a solid understanding of how people behave in different situations and contexts.

    Previous research has pointed out several reasons why people do not behave in accordance with our knowledge about the threat of climate change. Besides structural barriers, other reasons may be related to psychological barriers, such as beliefs, values, and social norms, which limit us in adopting more pro-environmental choices and behaviors. The overall aims of this thesis were to investigate the effects of interventions on energy conservation and ecological food consumption in promoting pro-environmental behavior, to explore the experiences of an energy-saving intervention from the perspective of the participants, and to investigate how values, attitudes, and other psychological factors predict pro-environmental behavior and pro-environmental intentions.

    This thesis is built on four studies. The first study was a survey, where an investigation was made of the predictive power of value orientation, awareness of consequences, environmental concern, moral judgment competence, locus of control, and sense of coherence, on eight pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions. The results showed that only the value type universalism predicts pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions, with attitudes, awareness of consequences for the biosphere, and environmental concern for the biosphere as intermediate or transmitting variables. The results indicate that found determinants of one single behavior may not be applied to other behaviors as dependent variables. Thus, a separate analysis for every type of both actual and intentional lifestyle might have been more successful in confirming these independent variables as determinants of pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions.

    The second study was a randomized quasi-experimental field study. This field intervention investigated the effect of feedback on residential electricity use in households. For a period of eight weeks, differentiated energy use for daily domestic behaviors was monitored by 15 residents via an internet-based system. Feedback based on Relational Frame Theory was used to enhance motivation for energy conservation, and follow-up studies analyzed the maintenance of change for another three months. Psychological factors, including values, attitudes, moral judgment competence, locus of control, and sense of coherence, were simultaneously assessed by web surveys. No significant effects of the feedback on reduction of energy use were found. The small sample size, and the fact that warm water energy use was not monitored, were discussed as explanatory factors.

    In the third study, semi-structured interviews were conducted among eight households having participated in the intervention in the second study. The interview transcripts were subject to qualitative content analysis with the purpose of exploring the experiences of the participants. Those experiences were, on the one hand, described as a struggle to overcome internal and external barriers as well as feelings of contradiction and ambivalence, representing the limitations imposed by participating. On the other hand, there were also descriptions of feelings of ability and motivation, and interaction between satisfaction and improvements, representing the opportunities available to a participant in this kind of intervention. These results support the importance of specific strategies in developing the design of future interventions for promoting residential energy conservation.

    Finally, in the fourth study, an experimental field study was conducted to investigate the effects of behavioral interventions, commonly known as nudges, in promoting the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. The consumption of both organically and conventionally produced fruits and vegetables was measured during four days (one day every other week) in a grocery store, where consumers were exposed to informational messages in combination with either emotional images or social norm messages. Measurements of daily consumption without exposure to nudges were carried out during four other days (one day every other week, alternated with the nudging days). The results showed that the proportion of sold organic products in the total sale of the selected fruits and vegetables was slightly higher during nudging days when price differences between conventional and organic products were low. This limited effect of nudging disappeared when the price of organic products was considerably higher than the price of conventionally produced products. The results indicate that there is a need to take measures to compensate for the prevailing differences in price between organic and conventional products. Such measures are, for example, the application of a combination of all available nudging tools to strengthen the effects of nudging, as well as collecting psychological data from the participants to be aware of their attitudes towards choices of organic products.

    Taken together, the overall findings of the studies in this thesis confirm the complexity of behavior and of behavior change. Many questions remain unanswered and suggestions on how to develop the research on these issues are discussed.

  • 7.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Household energy reduction – content analysis of participators experiences of an intervention.: Underlying motivations of individual´s involvement in environmental behavior2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    -Introduction:  Semi-structured interviews were carried out among households after participating in an intervention with motivation-increasing design and behavior focused techniques in order to change behavior towards a reduction of residential energy use. In the intervention differentiated energy use for daily domestic behaviors was monitored in real time via an internet-based system for a period of eight weeks by 25 residents. Modern feedback- and reinforcement strategies, based on learning psychology, were carried out in order to enhance motivation for change and follow-up studies analysed the maintenance of change for another 3 months.The present study will investigate and identify factors influencing the experience of persons participating in an intervention on behavior change towards energy conservation in households.     

    -Theoretical background: Content analysis based on hermeneutic reasons was used to achieve an interpretive understanding of the meaning of the text with special attention to context and original purpose (Patton, 2002).

    -Methods: Semi-structured interviews, lasting around 30 min, were conducted among eight households, three households in the experimental group and five in the control group, after participating in an intervention for reducing electricity consumption. The transcripts from the interviews were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis as described by Graneheim and Lundman (2004). The method is based on classification and assessment of symbols and themes, categories and sub-categories, in a systematic and inductive way in order to point out the meaning of a written or verbal communication (Kvale, & Brinkman, 2014; Krippendorff, 2004).

