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  • 1. Bergsten Brucefors, Agneta
    et al.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Jeanneau, Madeleine
    Fosselius, Helene
    Psykisk hälsa hos icke sjukskrivna kvinnliga sjuksköterskor och undersköterskor.: en kartläggning inom Stockholms läns landsting2004Report (Other scientific)
  • 2.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsund, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Department of Psychology, Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Sellström, Eva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Health outcomes among Swedish children: the role of social capital in the family, school, and neighbourhood2012In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 5, p. 513-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the extent to which Swedish children's perceptions of social capital in the family, school and neighbourhood predicted health complaints and well-being. Methods: The study used data from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-agedChildren survey. The sample consisted of 3926 children aged 11-15 years. Correlations and hierarchical multiple linear regression were performed. Results: Higher degrees of family, school and neighbourhood social capital corresponded to lower levels of health complaints and higher levels of well-being. Social capital in these three spheres had a cumulative effect on children's health and well-being. Conclusions: Social capital in the family, school and neighbourhood matters for children's health and well-being and the contributions from each context seem to be additive. Besides the family context, investments for improving child health should primarily be in the school, focusing on social relations and on creating safe and cohesive school environments. Neighbourhood social capital is also of importance and so must be taken into consideration when planning childhealth promotion interventions. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Pædiatrica.

  • 3. Hansson, A
    et al.
    Forsell, Y
    Hochwälder , Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hillerås, P
    Impact of changes in life circumstances on subjective well-being in an adult population over a 3-year period2008In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 122, no 12, p. 1392-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Mental health problems are a major issue worldwide, and there is a need to further explore factorsthat may increase or decrease people's subjective well-being (SWB). The main aim of the present study was to extendknowledge concerning changes in cohabitation, social support or financial situation and their influence on SWB, aftercontrolling for personality (i.e. neuroticism), in a 3-year follow-up of an adult population-based sample. The change inoverall well-being was also studied during the 3-year interval.Study design: Longitudinal design.Methods: A random sample of Swedish citizens, aged 20-64 years, residing in Stockholm County received aquestionnaire by post, comprising items pertaining to demographics, personality, social support and SWB. All therespondents received a second questionnaire 3 years later. In total, 8324 subjects were included in the present study.Results: The overall well-being of the study sample was relatively stable. Separate analyses of the three lifecircumstances indicated that, after controlling for personality, positive and negative changes in each sphere of life stillaffected SWB.Conclusions: Despite personality and the stability of SWB, these results indicate that changes in financial situation,social support and cohabitation influence SWB. It is important for society and the healthcare services to be aware that anegative change in any of these life circumstances may lead to decreased well-being for a period of at least 3 years.

  • 4.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    A longitudinal study of the relationship between empowerment and burnout among registered and assistant nurses.2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 343-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between empowerment and burnout was investigated using a two-wave and two-variable panel model. A questionnaire was completed on two occasions, one year apart, by 1,356 nurses. The paths in the model were estimated using regression analyses and the following results were obtained: (a) empowerment is a stable state; (b) higher levels of empowerment are related to lower levels of burnout, when empowerment and burnout are studied at the same point in time; (c) higher prior levels of empowerment can be associated with higher later levels of burnout, when empowerment and burnout are studied at different points in time; (d) for assistant nurses, but not for registered nurses, prior higher levels of burnout resulted in lower later levels of empowerment, indicating a reciprocal relation between the two concepts. The results imply that what is a protective factor from a cross-sectional perspective may be a risk factor from a longitudinal perspective.

  • 5.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    A psychometric assessment of a Swedish translation of Shafer´s personality scale2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 523-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of Shafer’s (1999a) Big Five Marker (BFM) scale were assessed. The assessment was based on self-ratings on the BFM scale obtained from 694 subjects (82% women and 18% men) residing in Sweden. The following main results were obtained: (a) The factor structure was clear and simple. (b) The factor reliabilities were satisfactory. (c) The heterotrait-heteromethod coefficients indicated construct validity for the scale. (d) The BFM scale showed similar psychometric properties for the older, employed, Swedish sample of the present study to those obtained for the younger, psychology undergraduate, USA sample in Shafer’s study (1999a). The conclusion is that the BFM scale has satisfactory and stable psychometric properties and that due to its brevity and documented psychometric evaluation will facilitate research within the Big-Five factor domain, not least in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    An empirical exploration of the effect of personality on general and job-related mental ill-health2006In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 1051-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study it was empirically explored how work-situation dimensions, personality dimensions, and personality-by-situation interactions are related to burnout and general mental ill health. Questionnaire data from 694 subjects were analyzed using hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The results suggest that: (a) personality should not be disregarded in theoretical discussions and empirical studies of burnout and general mental ill health; (b) personality can, to some extent, condition how the work environment dimensions affect an individual with regard to various aspects of burnout and general mental ill health; (c) attention should be given to the fact that some measures of burnout and mental ill health are more dependent on situational factors while other measures are more dependent on personality factors.

