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  • 1. Bhupinderpal-Singh,
    et al.
    Nordgren, A
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikael
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mellander, Per- Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, P
    Large-scale girdling of Scots pine boreal forest reveals controls and estimates of mycorrhizal root soil heterotrophic respiration2003In: Proceedings Third International Symposium on the Dynamics of Physiological Processes in Woody Roots. Perth, Western Australia 29 Sept – 3 Oct, 2003, 2003Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 2. Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Nyberg, L
    Stähli, Manfred
    Lindström, G
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikael
    Tjäle och avrinning från boreal skogsmark - en studie inom Vindelns Försöksparker.2000Book (Other academic)
  • 3. Cienciala, Emil
    et al.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kučera, Jiří
    Opluštilov, Magda
    Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell
    Bishop, Kevin
    The effect of a north-facing forest edge on tree water use in a boreal Scots pine stand2002In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 693-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree water use and growth increment were studied in a north-facing forest edge of a 70 year old mono-specific stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees growing on poor sandy soils in the northern boreal zone of Sweden. The forest edge in this study bordered a clear-cut established two decades ago. There were differences in water use and growth increment during the growing season between trees growing at the forest edge and trees growing in the forest interior. These differences were likely related to soil conditions, such as access to soil moisture, soil temperature and soil frost conditions, whereas an effect of above ground microclimate was not found. The estimated tree water use and growth increment over one growing season tended to be larger for trees at the edge zone relative to those from the interior. The variability of the measured tree water fluxes was high, especially for the edge zone trees. There were also structural differences between the two groups of trees, most notably in the radial profile of conductive xylem, in tree height and in green crown length, but these differences were on the limits of statistical significance. The estimated seasonal transpiration was low, about 70 mm when estimated exclusively for trees from the forest interior and 107 mm when estimated exclusively for trees at the forest edge. This illustrates the likely magnitude of water use enhancement due to the conditions specific to forest edge.

  • 4. Halldin, S
    et al.
    Bergström, H
    Gustafsson, D
    Dahlgren, L
    Hjelm, P
    Lundin, L-C
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nord, T
    Jansson, P-E
    Seibert, J
    Stähli, M
    Szilágyi Kishné, A
    Smedman, A S
    Continuous long-term measurements of soil-plant-atmosphere variables at an agricultural site1999In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, Vol. 98-99, p. 75-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Mellander, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Bishop, Kevin
    Modelling variability of snow depths and soil temperatures in Scots pine stands.2005In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, Vol. 133, no 1/4, p. 109-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow cover varies spatially and inter-annually in the boreal forest landscape due to the canopy influence on snow interception and snow surface energy balance. This is reflected in the soil temperature regime during winter and spring. Differences in the timing of soil warming have been shown to influence the trees� capacity to take up water and assimilate carbon. To understand the effects of forest management or a possible climate change on forest productivity, it is useful to have a tool for predicting the spatial and inter-annual variability of snow depths and soil warming during spring within different stands across the landscape. A SVAT-model (COUP) was used to simulate snow cover and soil temperature during a decade in eight Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) stands. The COUP-model proved to be a functional tool for simulating the intra-landscape variation in snow depth and soil temperature. The simulations revealed variability between the stands and between the years, as well as factors contributing to this variability. A more open stand together with low leaf area index resulted in deeper snow layers and, together with higher trees, also an earlier soil warming. The largest spatial variability in the timing of soil warming in spring between sites was found during years with little snow, which is a possible consequence of climate change-related warming in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden.

  • 6.
    Mellander, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Hjalmar.Laudon@emg.umu.se.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell
    Mikaell.Ottosson.Lofvenius@sek.slu.se.
    Snödjup och marktempertur i norrländska skogar idag och om 100 år2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett framtida varmare klimat kan medföra att den snötäckta perioden i skogslandskapet förkortas, årsmedeltemperaturen i marken höjs, markuppvärmningen på våren sker tidigare, samt att fler cykler av frysning och upptining äger rum. • Tunnare snötäcke kan medföra en ökad rumslig variation i marktemperatur p.g.a. ett större relativt inflytande på snödjupet av topografin samt av trädens förmåga att fånga upp nederbörd och solstrålning. • Under vissa år kan ett varmare klimat på nordliga breddgrader medföra en försenad markuppvärmning och större mellanårsvariationer i täta bestånd.

