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  • 1.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Malicious code detection in LRD networks2005In: Proceedings of the 3rd Regional Inter-University Postgraduate Electrical and Electronic Engineering Conference (RIUPEEEC'05), July 2005, Hongkong, China, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the development of Internet and the improvement of network services, network malicious code, delegated by worms, has become a major threat to peoples normal life. The research work related to worm detection is urgent but difficult. In this paper, we present a worm trend early detection method based on the long-range dependence (LRD) analysis of scan traffic entering the monitored network. Simulating experiments combined with real scan traffic show that our method can detect uniform scan worms at early stage. In addition, because our method is based on the idea of trend detection, not traditionally burst detection, generic hacker attacks and scans cannot cause false alarms for their stochastic essence.

  • 2.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Traffic Analysis, Modeling and Their Applications in Energy-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks: On Network Optimization and Anomaly Detection2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as a promising technology thanks to the recent advances in electronics, networking, and information processing. A wide range of WSN applications have been proposed such as habitat monitoring, environmental observations and forecasting systems, health monitoring, etc. In these applications, many low power and inexpensive sensor nodes are deployed in a vast space to cooperate as a network.

    Although WSN is a promising technology, there is still a great deal of additional research required before it finally becomes a mature technology. This dissertation concentrates on three factors which are holding back the development of WSNs. Firstly, there is a lack of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs. Secondly, network optimization for WSNs needs more investigation. Thirdly, the development of anomaly detection techniques for WSNs remains a seldomly touched area.

    In the field of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs, this dissertation presents several ways of modeling different aspects relating to WSN traffic, including the modeling of sequence relations among arriving packets, the modeling of a data traffic arrival process for an event-driven WSN, and the modeling of a traffic load distribution for a symmetric dense WSN. These research results enrich the current understanding regarding the traffic dynamics within WSNs, and provide a basis for further work on network optimization and anomaly detection for WSNs.

    In the field of network optimization for WSNs, this dissertation presents network optimization models from which network performance bounds can be derived. This dissertation also investigates network performances constrained by the energy resources available in an indentified bottleneck zone. For a symmetric dense WSN, an optimal energy allocation scheme is proposed to minimize the energy waste due to the uneven energy drain among sensor nodes. By modeling the interrelationships among communication traffic, energy consumption and WSN performances, these presented results have efficiently integrated the knowledge on WSN traffic dynamics into the field of network optimization for WSNs.

    Finally, in the field of anomaly detection for WSNs, this dissertation uses two examples to demonstrate the feasibility and the ease of detecting sensor network anomalies through the analysis of network traffic. The presented results will serve as an inspiration for the research community to develop more secure and more fault-tolerant WSNs.

  • 3.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Multi-homing Extension of Wireless Node Implementation in Ns-22009In: 2009 4th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, CHINACOM 2009: ChinaCom'09, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 751-756Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the rapid growth of wireless communication, it is now believed that wireless devices with multiple interface support will highly increase in the near future. In the research community of Network Simulator, there has recently been quite a large interest in extending the current wireless node implementation so as to be able to include more than one radio interface to work simultaneously.

    We focus our efforts on the extension of multi-homing ability of ns-2, which has been the most used network simulator in wireless network research. Multi-homing here is defined as the ability of a single end-point to support multiple IP addresses by the use of multiple interfaces. The ns-2 simulation environment is a flexible tool for network engineers to investigate how various protocols perform with different configurations and topologies. However, the support for wireless and mobile networking in ns-2 is monolithic and not entirely consistent with basic design principles so that it makes it quite difficult, if not impossible, to extend a multi-homing support based on current mobilenode design. This paper describes how we extend the ns-2 framework to include support for an imititated wireless multi-homed node.

  • 4.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Survey on Security in Wireless Sensor Networks2009In: Security in RFID and Sensor Networks, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2009, p. 293-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in electronics and wireless network technologies have offered us access to a new era where wireless sensor networks formed by inter-connected small intelligent sensing devices provide us the possibility to form smart environments. Considering the specialty of wireless sensor network, the security threats and possible countermeasures are quite different from those in Internet and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). On the one hand, the wireless communication, large scale and possibly human unattended deployment make attacks in wireless sensor networks relatively easier to perform. Furthermore, all features that make sensor nodes cheap and thus sensor network application affordable, such as limited energy resource, limited bandwidth and limited memory, also make many well-developed security mechanisms inappropriate in sensor networks. On the other hand, the user unfriendly interface makes the physical compromise of a sensor node difficult, the relatively simple communication profile makes the intrusion detection easy to perform, and also the redundant deployment makes the new type of network more fault-tolerant. Thus, we need a complete redesign of sensor network security mechanisms from technique to management.