  • 7.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assumptions about human nature: A comparison of implicit and explicit personality theories2000In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 611-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) believe that people's positions on nine fundamental dimensions of human nature affect their personality theories, and that differences between people on these dimensions contribute to differences between their personality theories. The present study was conducted in order to obtain information about the ordinary person's position on these dimensions and to compare the ordinary person's position with 10 personality theorists' positions. 84 subjects rated their positions on each of nine Ii-step bipolar dimensions. The following results were obtained: (1) According to the ordinary person, the human being is free, changeable, influenced by the subjective world of experience, a product of the environment, and best understood from a holistic perspective; (2) The position of the ordinary person is most similar to Allport's position, and least similar to Skinner's position. The results are discussed in light of the relation between implicit (lay) and explicit (scientific) theories of personality.

  • 8.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Cognitive structures as factors in social cognition: four empirical studies of implicit personality theory1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Effects of self-schema on assumptions about and processing of schema-consistent traits of other persons1995In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 1267-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    On inter- and intragroup differences in schematic and aschematic groups ratings of trait relations1996In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 1279-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    On stability of the structure of implicit personality theory over situations.1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 386-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the following (hitherto unaddressed) question was posed: "Is the structure of implicit personality theory stable over situations?". In order to answer this question, correlation coefficients were computed between different aspects of two trait-structures obtained under different situational conditions. The results seem to indicate that the structure of IPT is stable over situations. The results are discussed in the light of some methodological considerations.

  • 12.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The psychosocial work environment and burnout among Swedish registered and assistant nurses: The main, mediating, and moderating role of empowerment2007In: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore: the main effect of empowerment on burnout; empowerment as a mediator between the work environment and burnout; and empowerment as a moderator of the association between the work environment and burnout. In order to explore these effects, multiple regression analyses were performed on questionnaire data from 838 registered nurses and 518 assistant nurses in Sweden. The analyses showed that: empowerment has a negative association to burnout; empowerment has a mediating effect between the work environment (especially for control and social support) and burnout; and the moderating effect of empowerment on the association between the work environment and burnout was weak. The results suggest that: empowerment explains variation with regard to burnout over and above what can be explained by established work situation dimensions; the improvement of the work environment is associated with a higher sense of empowerment which, in turn, is related to lower degrees of burnout; and individual and group differences should be considered in workplace health promotion.

  • 13.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Brucefors, A B
    A psychometric assessment of a Swedish translation of Spreitzer´s empowerment scale2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 521-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of Spreitzer's (1995a) empowerment scale were assessed. Three parallel assessments were made of data from 1,107 female registered nurses, 758 female assistant nurses, and 107 male registered and assistant nurses. The analyses indicated that the psychometric properties of the scale can be considered satisfactory. Suggestions are made regarding future research in the fields of psychometrics and work- and health-psychology.

  • 14.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Brucefors, AB
    Psychological empowerment at the workplace as a predictor of ill health2005In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1237-1248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both theoretical arguments and empirical findings imply a negative relationship between psychological empowerment and ill health. The aim of the present study was to expand the empirical knowledge concerning the relationship between psychological empowerment at the workplace and three aspects of ill health. A total of 2011 registered and assistant nurses completed a questionnaire consisting of scales measuring psychological empowerment at the workplace, general mental health, burnout, and sick leave. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed using the three aspects of ill health as the criterion variables, age, gender, and profession as the control variables and the four empowerment-dimensions as the predictor variables. The four empowerment-dimensions explained 2–18% of the variation among the nurses with regard to the three types of ill-health measures. The meaning dimension and the competence dimension were most negatively related to ill health. Greater psychological empowerment at work corresponds generally to less ill health. Psychological empowerment at work may be one of the many possible factors that provide protection against ill health.

