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  • 1.
    Carlson, Per
    Sociologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    An Unhealthy Decade: A sociological study of the state of public health in Russia 1990-19992000Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Commentary: Russia's mortality crisis, alcohol and social transformation2009Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 156-157Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Carlson, Per
    Sociologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Educational diffrences in self-rated health during the Russian transition.2000Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 51, s. 1363-1374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörns högskola.
    Relatively poor, absolutely ill? A study of regional income inequality in Russia and its possible health consequences2005Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 389-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: To investigate whether the income distribution in a Russian region has a "contextual" effect on individuals' self rated health, and whether the regional income distributions are related to regional health differences.

    Methods: The Russia longitudinal monitoring survey (RLMS) is a survey (n = 7696) that is representative of the Russian population. With multilevel regressions both individual as well as contextual effects on self rated health were estimated.

    Main results: The effect of income inequality is not negative on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. When inequality levels are high, however, there is a tendency for men's health to be negatively affected. Regional health differences among men are in part explained by regional income differences. On the other hand, women do not seem to be affected in the same way, and individual characteristics like age and educational level seem to be more important.

    Conclusions: It seems that a rise in income inequality has no negative effect on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. On the other hand, when inequality levels are higher a rise tends to affect men's health negatively. A curvilinear relation between self rated health and income distribution is an interesting hypothesis. It could help to explain the confusing results that arise when you look at countries with a high degree of income inequality (USA) and those with lower income inequality (for example, Japan and New Zealand).

  • 5.
    Carlson, Per
    CHESS, Stockholms universitet.
    Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 19982001Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 55, s. 806-817Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES As self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.METHODS The Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face interviews and included 1009 people and their families. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed.RESULTS In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in self rated health seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction from changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self rated "poor" health was especially common among those whose economic situation was worse in 1998 than 10 years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly.CONCLUSIONS Self rated health seems to be closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are probably important for the poor state of public health in Russia, but may be less sensitive to the economic aspects of the transition than is self rated health.

     

  • 6.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Self-perceived health in east and west Europe.: Another European health divide1998Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 46, nr 10, s. 1355-1366Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great, and possibly also a growing, difference in public health between the central, eastern (CEE) and western European countries. Several suggestions have been put forward as explanations for this health divide. A broader framework than one focusing on medical care systems or behavioural patterns is necessary to examine this difference. It will be more fruitful to try to identify social and economic factors at large, as well as specific explanatory factors. The aim of this study is to find out to what extent "The East-West Mortality Divide" was apparent in people's perception of their own health in 1990-1991, as a division in self-perceived health across Europe. If there were indeed differences, the aim is to examine whether or not they can be explained by specific economic and social conditions present in the early 1990s. Data from "World Values Survey 1990" reveal a striking east west divide in self-perceived health among people in the age group 35-64 yr, one of greater size than the gender gap in self-perceived health. The importance of a number of circumstances for people's self-perceived health in the 25 European countries was estimated. The assumption was that any resulting difference between eastern and western European countries could help to explain the health divide. An attempt was made to estimate how much the east-west health divide would be reduced if some of these circumstances were similar in CEE to those in the west. The results indicate that people's participation in civic activities has a positive effect on their health. This effect is recognised especially on a societal level. This supports theories about civic activities and community performance. In western Europe the tradition of the active citizen is more developed than in eastern Europe. People's life control was important for their self-perceived health in almost every European country, both in the west and the east. In the former communist countries, however, people did not feel that they had the same control over their lives as did people in the west. People's economic satisfaction was the most powerful predictor of self-perceived health, both in the eastern and western parts of Europe. The average level of economic satisfaction in 1990 1991 was considerably lower in CEE. If people's influence and economic resources were the same in the former communist countries as in the west, the health divide, according to my estimations, would decrease by something between 10-30%.