  • 5.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bottleneck Zone Analysis in Energy-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks2009In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 423-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a typical sensor network, nodes around the sink bear more energy consumption than those further away. It is not unusual that limited energy resources available at the nodes around the sink become the bottleneck which confines the whole network's performance. In this article, we firstly formally define the so-called bottleneck zone inside sensor networks. Then, the effect of the bottleneck zone on network performance is investigated by deducting performance bounds limited by the energy resources available inside the bottleneck zone. In this article, both the performance bound in terms of network lifetime and the performance bound in terms of information collection are explored. Finally, the ways by which network deployment parameters may affect the performance bounds are analyzed.

  • 6.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Characterizing the traffic load distribution in dense sensor networks2009In: 3rd International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security, NTMS 2009, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 5384829-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic load is not evenly distributed over the nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Understanding the traffic load distribution can guide the network-wide energy allocation, direct the design of routing algorithms, and optimize the node deployment in WSNs. In this paper, we consider a dense WSN with nodes uniformly distributed in a disk sensing area, and find the traffic load distribution over the nodes as a function of their distance from the sink. Further, the effects of network scale and routing strategy on traffic load are also investigated. The traffic loads on individual nodes are found to be in direct proportion to the radius of the network and in inverse proportion to the routing hop distance, while independent of network density. The results presented in this paper are verified through extensive simulation experiments.

  • 7.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Detecting anomaly node behavior in wireless sensor networks2007In: Proceedings - 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops/Symposia, AINAW'07, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, Vol. 2, p. 6p. 451-456, article id 4221100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks are usually deployed in a way "once deployed, never changed". The actions of sensor nodes are either pre-scheduled inside chips or triggered to respond outside events in the predefined way. This relatively predictable working flow make it easy to build accurate node profiles and detect any violation of normal profiles. In this paper, traffic patterns observed are used to model node behavior in wireless sensor networks. Firstly, selected traffic related features are used to translate observed packets into different events. Following this, unique patterns based on the arriving order of different packet events are extracted to form the normal profile for each sensor node during the profile learning stage. Finally, real time anomaly detection can be achieved based on the profile matching.

  • 8.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair energy allocation in large-scale and dense sensor networks2010In: GLOBECOM - IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, article id 5683414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the energy allocation in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. Because the traffic loads are not evenly distributed in a multi-hop wireless sensor network, different sensor nodes usually experience different energy consumption rates. We present Routing Independent Fair Energy-Allocation Scheme (RIFES), which allocates the available energy resource to a sensor node according to its pre-estimated traffic load. Because traffic load is the dominating source of energy consumption, RIFES optimizes the network's lifetime by equalizing all individual nodes' expected energy exhaustion times. Due to the fact that a node's real experienced traffic load may differ to its pre-estimated traffic load in practice, it is hard for RIFES to achieve its theoretical optimal performance. To bridge this gap between theory and practice, this paper also presents several distributed routing algorithms, the use of which prolongs the network's lifetime by balancing the real-experienced traffic loads among neighboring nodes

  • 9.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sec-SNMP: Policy-Based Security Management for Sensor Networks2008In: SECRYPT 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND CRYPTOGRAPHY, Portugal: INSTICC Press, 2008, p. 222-226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a sensor network security management framework called Sec-SNMP, which organizes and manages security related behaviors in sensor networks based on security policies. There are three main components in Sec-SNMP: Sec-SNMP manager, Sec-SNMP agent and a policy control and deployment protocol. Sec-SNMP manager provides the interface between human administrator and the managed mesh network. Sec-SNMP agent represents Sec-SNMP manager to enforce security policies within the managed mesh network. The policy control and deployment protocol allows the communication between Sec-SNMP manager and Sec-SNMP agents. The security management for sensor networks is still in its germinal stage, and this paper provides a good guideline for future research.

  • 10.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulated Wireless Multihomed Node in NS-22009In: The Sixth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop and Ninth Scandinavian Workshop on Wireless Adhoc Networks, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the rapid growth of wireless communication, it is now believed that wireless devices with multiple interface support will highly increase in the near future. In the research community of Network Simulator, there has recently been quite a large interest in extending the current wireless node implementation so as to be able to include more than one radio interface to work simultaneously. We focus our efforts on the extension of multihoming ability of ns-2, which has been the most used network simulator in wireless network research. Multihoming here is defined as the ability of a single end-point to support multiple IP addresses by the use of multiple interfaces. The ns-2 simulation environment is a flexible tool for network engineers to investigate how various protocols perform with different configurations and topologies. However, the support for wireless and mobile networking in ns-2 is monolithic and not entirely consistent with basic design principles so that it makes it quite difficult, if not impossible, to extend a multihoming support based on current mobilenode design. This paper describes how we extend the ns-2 framework to include support for an imititated wireless multihomed node.

