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  • 1. Gowda, J.H.
    et al.
    Albrectsen, B.R.
    Ball, J.P.
    Sjöberg, M
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spines as mechanical defence: The effect of fertiliser treatment on juvenile Acacia tortillis plants2003In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Gowda, Juan H
    et al.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Age related changes in defensive traits of Acacia tortillis2003In: African Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0141-6707, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of plant defences proposes that investments in physical and chemical defences are driven by the risk of herbivore damage, and limited by the cost of producing the particular defensive trait in terms of resources that could be directed to other sinks, such as growth and reproduction. We sampled twigs of 18 mature Acacia tortilis trees and their cohort of juveniles to test some predictions of this hypothesis. We expected a higher allocation of defensive traits to leaves and twigs in the young plants than in the mature ones as a result of a higher risk of damage by ungulates at the juvenile stage. Our results show that the juvenile plants produce more spines along their twigs, but have lower concentrations of phenolic compounds in their leaves than in the mature ones. We also expected a negative relation between the concentration of foliar nutrients and phenolic compounds, as predicted by the carbon/nutrient hypothesis. Only mature plants showed this pattern. Reproduction (in mature plants) and water stress (in juvenile plants) did not relate to allocation to secondary compounds as predicted by current hypotheses of plant defence.

  • 3. Olsson, G
    et al.
    Dalerum, F
    Hörnfelt, B
    Elgh, F
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Juto, Per
    Ahlm, Claes
    Human Hantavirus infections, Sweden2003In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 1395-1401Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Palo, R. Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Meriteringssystem som utarmar vetenskaplig mångfald2009In: Tentakel, no 5Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Palo, R Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Seasonal variations of phenols, nitrogen and fibre in the digestive system of moose (Alces alces)Manuscript (preprint) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contents from different parts of the gut system of moose were collected in different seasons in central Sweden and analysed for concentrations of phenols, nitrogen (N) and fibre contents (NDF). Faecal and rumen concentration of phenols and nitrogen were positively correlated suggesting that N in faeces could be use as indicator of diet quality.  NDF content varied throughout the digestive tract and was consistently lower in the summer compared to winter digesta content. Total phenols in digesta content showed no significant difference between seasons and  Rumen liquor from different seasons was used to determine In Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility (IVOMD) of winter twigs of silver birch (Betula pendula L) but no significant difference in IVOMD was found between seasons, only variations between individual moose in their ability to digest browse were noted. The ability of summer and winter rumen microorganisms to digest birch at different phenol concentrations showed no difference but was dependent on concentration of phenols.These results show that the food quality consumed by moose varies between winter and summer season as reflected by N and NDF in the gut and faeces but that the role of phenols remains unclear.

  • 6.
    Palo, R Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Inst Epidemiologi, Umeå Universitet.
    The role of small mammals for incidence of zoonotic diseases under climate change2009In: The 10th International Congress of Ecology: Ecology in a changing climate, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal-borne diseases are likely to be affected by climate change. It is of interest to analyse sensitivity of reservoir species to climate change and how changes in their ecology would affect transmission of zoonoti diseases to man. Elevated temperature in northern hemisphere may have direct effects on reservoir species by greater survival and hence generally higher population densities. Further, warmer climate may make certain key habitats more beneficial for replication and possibly greater transfer of disease. On the other hand, animal responses to climate change may vary among species and changes in their ecology causing increased variability in population size or dependence of timing with certain food resources may adversely affect reservoir species. We analysed the number of human disease cases of tick borne encephalitis (TBE), tularaemia and hantavirus in norhern Sweden in relation to population size of their most common reservoirs, the mountain hare, European hare and the bank vole. We also analysed the effect by a common predator the red fox and we used the NAO index as a proxy for climate variations. The results show that hantavirus infection in man is more dependent on the population density of reservoirs than on the climate variable. In case of tularaemia, we found a more complex ecological situation that may be climate driven.We conclude that the outcome of warmer climate may vary among species but that species adapted to northern winter conditions may be particularly sensitive to climate change.

  • 7.
    Palo, R Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Olsson, Gert E.
    Nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the stomach content of bank voles (Myodes glareolus): Does food quality determine abundance?2009In: The Open Ecology Journal, ISSN 1874-2130, E-ISSN 1874-2130, Vol. 2, p. 86-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We found that concentrations of nitrogen (N) in the stomach of voles varied between forest sites. Concentrations of nitrogen as well as the ratio of nitrogen to carbon (C) in stomach content were not different between the sexes or with season. Body mass varied between sites and between seasons but were unrelated to N concentration in spite that the body mass of voles in the spring season were on average 4.8 g heavier than in the autumn A positive relationship was found between N and C concentrations in the stomach content implying the diet quality could be related to this ratio. N concentrations in the stomach per unit body mass were positively and significantly related to catch per unit effort of voles. We suggest that sites with high N concentrations in stomach content and with higher NC-ratio imply better habitats that support higher population densities of voles.