  • 7.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörns högskola.
    Self-rated health in East and West Europe. Another European helath divide?2000Ingår i: Self-rated health in a European perspective, Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden (FRN) , 2000Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Självskattad hälsa och vådliga beteenden i transitionens Ryssland2000Ingår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, s. 150-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Socialt kapital och psykisk hälsa2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörns högskola.
    The European health divide: a matter of financial or social capital?2004Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 59, nr 9, s. 1985-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'European east--west health divide' has been documented both for mortality and for self-rated health. The reason for this divide, however, remains to be explained. The aim of this study is, firstly, to investigate whether in 1995-97 differences in self-rated health persisted between countries in central and eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and western Europe. A further aim is to try to explain these differences with reference to people's financial status and social capital. This study found substantial differences in self-rated health between countries in western Europe, in central and eastern Europe, and in the former Soviet Union (where self-rated health seems to be poorest in general). There were also substantial differences between areas in terms of economic and social capital, with western Europe doing better in all the analysed circumstances. In economic terms people in the former Soviet Union seemed to be more dissatisfied than those living in central and eastern Europe. When one looks at differences in social capital between the two post-communist areas the picture is more mixed. Economic satisfaction was demonstrated to have a strong and significant effect on people's self-rated health, with a higher satisfaction reducing the odds of 'poor' health. When this factor was controlled for the area, differences in self-rated health were reduced dramatically, for both men and women. Organisational activity (men only), trust in people, and confidence in the legal system also reduced the odds of 'less than good health', but were not as important in explaining the health differences between areas. One can conclude that economic factors as well as some aspects of social capital play a role for area differences in self-rated health. Of these it would appear that economic factors are the more important.

  • 11.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Swedish crime trends and control policy2000Ingår i: Statistics on Alcohol, Drugs and Crime in the Baltic Sea Region, Helsinki: Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research , 2000Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mäkinen, I
    Vågerö, D
    Självmord, mord och kultur1994Ingår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    The social pattern of heavy drinking in Russia during transition: Evidence from Taganrog 19931998Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 280-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: we examined the pattern of Russian alcohol consumption, in particular its link with the social and economic situation in Russia after the first year of ‘shock therapy’ and super-inflation in a middle-sized Russian city, Taganrog. Methods: face-to-face Interviews were conducted, with a sampling frame consisting of dwellings selected from an official register and stratified by type and size. Results: In 1993–1994 heavy alcohol drinking (>0.5 I of 40% alcohol/week) was very common among men in Taganrog (34%), while it was uncommon among women (3%). Male heavy drinking was closely related to social, economic and family characteristics. The lowest educational groups and those In manual occupations reported heavy drinking more frequently than others, independently of household income. Among men, quarrels and conflicts in the family were associated with a sixfold higher frequency of heavy drinking compared to families reporting good relations. The social transformation taking place at present is being accompanied by increased social and economic pressures on families. Conclusions: we suggest that heavy alcohol consumption Is particularly common among men who are likely to have lost out during this transition. Russia's mortality crisis seems to be closely linked to its social transformation, but in different ways for men and women.

  • 14.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörns högskola.
    Debatt: Demokratisk förtroendekris i Ryssland2005Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Rojas, Y
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Stickley, A
    Södertörns högskola.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Too poor to binge? An examination of economic hardship and its relation to alcohol consumption patterns in Taganrog, Russia2008Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 330-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörns Högskola.
    The stratification of social capital and its consequences for self-rated health in Taganrog, Russia 2006Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 62, nr 11, s. 2732-2741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421–1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.

