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  • 1.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Kamgou Kamga, H.
    Solidification Studies of Automotive Heat Exchanger Materials2006In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the aluminium alloy AA 3003 different modifications of that alloy family have been studied to improve and tailor the properties of the material for its applications in automotive heat exchangers. Laboratory techniques have been applied to simulate industrial DC-casting, together with some basic solidification studies. The results are coupled to structures observed in industrial size ingots and discussed in terms of structure property relations.

  • 2.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Analysis of solidification in a Bridgman furnace as a simulation of DC casting of aluminium alloy slabs2007In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 475-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vertical Bridgman directional solidification equipment has been used in several investigations to simulate DC casting of wrought aluminium alloys. As a base for such investigations and alloy developments, it is important to have an understanding of the performance of the used furnace during simulation of casting conditions. In this investigation the thermal conditions in the furnace have been analysed in detail, both by measurements and by mathematical modelling. The thermal characteristics of the furnace, such as gradient, growth rates and cooling rates have been compared to conditions in large ingots. The DC casting conditions, which the simulations have been compared to, are casting of slabs of 330 and 600 mm width of an AA3003 type alloy. The results show that the experiments are able to simulate the cooling conditions in the ingots except from the surface zone. Comparisons of the microstructure have been made and a good agreement has been obtained for structure parameters such as grain size and DAS.

  • 3.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry studies of aluminum 3003 alloys with Zn and Cu additions2007In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 2138-2147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Zn additions in the range of 0 to 5 wt pct and Cu contents of 0.15 to 1.0 wt pct on the solidification and precipitation behavior of aluminum alloys of AA 3003 type was investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX). The results show that the additions of varying Zn and Cu have significant effects on the crystallization process, phase precipitation, and microstructure formation of the alloys. Phases formed have been identified and morphological differences have been discussed

  • 4.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Directional Solidification of Type AA3003 Alloys with Additions of Zn and Si2004In: SOLIDIFICATION OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS / [ed] Chu, MG; Granger, DA; Han, QY, MINERALS, METALS & MATERIALS SOC , 2004, p. 53-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Directional solidification has been used to study effects on the structure and on materials properties from variations in the alloy contents in type AA 3003 alloys, Structure parameters such as grain size, DAS and secondary phase precipitations have been evaluated, as well as micro segregation, micro hardness and coarsening after solidification.Here the first part of the project is reported, and additions of Zn and Si have been studied. Zn additions improve the strength of the matrix of the material through solid solution hardening. At a level of 5% the hardness is improved by about 50%, but the solidification structure becomes less promising. The DAS and the secondary phases become coarse, and the solidification range increases significantly as the Zn content increases from 2.5 to 5%.Additions of Si, which have a significantly lower solubility than Zn, quickly gives larger amounts of secondary phase precipitations and a longer solidification interval.Directional Solidification of Type AA3003 Alloys with Additions of Zn and Si.

  • 5.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    DTA and DSC Studies of Aluminium 3003 Alloys with Zn and Cu Additions2007In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 38A, p. 2138-2147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Zn additions in the range of 0-5wt.% and Cu contents of 0.15-1.0 wt.%, on the solidification and precipitation behaviour of aluminium alloys of AA 3003 type was investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy (OM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The results show that the additions of varying Zn and Cu have significant effects on the crystallization process, phase precipitation and microstructure formation of the alloys. Phases formed have been identified and morphological differences have been discussed.

  • 6.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Effect of refiner addition level on zirconium-containing aluminium alloys2012In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2012, Vol. 27, p. Art. no. 012008-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  • 7.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Effect of titanium on the microstructure of DC-cast aluminium alloys2005In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 413, p. 277-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the Ti content on the solidification structures of aluminum alloys of AA3003 type was investigated. Some improved corrosion properties can be obtained from increasing the Ti contents in aluminium alloys to a level above the normal practice for grain refinement. However, increasing the Ti content above the peritectic point, 0,15%, can influence the grain refinement and cause casting difficulties. The investigation was made by both characterizing the grain structure over the width of DC cast rolling ingots of different alloys, and by studying the solidification micro-structure of Bridgman directional solidified samples, grown to simulate ingot solidi-fication. Structure properties such as grain size, distances between secondary phases and microstructure coarsening were studied. The hardness of the alloys was also determined. It was found that with normal Ti contents in the range of 0,015% the grain refinement is effective. However, upon larger Ti additions to levels around 0,15% the grain structure becomes coarser.

