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  • 1.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Ericson, Lars
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Temporal variation of wood-fungi diversity in boreal old-growth forests: Implications for monitoring2005In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 970-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring programs that supply reliable and sufficient information on numbers and types of organisms are essential for following changes in biodiversity. In boreal Fennoscandia, forest-dwelling species are threatened in managed forest landscapes and, thus, are of particular concern for conservation strategies. Wood fungi represent key ecological components in the boreal forest that are sensitive to forestry and widely used as indicators in large-scale forest inventories for identifying valuable forest habitats. Knowledge of their natural dynamics is required for designing monitoring programs to assess the adequacy of conservation strategies. We studied the occurrence of corticoids (Corticiaceae) and polypores (Polyporaceae) over time at different spatial scales in unexploited boreal old-growth forests. Data from 70 downed logs followed during an eight-year period showed that the lifespan of fruit bodies of most species was shorter than four years. Even perennial species followed this pattern, although fruit bodies of some species (e.g., Phellinus spp.) remained vital throughout the eight years studied. Both species richness and species composition on individual logs changed markedly over the eight years due to deterministic succession of species paralleling the wood decay. By contrast, data from the stand scale, i.e., seven 0.1-ha plots, showed that species richness and species composition of polypores did not undergo any major changes during a six-year period. A majority of all recorded polypore species (80%) were already present at the first inventory. However, although species richness remained constant at the stand scale, corticoid species composition differed between years, reflecting their short-lived, annual fruit bodies. This study suggests that monitoring should be performed at stand scale and focus on species with durable fruit bodies, e.g., polypores. This will provide data that can be used both to detect future changes in biodiversity in old-growth spruce forests and to evaluate conservation strategies.

  • 2.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nested plant and fungal communities: the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests2003In: Biological conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the distribution of rare species is crucial for species conservation in fragmented habitats. Species communities often exhibit nestedness, i.e. species in species-poor sites comprise a subset of richer ones. Thus, rare species are confined to species-rich sites. We evaluate whether plant and fungal communities in 46 old-growth spruce forest patches (0.17–12 ha) exhibit nestedness. The question whether a single large patch or several small patches capture most species (i.e. the SLOSS-issue) is evaluated in combination with species saturation analyses. All species groups exhibited significant nestedness. Area was generally related to nestedness, i.e. rare species were over-represented in the largest patches. Species saturation analysis indicated that large patches accumulated more Red-list species in patch interiors than small patches. Thus, rare and Red-list species were best captured in large patches. However, nestedness also emerged in equal sized sample plots, i.e. rare species were over-represented in high quality habitats. Thus, small habitats of high quality should not be neglected in a conservation perspective.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Umeå Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden .
    Predictability of plant and fungal species richness of old-growth boreal forest islands2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 857-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fragmentation and deterioration of old-growth forest habitat by modern forestry have become a major threat to species diversity in Fennoscandia. In order to develop a conservation strategy for the remaining diversity it is essential to identify the existing diversity and to develop appropriate conservation and monitoring programs. For these purposes indicators of conservation value for administrative prioritization are required. This study examines the predictability of plant and fungal species richness on two spatial scales on 46 isolated old-growth forest islands (0.17-12 ha) in a forest-wetland mosaic. We explore (1) to what extent area, isolation and stand structure variables can explain the variation in species richness and (2) if richness patterns of individual species groups correlate. Isolation showed no relation to species richness. Area explained 50-70% of the variation in total species richness and was positively related to the density of crustose lichens and Red-list species in island interiors. Stand structure variables explained 28-66% of the residual variation in total species richness after controlling for island size, and 15-73% of the variation in density of species in island interiors. The highest predictability of species richness was found among substrate-specific fungi and Red-list species. Different stand structure variables were found to explain richness in the different species groups, and only among a few species groups species richness correlated. Thus, species richness of one single species group is unlikely to be a good indicator for total biodiversity. The results show that measurements of stand size and stand structure variables may be a strong complementary tool. and sometimes a substitute to extensive species inventories when one aims to estimate and monitor plant and fungal species diversity in old-growth Picea abies forests.

  • 4.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Verifying an extinction debt in north Swedish boreal forests2005In: Conservation biology, ISSN 0888-8892, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 338-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats results in small species populations that face increased risk of extinction. A time delay may be involved in the regional extinction of species, and the number of species that eventually may go extinct in the future is called the "extinction debt." In boreal Sweden, we examined whether the number of epiphytic crustose lichens and wood-inhabiting fungi in old-growth forest remnants diverges from species richness levels in forest patches that have been naturally isolated for millennia. An excess of species in forest remnants could indicate the presence of an extinction debt. Observed species richness in 32 old-growth forest remnants (also called woodland key habitats [WKHs]) was compared with predicted species richness. To predict species richness we used regression models based on data from 46 isolated old-growth forest patches in a forest-wetland matrix. The reference landscape is ancient and assumed to reflect the conditions of insular floras in dynamic equilibrium. Stand factors constituted predictive variables in the models. The observed number of lichen species was higher than expected (i.e., an extinction debt among lichens may exist). By contrast, there was no significant difference between observed and expected species richness among wood-inhabiting fungi. The species richness of wood-inhabiting fungi has adjusted to the changes in forest and landscape structure more rapidly than the species richness of lichens. Differences in substrate dynamics between epiphytes on living trees and species growing on decaying logs might explain the difference between species groups. The results also indicate that population densities of red-listed species were low, which may result in continuing extinctions of red-listed species. The importance of WKHs might be overvalued because species may be lost if conservation efforts consider only protection and preservation of WKHs.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ryvarden, Leif
    Botany Department, University of Oslo, Blinderu, Oslo, Norway.
    Oligoporus norrlandicus nov sp2000In: Cryptogamie Mycologie, ISSN 0181-1584, E-ISSN 1776-100X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 145-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oligoporus norrlandicus is described as new and compared with similar white resupinate species.

  • 6. Ericsson, T S
    et al.
    Berglund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Östlund, L
    History and forest biodiversity of woodland key habitats in south boreal Sweden2005In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest exploitation has destructed forest habitats in Fermoscandia during last centuries. Vital components of existing forest biodiversity have been identified as small (a few ha) woodland key habitats (WKHs). Many WKHs in boreal forest landscapes are assumed to represent remnant near-natural forests from before the phase of industrial forest exploitation. Thus, WKHs are supposed to (i) exhibit a low degree of exploitation, (ii) have old-growth characteristics and (iii) host Red-list species. Yet, WKHs' history and biodiversity have not been systematically investigated. Thus, their conservation values remain unclear. This study investigates history and biodiversity of 15 WKHs in central Sweden with retrospective methods and field studies. We analyze (1) forest structure before, during and after the forest exploitation period, (2) existing biodiversity, i.e. species and structural elements, and (3) to what extent human activities (forestry) have influenced current biodiversity. Our results indicate that forest structure within the areas that currently are classified as WKHs has changed dramatically since the mid-19th century, when forests were unaffected by logging. The results suggest that fire-suppression during last century, gradually increased logging until mid-20th century and abandonment by modern forestry during the late 20th century, are main causes behind this transformation. Less than 10% of studied WKHs had biological features that resembled those of pristine boreal forests. Thus, most studied WKHs cannot be classified as near-natural or remnants of pristine forest. We Suggest that the program for WKHs give more focus to pre-industrial forest structure, local historical aspects being seriously regarded and ecological restoration efforts being introduced.

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