  • 7.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kall mark kan ge träden vattenbrist2001In: Miljötrender, ISSN 1403-4743, Vol. 3-4, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 8.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sen vår ger kraftigt hämmad tillväxt2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att låga temperaturer i marken hämmar upptag av vatten och gasutbyte hos unga plantor är känt sedan tidigare. Nu visar sig detta gälla även för stora tallar. Tjälproblematiken bör därför uppmärksammas mer, även för bestånd som har lämnat plantstadiet. • För att träden ska kunna ta upp vatten på våren räcker det inte med att vattnet är ofruset. I rotzonens övre del måste vattnet ha en temperatur högre än 0°C för att rötterna ska kunna tillgodogöra sig det. • Tallarnas upptag av vatten från marken och kol från atmosfären minskar kraftigt när uppvärmningen av marken försenas in i växtperioden, och upptaget fortsätter att hämmas tills marktemperaturen är cirka +8°C. Vid högre temperaturer avgörs vatten- och kolupptaget främst av klimatet ovan mark.

  • 9.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spring water stress in Scots pine: interaction of snow and soil temperature2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water use and net carbon assimilation during spring was examined on Scots pine trees exposed to different soil warming dynamics in the field. Sap flow, needle water potential and net carbon assimilation were measured on trees that were exposed to a wide range of soil temperature regimes caused by manipulating the snow cover on tree-scale soil plots. This made it possible to quantify the sensitivity of water uptake and recovery of gas exchange by Scots pine in the critical transition from winter dormancy to the growing season, which can be influenced by silvicultural practices. A part of the study was to find a tool for estimating the coupled effect of belowground and aboveground climate on transpiration, as well as to adapt this tool to the harsh climate of the boreal forest. Combining the results of field experiments on tree susceptibility to water stress with a physically based SVAT model as well as a model for estimating the recovery of photosynthesis helped to predict spatial and inter-annual variability of snow depths, soil warming, water uptake and net primary productivity during spring within different Scots pine stands across the landscape. This could provide a better basis for a more frostconscious forest management. The studies have confirmed the importance of low soil temperatures in combination with aboveground climate for root water uptake and net carbon assimilation during spring, when soil warming occurs after the start of the growing season. The studies have also confirmed that earlier, controlled laboratory studies on the inhibiting effects of low soil temperature on water relations and gas exchange for seedlings or saplings also hold true on mature trees in the field. The experimental data served well as the basis for model analyses of the interaction between belowground and aboveground conditions on water use and net photosynthesis. The results of the field studies and model analyses suggest that the effect of soil temperature on tree water uptake and net photosynthesis during spring, in conjunction with aboveground conditions, are factors that need to be considered in forest management in areas susceptible to soil frost and low soil temperatures.

  • 10.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The significance of soil conditions for sap flow of Scots pine in the boreal environment2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Begh, Johan
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Bishop, Kevin
    Recovery of photosynthetic capacity in Scots pine: a model analysis of forest plots with manipulated winter/spring soil temperature regimes.2008In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both aboveground and belowground climate affects net primary production (NNP) and forest growth. Little is known about how above and belowground factors interact. The BIOMASS-model was tested to simulate photosynthetic recovery over a wide range of soil temperatures created by snow cover manipulations on tree-scale plots in a 20-year-old Scots pine stand in northern Sweden. The differences in timing of soil warming between the plots covered a span of two months. Carbon assimilation in needles, sap flow, needle water potential and climatic parameters were measured in the field. The simulations revealed that an early start of soil warming gave a relatively early photosynthetic recovery and a 7.5% increase of NPP. Late soil warming delayed the photosynthetic recovery and reduced the NPP by 13.7%. This indicated that soil temperature needed to be accounted for, as well as air temperature, when analysing photosynthetic recovery and NPP in boreal environment. The effects of differences in soil temperature were reflected in the simulated photosynthetic recovery. The model did not fully capture the delay of photosynthetic recovery caused by a late soil warming. It was possible to integrate the complexity of the soil climate effects into a threshold date for soil thaw, using sapflow measurements together with information about air temperature and a day degree sum, as long as water availability was not limiting water uptake by roots. Although a more realistic mechanism than that currently in BIOMASS is desirable as climate change shifts the typical patterns of interplay between air and soil temperature dynamics.