  • 17. Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörns högskola.
    Alcohol and Homicide in Early Twentieth Century Russia2005Ingår i: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 32, s. 501-523Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Description Since the publication of Leon et al.'s (1997) seminal study, alcohol has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in Russian excess mortality during the transition period (Nemtsov, 2002). Besides its more obvious contribution in the form of alcohol poisonings, liver cirrhoses, and alcoholic psychoses (Reitan, 2000), it has also been linked to cardiovascular mortality (McKee, Shkolnikov & Leon, 2001; Shkolnikov, McKee & Leon, 2001) and to deaths due to external causes (Shkolnikov & Mesle, 1996). In particular, it has been associated with homicide. In the period 1965-1984 a connection was observed between these two phenomena at the aggregate level in Russia (Nemtsov, 2001). Although this seems to have become somewhat weaker as other factors, such as the rise of a new criminal elite, have become important for homicide during the transition period (Nemtsov, 2001), alcohol nevertheless continues to play an important role in violent mortality in contemporary Russia (Pridemore, 2002a). Indeed, up to 80% of all homicide offenders may be intoxicated at the time the offense is committed (Chervyakov et al., 2002). This connection between alcohol and homicide in Russia is not new. Although during the Soviet period statistics relating to all "unacceptable" causes of death, including homicide, were withheld by the authorities (Pridemore, 2001), Soviet criminologists using smaller samples were nonetheless able to highlight the existence of this relationship while discussing the nature of homicide more generally. Research from the 1960s showed that between two-thirds and three-quarters of all intentional homicides involved alcohol (Connor, 1973; Shelley, 1987), although there were large interregional variations that may have had a "cultural" component underlying them--i.e., where alcohol consumption levels were lower among certain populations, such as the Moslem groups of the Caucasus region (Connor, 1973). For Russia this figure (74%) remained constant until the end of the Soviet period, according to court statistics (White, 1996). Despite the presence of this relationship during the second half of the 20th century, it would be premature to conclude that this was merely a Soviet phenomenon that continued into the post-communist period. The detrimental effects of alcohol on morbidity and mortality in Russia were fully understood by the first decade of the 20th century (White, 1996). During this period increased levels of drunkenness were also blamed for the rising levels of violent criminality in both the city and the countryside (Snow, 1987; Neuberger, 1993; Frank, 1999). This may explain why statistics relating to the state (sober/inebriated) in which offenders committed criminal acts were recorded by the judicial authorities from 1904 onwards. Even while arguing that the quality of these statistics was less than ideal, Tarnovskii (1908) nonetheless suggested that there was a connection between alcohol consumption and homicide. (1) Alcohol was also argued to be a factor behind the increase in certain motives underlying homicide during the early part of the 20th century (1901-1910) (Mel'nikov, 1917) which included the "revolutionary years" 1905-1907, when a large increase in the number of homicides was observed (Gernet, 1974; Ostroumov, 1980). Study aim This study aims to extend the existing research on the relationship between alcohol and homicide in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods by using vital statistics to examine this relationship statistically in the latter years of the tsarist regime, 1909-1911. This was one of the most turbulent periods in Russian history. The rapid industrial advance that began in the last decade of the 19th century (Falkus, 1972) had its corollary in increasing levels of urbanization as thousands of peasants flocked into the largest cities (Bater, 1996). The social and structural changes created by this process were being exacerbated by the dislocations still being felt from the defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and the 1905 Revolution. Moreover, change was occurring not only in the cities. Prime Minister Stolypin's attempt (1906) to alter the structure of the Russian countryside by creating a class of landowning peasants was helping turn peasants against one another (Mel'nikov, 1917). In relation to this, it is important to examine whether these factors had any impact themselves on homicide rates. After consulting contemporary criminological literature (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1999; Pridemore, 2002b) and historical studies of the correlates of crime in other societies (Lodhi & Tilly, 1973; McHale & Johnson, 1976; Zehr, 1976), several structural variables were used as controls and were adjusted for in the analysis of the relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide (Table 2). Most of these variables fall within what has been termed "social disorganization theory" in the criminological literature. This theory has its roots in the writings of people such as Tonnies and Durkheim, who suggested that as the processes of urbanization and modernization occurred, the bonds once holding traditional communities together were broken. Factors such as higher levels of residential mobility, greater population densities, and ethnic heterogeneity are all now argued to result in less integration and increased societal disorganization. In these conditions weakened social control allows both crime and violence to grow (Pridemore, 2002b). It should also be noted, however, that despite the abovementioned changes, at this time Russia still remained very much a rural society. If a relationship between alcohol and homicide can therefore be identified in this earlier period, when Russian society was very different from the way it is today, this would suggest that other factors, apart from, for example, the effects of large-scale urbanization and industrialization in the Soviet years, or social shock and societal disorganization in the transition period, might have been important in linking alcohol and homicide in Russia across the course of the 20th century. Data and methodology Data Homicide Unlike the earlier research conducted in tsarist Russia, which used judicial statistics, this article makes use of the vital statistics data on homicide. Data for the years 1909-1911 were drawn from the Report on the State of Public Health (Otchet o sostoyanii narodnago zdraviya), a publication issued annually by the directorate of the chief medical inspector of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Upravlenie glavnogo vrachebnago inspektora M. V. D.). It contained information about the total number of homicides (i.e., corpses where a forensic-medical examination had determined homicide as the cause of death) in the provinces of the Russian Empire. It also contained regional population data that allowed crude homicide rates to be calculated for each region. Although the quality of medical data from this period has been criticized as being somewhat rudimentary (Novosel'skii, 1916), we have no evidence that it was either deliberately or systematically distorted. A homicide rate for each study region was created from these data by dividing the...