  • 8.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Coniferous forest and climate change2004In: IRISEN-II: Integrated regional impact studies in the European North: basic issues, methodologies and regional climate modelling, Münster: Centre for Environmental Research , 2004, p. 187-196Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Giraffe activity in Miombo and Savannah habitatsManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Time sequences for feeding, chewing, walking and standing were measured for giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in forest and savannah habitats in Tanzania, East Africa. The mean time sequence devoted to activities differed between the habitats types with shorter time sequence spend feeding and longer time sequences spend walking in the savannah compared to forest habitat. The proportion of total time spent walking was 6% in savannah and 18% in forest habitat. A greater proportion of total time was spent chewing in the savannah habitat compared to the forest while standing was of equal proportion in the two habitats. The probability for number of intervals as measured by Shannon´s entropy index, indicated fragmentation of activities that differed between the two habitats. The results are discussed in relation to predictions made from optimal foraging theory.

  • 10.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Living on plants, a tough menu for herbivores in cold climate2004In: IRISEN-II: Integrated regional impact studies in the European North: basic issues, methodologies and regional climate modelling, Münster: Centre for Environmental Research , 2004, p. 253-260Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Of voles and men in a changing climate. Hantavirus in the bank vole (Clethrinomys glareolus) and emerging infectious diseases2004In: IRISEN-II: Integrated regional impact studies in the European North: basic issues, methodologies and regional climate modelling, Münster: Centre for Environmental Research , 2004, p. 261-266Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 12.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Time Series Analysis Performed on Nephropathia Epidemica in Humans of Northern Sweden in Relation to Bank Vole Population Dynamic and the NAO Index2009In: Zoonoses and public health, ISSN 1863-1959, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 150-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoonotic diseases are likely to be affected by climate variations but to reveal such dependence long time series extending over several decades are required. Human cases of Hantavirus infection in Northern Sweden shows regular peaks that occurs every fourth year and the virus is associated with the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). From a perspective of climate change it is important to analyse variations in bank vole population size and human disease incidence and how these interactions is affected by climate forcing. Here I show that a time lag of two years exist between NAO index and response in the vole population and human disease incidence. In some way triggers the NAO index two years previously a build up and peak in vole density and with corresponding peak in human Hantavirus disease. Likewise, high NAO index two years previously is associated with low population density of voles. The change in number of human disease cases is positively correlated to density of bank voles and both bank voles and disease peaks at a regularity of about every fourth year. Further, the time series revealed a match between NAO index, vole population and human disease cases at a longer periodicity of 8.5 years that has not been anticipated.These contrasting climate effects makes it hard to predict how a future warmer climate will affect disease dynamics in this particular system because of complex relationship between long and short term effects.

  • 13.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident2007In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 112-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bank voles that were collected between 1986-2004 at sites in Chernobyl fall out areas of northern Sweden showed higher 137Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated a biomagnification about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD=505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD=881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD= 723). Still 18 years after the radio nuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found.

  • 14.
    Palo, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ahlm, C
    Olsson, G
    Site and density dependent factors related to hantavirus prevalence among bank voles in forest areas afflicted with human diseaseManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) is the natural host of the Puumala virus (PUUV), an hantavirus endemic in Central and Northern Europe that cause a mild haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. We studied the bank vole populations during five years at forest sites near households with confirmed repeated human infections and at forest areas chosen at random some distance away from the settlement. We found that voles where more abundant at the site near the human settlement compared to randomly chosen forest areas. We also found that voles with large body mass were more likely to have PUUV antibody reaction than smaller individuals irrespective of site and year of collection. We found that gut concentrations of nitrogen (N) of voles varied between sites but that N concentration of PUUV seropositive animals did not differ from the seronegative ones. Nitrogen concentration in the gut content did not vary between the sexes nor with body mass of animals. Age of animals were not important in relation to diet quality. A weak positive but statistically non-significant relationship between N in gut content and vole density was observed. The vole populations at the two areas showed direct density dependence and similar dynamic. On the other hand the seropositive cohort did not show a significant density regulation. One conclusion is that human disturbance of the environment near settlement may facilitate higher population densities of voles than at more undisturbed forest sites. It seems also that large animals living near human settlements are more likely candidates for transfer of the hantavirus within the vole population and to man.