  • 12.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Lundmark, Tomas
    The influence of soil temperature on transpiration:: a plot scale manipulation in a young Scots pine stand2004In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 195, no 1-2, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classic studies have stressed the importance of forest management for soil frost and the dynamics of soil warming during spring. But, we know very little about the potential loss of forest production due to cold soils. Liquid soil water may not be available to trees due to cold soil conditions, thus reducing transpiration and photosynthesis. We believe that these effects need to be quantified in order to keep silvicultural practices from inadvertently reducing forest growth through effects on soil temperature. In order to test this hypothesis it is important to know more about water uptake in the field by trees in cold environments. The snow cover was manipulated on plots in a young stand of Pinus sylvestris L. to create plots with different timings of soil warming. Soil profile temperature and liquid water content, as well as snow and frost depths, were measured together with tree physiological parameters such as sap flow, stomatal conductance and needle water potential. The study has confirmed the importance of the soil temperature for tree water uptake when soil warming was delayed beyond the start of growing season as defined by air temperature. The absence of frost (and hence the presence of liquid water) was not sufficient to enable water uptake. It was rather elevation of soil temperature above zero in the upper soil layers that was required for substantial water uptake, in combination with other site factors. Below ca. +8 °C, soil temperature was a factor in the restriction of transpiration, explained by a lower stomatal conductance and likely decreased root permeability. The effect of a certain soil temperature was not the same at different times due to its interaction with aboveground factors such as air temperature and day-length. The effect of low soil temperature increased with the persistence of low temperatures after the start of the growing season. The timings of soil warming induced by our study were within the spatial and inter-annual variation of soil warming in this region. Thus, we conclude that influences of forest management on soil temperature can affect the transpiration deficit during spring, with potential implications for forest productivity

  • 13.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Halldin, S
    Dahlgren, L
    Quality control of radiation data in the NOPEX CCM programme: Extended abstract from EGS XXII General Assembly, Vienna, 21-25 April 1997. Symposium HS7/OA22 Hydrological, oceanic and atmospheric processes governing heat and mass balances at northern latitudes: experiences from NOPEX and BALTEX.1997Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundin, L - C
    Kellner, E
    Halldin, S
    The bog as an element in the boreal forest biome1996In: Nordic hydrological conference 1996 : Akureyri, Iceland, 13-15 August 1996 / Nordic Association for Hydrologi, Reykjavík: Icelandic Hydrological Committee , 1996, p. 798-Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nambu, Kei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Elevated CO2 emission during summer nights controlled by soil and air gas densitiesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Climate change impact on snow and soil temperature in boreal Scots pine stands2007In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, Vol. 85, no 1/2, p. 179-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenarios indicate that the air temperature will increase in high latitude regions in coming decades, causing the snow covered period to shorten, the growing season to lengthen and soil temperatures to change during the winter, spring and early summer. To evaluate how a warmer climate is likely to alter the snow cover and soil temperature in Scots pine stands of varying ages in northern Sweden, climate scenarios from the Swedish regional climate modelling programme SWECLIM were used to drive a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT)-model (COUP). Using the two CO2 emission scenarios A and B in the Hadley centres global climate model, HadleyA and HadleyB, SWECLIM predicts that the annual mean air temperature and precipitation will increase at most 4.8 oC and 315 mm, respectively, within a century in the study region. The results of this analysis indicate that a warmer climate will shorten the period of persistent snow pack by 73 - 93 days, increase the average soil temperature by 0.9 � 1.5 oC at 10 cm depth, advance soil warming by 15 - 19 days in spring and cause more soil freeze-thaw cycles by 31 � 38 %. The results also predict that the large current variations in snow cover due to variations in tree interception and topography will be enhanced in the coming century, resulting in increased spatial variability in soil temperatures.