  • 15.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ivarsson, Anna-Karin
    Widell, Jenny
    Posttraumatiska stressreaktioner hos ambulans-personalen inom Jämtlands läns landsting: En explorativ studie2002Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nystedt, Lars
    On the psychological significance of the Euclidean representation of implicit personality theory. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38, 15-20.1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 15-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Jeanneau, Madeleine
    et al.
    Åsbring, Pia
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Carlberg, Magdalena
    Upmark, Marianne
    Egenmaktskola: En samtalsserie om existentiella frågor: Genomförande och utvärdering2006Report (Other scientific)
  • 18. Schulman, Abbe
    et al.
    Bergsten Brucefors, Agneta
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Håkanson, Eva
    Psykiska belastningar inom den avancerade hemsjukvården i Stockholms län2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 19. Sundin, L.
    et al.
    Bildt, C.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Setterlind, S.
    Organisational factors, individual characteristics and social support: What determines the level of social support?2006In: Work, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research has linked social support to health, but there are fewer studies that have focused on factors that influence the level of social support available and/or perceived by employees in different organisations. This cross-sectional study therefore investigated the relationship between on the one hand, organisational, individual and socio-demographic factors and on the other, the level of social support at the workplace, i.e., the degree of supervisor support and a supportive work atmosphere. Organisational variables (job demands, job control, job content), individual (self-esteem, mistrust) and socio-demographic variables (type of employer, occupational position, age, gender and educational level) were used as independent variables in the analyses. The sample consisted of 16,144 individuals at a variety of different organisations in Sweden, who had responded to a questionnaire covering different psychosocial and psychological stress factors (“the Stress Profile”). Multiple hierarchical regression analyses were performed separately for each of the two dependent variables, which yielded almost identical results, and indicated that organisational determinants, particularly perceived job control, had the largest impact on the degree of social support.

  • 20. Sundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    A scale for measuring specific job demands within the health care sector: Development and psychometric assessment2008In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 914-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Earlier research has indicated that the psychological demand dimension in one of the most commonly used occupational stress models, the job-demand-control-support model, can be too generic and does not capture the multidimensionality of different job demands within health care work. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a new job demand scale, which captures specific job demands within health care work. Further, to analyse whether a congruent component structure could be obtained in two different occupational groups, namely registered and assistant nurses. The final objective was to analyse the relationship between the new job demand scale and the dimensions in the job-demand-control-support model. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred and ninety five registered nurses and 527 assistant nurses from three hospitals and two primary health care centres in Stockholm, Sweden participated voluntarily in the study DATA AND METHOD: A questionnaire, which collected information on demographics, various job demands, job control and social support, was used in both occupational groups. Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, principal component analyses and independent samples t-test were used in the study RESULTS: A congruent component structure was obtained in both occupational samples, consisting of four demand indices "pain and death", "patient and relative needs", "threats and violence" and "professional worries". The four-component solution explained 69.6% and 72.1% of the variance for registered nurses and assistant nurses, respectively. The new job demand indices also showed satisfactory internal consistencies, which ranged from .62 to .91 and had inter-item correlations, which varied from .33 to .84 in both occupational groups. The strongest relationship was shown with the psychological job demand dimension in the job-demand-control-support-model. CONCLUSION: The scale is short and could be used to obtain information concerning different job demands that are related to the interaction with, and care of patients and their relatives as an addition to the more generic psychological demand dimension that is specified in the job-demand-control-support model.

  • 21.
    Sundin, Lisa
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Östersund.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bildt, Carina
    National Institute for Working Life, Östersund.
    Lisspers, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The relationship between different work-related sources of social support and burnout among registered and assistant nurses in Sweden: A questionnaire survey2007In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 758-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This cross-sectional study addresses the relationship between organisational and social factors and burnout in a group of registered and assistant nurses in Sweden. Objective: The main objective of the study was to analyse the relationship (and the specific relationship patterns) between three different work-related sources of social support and Maslach's three burnout dimensions, while taking the dimensions in the Karasek job-demand-control model, emotional demands, workload outside the work situation and demographic factors into account. Data and method: Data was collected using a questionnaire which was based on validated instruments, in accordance with the job-demand-control model and Maslach's Burnout Inventory. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and three hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using a sample of 1561 registered and assistant nurses in Sweden. Results: The results showed statistically significant correlations between the three support indicators and all three burnout dimensions. In the regression analyses, co-worker and patient support were statistically significantly related to all three burnout dimensions, whereas supervisor support was only statistically significantly related to emotional exhaustion. In accordance with prior findings, high levels of psychological demands were most strongly related to high emotional exhaustion. Further, high levels of emotional demands showed the strongest correlations with high personal accomplishment.

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