  • 8.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Method Developed for Quantitative Analysis of Inclusions in Solidified Aluminum Ingots2011In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A deep-etching method was used to determine inclusions in solidified direct chill cast aluminum ingots. The technique was developed to allow easy quantification of the amount and size distribution of inclusions over billet lengths and cross sections. A pressure filtration (Prefil) test also was used to verify molten alloy cleanliness during casting, and the results of these measurements then were compared. The amount and distribution of nonmetallic inclusions were analyzed, as determined using a NaOH deep-etching method over billet lengths and cross sections. A higher inclusion count was observed at both billet ends, with more inclusions located nearer the billet section centerline. Furthermore, the inclusion density in the radial direction at every distance along the billet length was distributed inhomogeneously. Differences were observed between Prefil samples taken at different casting stages. The Prefil curves and metallographic analysis of Prefil residue obtained from melt samples, at an early casting stage or before degassing, indicate more oxides than in a melt sample taken under steady-state casting conditions. A reasonable correlation was established between the number of inclusions in the molten alloy (measured using Prefil and LiMCA) and the etch pits on deep-etched surfaces of billet cross sections. © 2010 THE MINERALS, METALS & MATERIALS SOCIETY and ASM INTERNATIONAL.

  • 9.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Method Developed for Quantitative Assessment of Inclusions in aluminium Billets2007In: LIGHT METALS 2007, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2007, p. 679-684Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique, based on sodium hydroxide hot macro etching, has been developed to deep etch non-metallic inclusions in a way that makes them visible on a macro scale. The distribution of inclusions in transverse sections along DC-cast aluminium billets could thus be studied. The technique has obvious advantages over other common analysis methods in giving a macroscopic spatial distribution of inclusions in a relatively simple way. The paper describes the development of the new technique and some applications. An analysis was made of how different inclusions behave during prolonged strong etching. Light optical microscopy, TEM and SEM/EDX have been used to identify specific inclusions.

  • 10.
    Jaradeh, Majed M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Analysis of Distribution of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Aluminum DC-Cast Billets and Slabs2012In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 82-91Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusion distribution was studied in commercial aluminum DC-cast billets and slabs using a newly developed deep-etching method. Analyses revealed a nonuniform distribution of nonmetallic inclusions across billet diameters and lengths, and also across slab thicknesses and widths. In as-cast billets, more inclusions were found at the beginning and end of the billet length; more were present near the cross-section center than near the surface. In slabs, inclusions were located mostly within 13 mm of the surface and in a band between the centerline and the surface. Few inclusions were found 60 to 100 mm from the slab surface or at the centerline. In addition, comparing slab quality after casting using three types of ceramic foam filters (CFFs; i.e., 30 ppi, 50 ppi, and 50 ppi + HF) revealed significant differences in inclusion size, number, and distribution. Casting slabs using a finer pore-size filter (50 ppi) reduced the number of non-metallic inclusions greatly. The inclusion distribution patterns observed in the solidified slabs are discussed in terms of melt flow during casting.

  • 11.
    Jaradeh, Majed M. R.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjorn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Solidification Studies of 3003 Aluminium Alloys with Cu and Zr Additions2011In: Journal of Materials Science & Technology, ISSN 1005-0302, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 615-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of Cu and Zr additions, on the microstructure formation, precipitation and ingot cracking, in commercial 3003 Al alloys have been studied. The investigation was carried out by characterizing the grain structure in DC-cast rolling ingots, and studying the solidification microstructure of Bridgman directionally solidified samples. To better understand the influence of the different Cu and Zr contents on the phase precipitations, differential thermal analysis (DTA) experiments were performed. Results from the ingot microstructure analysis show that in commercial alloys with relatively high contents of Cu and Zr, no significant differences in measured grain sizes compared to conventional 3003 Al alloys could be found. However, only Zr containing alloys exhibited significantly larger grain sizes. Increased grain refiner and/or titanium additions could compensate for the negative effects on nucleation normally following Zr alloying. Different types of precipitates were observed. Based on DTA experiments, increased Cu and Zr contents resulted in the formation of Al2Cu phase, and increased solidification range. It was also found that increased Mn content favors an early precipitation of Al(6)(Mn,Fe) giving relatively coarse precipitates. It was concluded that the Cu alloying has a detrimental effect on hot tearing.

  • 12. Jin, Hu
    et al.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Solidification studies of 6xxx alloys with different Mg and Si contents2005In: Light Metals 2005, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005, p. 1039-1044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Directional solidification studies, simulating billet casting, have been made off alloys with balanced and not balanced Mg and Si additions, and with different alloying levels ranging from 6063 to 6082. The effects of growth rate, grain refinement, tempera-ture gradient and composition on struc-ture formation have been investigated. Increased alloy content strongly influence the solidification structure, but during cooling the coarsening process decrease the differences, and relatively similar structures are obtained at room temperature. Segregation to the surface zone is proposed to have an effect on surface defect formation.

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