  • 17.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Robinson, T
    Representativity of soil properties related to vegetation cover: a study on two slopes in Lesotho1994Book (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Robinson, Tobias
    Frames matter: a comparison of different techniques of monitoring soil loss in Lesotho: a minor field study1994Book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Stähli, Manfred
    Gustafsson, D
    Bishop, Kevin
    Low soil temperature reduction of water uptake by Scots pine2002In: International Workshop, Rhizosphere, Preferential flow and Bio-availability: a holistic view of soil-to-plant transfer: Sep. 21-26, 2002, Centro Stefano Franscini, Ascona, Switzerland., 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Stähli, Manfred
    Gustafsson, David
    Bishop, Kevin
    Modelling the effect of low soil temperatures on transpiration by Scots pine.2006In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1929-1944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For ecosystem modelling of the Boreal forest it is important to include processes associated with low soil temperature during spring/early summer, as these affect the tree water uptake. The COUP-model, a physically based SVAT-model, was tested with two years of soil and snow physical measurements, as well as sap flow measurements in a 70-year old Scots pine stand in the boreal zone of northern Sweden. During the first year the extent and duration of soil frost was manipulated in the field. The model was successful in reproducing the timing of the soil warming after the snowmelt and frost thaw. A delayed soil warming, into the growing season, severely reduced the transpiration. We demonstrated the potential for considerable overestimation of transpiration by the model if the reduction of the trees� capacity to transpire due to low soil temperatures is not taken into account. We also demonstrated that the accumulated effect of aboveground conditions could be included when simulating the relationship between soil temperature and tree water uptake. This improved the estimated transpiration for the control plot and when soil warming was delayed into the growing season. The study illustrated the need of including antecedent conditions on root growth in the model in order to catch these effects on transpiration. The COUP-model is a promising tool for predicting transpiration in high latitude stands.

  • 21. Nordgren, A
    et al.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikael
    Högberg, M.N.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, P.
    Tree root and soil heterotrophic respiration as revealed by girdling of boreal Scots pine forest:: extending observations beyond the first year2003In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1287-1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limitations in available techniques to separate autotrophic (root) and soil heterotrophic respiration have hampered the understanding of forest C cycling. The former is here defined as respiration by roots, their associated mycorrhizal fungi and other micro-organisms in the rhizosphere directly dependent on labile C compounds leaked from roots. In order to separate the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration, all Scots pine trees in 900 m2 plots were girdled to instantaneously terminate the supply of current photosynthates from the tree canopy to roots. Högberg et al. (Nature 411, 789-792, 2001) reported that autotrophic activity contributed up to 56% of total soil respiration during the first summer of this experiment. They also found that mobilization of stored starch (and likely also sugars) in roots after girdling caused an increased apparent heterotrophic respiration on girdled plots. Herein a transient increase in the δ13C of soil CO2 efflux after girdling, thought to be due to decomposition of 13C-enriched ectomycorrhizal mycelium and root starch and sugar reserves, is reported. In the second year after girdling, when starch reserves of girdled tree roots were exhausted, calculated root respiration increased up to 65% of total soil CO2 efflux. It is suggested that this estimate of its contribution to soil respiration is more precise than the previous based on one year of observation. Heterotrophic respiration declined in response to a 20-day-long 6 °C decline in soil temperature during the second summer, whereas root respiration did not decline. This did not support the idea that root respiration should be more sensitive to variations in soil temperature. It is suggested that above-ground photosynthetic activity and allocation patterns of recent photosynthates to roots should be considered in models of responses of forest C balances to global climate change