  • 11.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Source Traffic Modeling in Wireless Sensor Networks for Target Tracking2008In: The 5th ACM International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad-Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN'08), USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2008, p. 96-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researches around wireless sensor network (WSN) were very prolific recently. However, traffic modeling related WSN research was poorly less. In this paper, source traffic dynamics in a simulated target tracking WSN scenario are explored. We find the source traffic arrival process doesn't follow the usually considered Poisson model. Instead, an ON/OFF model is found to be capable of capturing the burst nature of source traffic arrival. Further, we find the measured ON/OFF periods follow the generalized Pareto distribution perfectly. Mathematical analysis also shows a surprising fact: all ON/OFF period distributions in the experiment exhibit short-tail property, which is a nice property that could be exploited by applications such as anomaly detection and node failure detection.

  • 12.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Traffic load analysis in large-scale and dense wireless sensor networks2009In: The Sixth Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop and Ninth Scandinavian Workshop on Wireless Adhoc Networks, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic load is not evenly distributed over the nodes in a multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). Understanding the traffic load distribution can guide the network-wide energy allocation, direct the design of routing algorithms, and optimize the node deployment in WSNs. In this paper, we find the traffic load distribution over the nodes as a function of their respective distance from the sink. Further, the ratio of the traffic loads experienced by two nodes at different locations is found to be independent of the underlying routing algorithm. The assumptions in this paper are that the network is large-scale and dense, and it is deployed in a disc area. However, the results achieved could also be used as approximations in more practical networks.

  • 13.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Traffic load distribution in large-scale and dense wireless sensor networks2010In: 2010 The 5th Annual ICST Wireless Internet Conference, WICON 2010, 2010, p. No 5452655-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the dominating many-to-one communication pattern, traffic load is not evenly distributed over the nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN). In a large-scale WSN, the multi-hop routing even deteriorates this traffic load imbalance by accumulating traffic flows along their paths to the sink. Understanding the traffic load distribution can guide the network-wide energy allocation, direct the design of routing algorithms, and optimize the node deployment in WSNs. In this paper, we consider a large-scale and dense WSN with nodes evenly deployed in a disk area, and find the traffic load distribution over the nodes as a function of their distances from the sink. Further, the effects of network scale and routing hop length on traffic load distribution are also investigated. The traffic loads of individual nodes are found to be in direct proportion to the radius of the network and in inverse proportion to the mean routing hop length, while independent of network density. The results presented in this paper are verified through extensive simulation experiments.

     

     

  • 14.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    An effort to understand the optimal routing performance in wireless sensor network2008In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications: AINA2008, Ginowan City , Okinawa, Japan. 25-28 March 2008, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 279-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor network is remarkable for its promising use on human-unattended information collection, such as forest fire monitoring. In order to support efficient communication, many routing algorithms specially designed for such networks have been proposed. However, there is no idea about whether these proposed routing algorithms are already good enough or still have a long way to become “perfect”, since there is currently a lack of understanding about the optimal routing performance. This paper makes a progress in the understanding of the optimal routing performance. Metrics here used to measure the routing performance are the network lifetime finally acquired and the total information finally collected. The condition used to judge the network’s death is defined by the user’s requirement on the guaranteed network information collecting ability. Optimization models based on the metrics and death condition mentioned above are proposed. Experiments show some existing routing proposals already work well when the user’s requirement is strict, but few of them satisfy when the user’s requirement is loose.

  • 15.
    Wang, Qinghua
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bounding the Information Collection performance of Wireless Sensor Network Routing2007In: CNSR 2007: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research, Washing, DC. USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 55-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks have maily been designed for information-collecting purposes, such as habitat monitoring, product process tracing, battlefield surveillance, etc. In order to support efficient communications for such networks, many routing protocols have been proposed. However, protocol designs are out-pacing formal analysis. We propose an optimization model in this paper to bound the routing performance in terms of network information collection. We first argue that a network can only be given a death sentence when it fails to satisfy the application's requirement and propose a more reasonable network lifetime definition. Then, the optimization model concerning maximizing information collection routing is presented based on this new network lifetime definition. Existing typical routing algorithms: MH, MTE, FA and MREP are simulated as references to validate the model proposed. Results show our model can provide a tight upper bound and thus can be used to evaluate existing and up-coming routing algorithms.

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