  • 18. Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Factors Associated with Non-Lethal Violent Victimization in Sweden in 2004-20072010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 404-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine which factors were associated with non-lethal violent victimization in Sweden in the period 2004 to 2007. Methods: Data come from the Swedish National Public Health Surveys, undertaken annually between 2004 and 2007. A total of 29,923 randomly selected respondents aged 16 to 84 from across Sweden responded to a mailed questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine which independent variables were associated with having experienced violence in the previous 12 months. Results: Male and female respondents who were younger, single, lacking in social capital and who engaged in harmful alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to have been subject to violence. Furthermore, men who were in the lower income groups or who were Nordic, and women who were of a non-European origin, were also significantly more likely to have been victimized. Conclusions: The risk of non-lethal violent victimization is not spread equally throughout Swedish society. Specifically, those who are socially and/or economically disadvantaged are much more likely to experience violence. This highlights the importance of working to reverse the growing inequality that has occurred in Sweden in recent years that continues to be linked to the risk of being a victim of non-lethal violence.

  • 19.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The Social and Economic Determinants of Smoking in Moscow, Russia2009Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 632-639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of smoking for decades, recent research has documented an increase in the rates of both male and female smoking in post-Soviet Russia. As yet, however, little research has taken place on smoking at the subnational level. The current study addresses this deficit by examining smoking in Moscow — the city that has been at the forefront of the entry into the Russian market of transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) in the transition period. Methods: Data were obtained from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 — a stratified random sample of 1190 people representative of Moscow’s larger population. Information was obtained about subjects’ smoking habits and age of smoking initiation. Results: The prevalence of smoking was high among both men (55.5%) and women (26.9%), with significantly higher rates in the younger age groups. There was also a high prevalence of smoking initiation before age 15 years, especially in the youngest women (18—30 years). Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents’ age, binge drinking, locus of control and economic situation were important determinants of smoking. Conclusions: Although lifestyle factors seem to underpin the generally high levels of smoking, other things, such as its high prevalence in the younger generations and the factors associated with smoking (locus of control), nevertheless suggest that the TTCs may have played an important role in the spread of smoking in transitional Russia’s changing social environment.

  • 20.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    ISESP - Moscow.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Institutional Trust in Contemporary Moscow2009Ingår i: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 779-796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of institutional trust in Russia are amongst the lowest in the world. As yet, however, little research has focused on this phenomenon at the sub-national level. The current study examines trust in social and political institutions among citizens in Moscow in 2004. Results showed that levels of institutional trust are extremely low and that there were only three institutions (the church, president and hospitals) that were more trusted than distrusted. Moreover, although the effect of some demographic and other independent variables on trust stretched across institutions, several variables had a unique impact in terms of trust in the president.

  • 21.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Institute of social and economic studies of population, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörns högskola.
    Migranova, Ludmila
    Institute of social and economic studies of population, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Rimachevskaya, Natalia
    Institute of social and economic studies of population, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
    Moscow Health Survey 2004: Social surveying under difficult circumstances2008Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 171-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  The aim of this paper is to present the Moscow Health Survey 2004, which was designed to examine health inequalities in Moscow. In particular we want to discuss social survey problems, such as non-response, in Moscow and Russia. Methods:  Interviews, covering social and economic circumstances, health and social trust, of a stratified random sample of the greater Moscow population, aged 18+. Reasons for nonresponse were noted down with great care. Odds ratios (ORs) for self-rated health by gender and by six social dimensions were estimated separately for districts with low and high response rates. Bias due to non-response is discussed. Results and conclusions:  About one in two (53.1 %) of approached individuals could not be interviewed, resulting in 1190 completed interviews. Non-response in most Russian surveys, but perhaps particularly in Moscow, is large, partly due to fear of strangers and distrust of authorities. ORs for poor health vary significantly by gender, occupational class, education and economic hardship. We find no significant differences in these ORs when comparing districts with low and high response rates. Non-response may be a problem when estimating prevalence rates or population means, but much less so when estimating odds ratios in multivariate analyses.

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