  • 22. Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Stähli, Manfred
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bishop, Kevin H.
    Soil frost effects on soil water and runoff dynamics along a boreal forest transect: 1. Field investigations2001In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 909-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine how soil frost changes flowpaths of runoff water along a hillslope, a transect consisting of four soil profiles directed towards a small stream in a mature forest stand was investigated at Svartberget, near Vindeln in northern Sweden. Soil temperature, unfrozen water content, groundwater level and snow depth were investigated along the transect, which started at the riparian peat, and extended 30 m upslope into mineral soils. The two, more organic-rich profiles closest to the stream had higher water retention and wetter autumn conditions than the sandy mineral soils further upslope. The organic content of the soil influenced the variation in frost along the transect. The first winter (1995–96) had abnormally low snow precipitation, which gave a deep frost down to 40–80 cm, whereas the two following winters had frost depths of 5–20 cm. During winter 1995–96, the two organic profiles close to the stream had a shallower frost depth than the mineral soil profile higher upslope, but a considerably larger amount of frozen water. The fraction of water that did not freeze despite several minus degrees in the soil was 5–7 vol.% in the mineral soil and 10–15 vol.% in the organic soil. From the measurements there were no signs of perched water tables during any of the three snowmelt periods, which would have been strong evidence for changed water flowpaths due to soil frost. When shallow soil layers became saturated during snowmelt, especially in 1997 and 1998, it was because of rising groundwater levels. Several rain on frozen ground events during spring 1996 resulted in little runoff, since most of the rain either froze in the soil or filled up the soil water storage.

  • 23. Stähli, Manfred
    et al.
    Nyberg, L
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jansson, P-E
    Bishop, Kevin H
    Soil frost effects on soil water and runoff dynamics along a boreal forest transect2001In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 927-942Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Stähli, Manfred
    et al.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Wintertime surface heat exchange in a boreal forest: from the plot to the stand1998In: International Conference on Snow Hydrology:: The integration of physical, chemical and biological systems. 6-9 October 1998 Brownsville, Vermont, USA, PORT ROYAL RD SPRINGFIELD VA: NTSI , 1998, p. 42-42Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Vestin, Jenny L. K.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norström, Sara H
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lundström, Ulla S
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Soil solution and stream water chemistry in a forested catchment I: Dynamics2008In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 144, no 1/2, p. 256-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil solution and stream water chemistry were studied during two years in a catchment in Bispgården in central Sweden (63°07′N, 16°70′E). Soil samples and soil solution were collected in a slope at two distances (10 and 80 m) from a stream. The aims were to examine interactions between recharge (podzol) and discharge (arenosol) areas and to investigate the relations between soil solution and stream water chemistry. The parent material was similar within the catchment, but the content of C and N were higher in the discharge area most likely due to the difference in hydrological conditions compared to the recharge area. Exchangeable cations and base saturation were higher in the discharge area than in the recharge area, which may be due to the higher content of C. The concentrations in soil solution of H, DOC, NO3, SO4, Al, Si, Ca and K charge area compared to the recharge area which was probably caused by transportation of elements in soil and retention due to the increased content of C. During snow melt, the concentrations in soil solution of DOC, SO4, Al, Si, Ca and K were low due to dilution and low biological activity. The concentrations were then increasing during the seasons as an effect of biological activity and mineral weathering. NO3 concentration in soil solution was found in higher concentrations during snow melting and was then diminishing during summer likely as a result of biological uptake. After a dry period followed by an intensive rain in August 2003, the stream water chemistry was markedly altered for a few days. The concentrations of H, DOC SO4, Al and Ca were increased and the concentration of Si was decreased in the stream water. It therefore appeared that the stream water mirrored the upper soil horizons in the discharge area during high flows, while reflecting the lower soil horizons and ground water during low flows.

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