    -Results: The content analysis of the interview transcripts identified motivational factors and barriers as themes, explaining how change of residential energy behavior within an intervention was experienced. As motivational factors, promoting the willingness to reduce residential energy use, the participants stated expectations and interest, reduction of costs, visual feedback through the graphical display of energy use, advice on energy saving behaviors, specific feedback and increased awareness of behavior and energy. As barriers, explaining why the intervention did not reach the expected energy reduction, reasons stated were difficulties to understand the graphical display, uncertainty about the effects of behavior change, maintenance of old habits and difficulties to choose goals for change.

    -Conclusions: Future energy policies and interventions should consider the found motivational- and barrier factors in order to be successful in promoting behavior change towards a reduction of energy consumption in households.   

  • 8.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Value orientations, environmental concern, and locus of control, moral judgment competence and sense of coherence as determinants of pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The predictive power of value orientations, awareness of consequences, environmental concern, locus of control, moral judgment competence and sense of coherence on eight types of pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions (i.e. residential energy conservation, food consumption, transportation, and recycling) were examined based on a survey completed by 463 residents in two Swedish cities. Multiple regression analyses confirmed values, awareness of consequences and environmental concern as determinants of environmental friendly behaviors and behavioral intentions, as well as sense of coherence was a determinant of pro-environmental behaviors. Locus of control and moral judgment competence showed no predictive power on neither pro-environmental behaviors or on behavioral intentions, and sense of coherence did not predict behavioral intentions. The need of more environmentally specific measures of the predictors in relation to specific behaviors was discussed. 

     

  • 9.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahlström, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Experiences of reducing household energy consumption - a qualitative analysis of a field studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted among eight households having participated in an intervention with a motivation-increasing design and behavior-focused techniques in order to change behavior towards a reduction of residential energy use. Interview transcripts were subject to qualitative content analysis with the purpose of exploring the experiences of the participants. Those experiences were described as a struggle to overcome internal and external barriers as well as feelings of contradiction and ambivalence, representing limitations imposed by participating, together with descriptions of feelings of ability and motivation, and interaction between satisfaction and improvements, representing the opportunities available to a participant in this kind of intervention. How and to what extent future energy policies and the development of interventions may take these experiences into account is discussed.

  • 10.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahlström, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    The effect of nudging in promoting the consumption of organic fruits and vegetablesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study collecting behavioral data was conducted to investigate effects of behavioral interventions, commonly known as nudges, in promoting the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. Consumption, both organically and conventionally produced fruits and vegetables, was measured in a grocery store during four days (one day every other week) where consumers were exposed to informational messages in combination with either emotional images or social norm messages. Measurements of daily consumption without exposure to nudges were carried out during four other days (one day every other week, alternated with the nudging days). The results showed that the proportion of sold organic products in total sale of the selected fruits and vegetables was slightly higher during nudging days when price differences between conventional and organic products were low. This limited effect of nudging disappeared when the price of organic products was essential higher than the price of conventionally produced products.

  • 11.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Richard, Ahlström
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Challenges in evaluating intervention effects of feedback on residential energy conservation in a field setting2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field intervention investigated the effect of feedback on residential electricity use in households in Sweden. For a period of eight weeks differentiated energy use for daily domestic behaviors was monitored by 15 residents via an internetbased system. Feedback designed based on Relational Frame Theory was convened to enhance motivation for energy conservation and follow-up studies analysed the maintenance of change for another 3 months. Psychological factors including values, attitudes, moral judgment competence, locus of control and sense of coherence were assessed by web surveys. No significant effects of the feedback on reduction of energy use were found. The small sample size and not monitoring warm water energy use were discussed as explanatory factors.

  • 12.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Richard, Ahlström
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lipsanen, Jari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Values, attitudes, moral judgment competence, locus of control and sense of coherence as determinants of pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions2017In: Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, ISSN 2458-9403, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 2568-2583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a survey completed by 463 residents in two Swedish cities, the predictive power of value orientations, awareness of consequences, environmental concern, moral judgment competence, locus of control and sense of coherence were examined on eight types of pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions. The best fitting causal model confirms partly the hypothetical model. Values indirect and direct affect pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions with awareness of consequences and environmental concern as intermediate or transmitting variables. Neither pro-environmental behaviors nor behavioral intentions are affected by awareness of consequences, environmental concern, locus of control, moral judgment competence or sense of coherence. The need of more environmentally specific measures of the predictors in relation to specific behaviors is discussed.

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