  • 15.
    Palo, Thomas R
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Tärnvik, Arne
    Climate variability reveals complex events for tularaemia dynamics in man and mammals2005In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tularemia is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, but the natural reservoir is unknown and environmental conditions for outbreaks in mammals and man are poorly understood. The present study analyzed the synchrony between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the number of human cases of tularemia reported in Sweden, and the density of hares. Climate variation at a lag of 2 yr explained as a single factor ~ 27% of the variation in the number of tularemia cases over time. A low NAO index, indicating cold winters, and low water flow in rivers during the coming summer were associated with high numbers of human cases of tularemia 2 yr later. The number of mountain hares was not related to NAO or to the number of cases of tularemia. The change in mountain hare numbers was negatively associated with the number of human cases, showing the sensitivity of this species to the disease. Low turnover in water environments may at some point in time trigger a chain of events leading to increased replication of F. tularensis via unknown reservoirs and/or vectors that affect humans and mammals. A possible increase in the NAO index with a future warmer climate would not be expected to facilitate a higher frequency of tularemia outbreaks in Sweden.

  • 16.
    Palo, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    White, Neil
    Danell, Kjel
    Spatial and temporal variations of Cs137 in moose Alces alces and transfer to man in northern Sweden2003In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 contaminated parts of the boreal forest ecosystems in Sweden, and we report on the activity concentration of radiocaesium 137Cs in the meat of moose Alces alces caught in the county of Västerbotten in north-Sweden during 1986-1996. Countywide, the geographic distribution patterns of 137Cs activity in moose muscle were similar in 1986 and 1993. The underlying relationship between 137Cs concentration in moose muscle and ground deposition remained significant for all years, but the proportion of variation explained by this relationship was variable and low in most years. The transfer rate of 137Cs to moose underwent marked annual fluctuations that appear to be synchronous over large areas. The fluctuations in the uptake of 137Cs by moose most probably result from variations in food selection or shifts in habitats. The transfer rate of 137Cs to moose seems to be higher in coastal areas than in inland areas. The 137Cs activity in moose was considerably higher in 1993 than should be expected from a simple decay model based on original deposition data and the 137Cs levels in moose meat from 1986. The large temporal variations in transfer rate make future predictions of transfer to moose and man unreliable. We found that the annual hunting of moose is a major source of 137Cs transfer to man in this region.

  • 17.
    Zimmerman, J K M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Palo, Thomas R
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The decline and extinction of Noble crayfish in the river Ljungan, Mid-Sweden.: A case of non-sustainable harvest2007In: 92nd ESA/SER Joint Meeting, San Jose 5-10 August 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Zimmerman, Jenny K. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Palo, R Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Time series analysis of climate-related factors and their impact on a red-listed noble crayfish population in northern Sweden2012In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 1031-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Global climate change is predicted to raise water temperatures and alter flow regimes in northern river systems. Climate-related factors might have profound impacts on survival, reproduction and distribution of freshwater species such as red-listed noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) in its northern limit of distribution.2. In this study, noble crayfish capture data over 27 years from the River Ljungan, Sweden, were examined. Time series of catch per unit effort (CPUE) were analysed in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, regional weather factors and water flow. CPUE was assumed to reflect differences in population size. Two models were constructed to explore the relative impact of different climate factors and density dependence on variability of catch sizes.3. The most parsimonious model for CPUE time series, explaining 72% of the variance in CPUE, included density-dependent population dynamics of the crayfish and climate or weather factors. The specific effect from density dependence in the model was 37%, while climate/weather factors contributed with 35% of the variation. The most important climate/weather factors are variations in NAO index and water flow. Temperature did not improve the model fit to capture data.4. The best model was evaluated using independent data sets that gave correlations between model predictions and data ranging from 0.44 to 0.53. The density dependence shows a time lag of 1 year, while climate variables show time lags from 2 to 6 years in relation to CPUE, indicating effects on different cohorts of the crayfish population.5. Both density dependence and climatic factors play a significant role in population fluctuations of noble crayfish. A 6-year time lag for NAO index is puzzling but indicates that some as yet unidentified factors related to NAO might act on the juvenile stages of the population. Water flow shows a 2-year lag to the CPUE, and high flow in the river may affect adult survival. The reasons for fluctuation of crayfish catches in response to climate need to be identified, and fishing quotas should consider the different cohort sizes because of variation in environment. Reintroduction programmes for crayfish need to consider effects of climate change when designing management strategies.

  • 19.
    Zimmerman, Jenny K. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Palo, R Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    WHERE SHOULD YOU PUT THE CRAYFISH - DOES THE ACTUAL REINTRODUCTION SITE MATTER?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Zimmerman, Jenny K M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Palo, Thomas R
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Do global cimate or local weather influence influence crayfish catches in the river Ljunjan in Sweden?2010In: 18th IAA Symposia, Program and  abstracts / [ed] Allert Annie, 2010, p. 35-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Zimmerman, Jenny K M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Palo, Thomas R
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Reliability of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for evaluation of reintroduction programs – A comparison of mark-recapture method with standardized trapping2010In: European Crayfish food, Flagships and Ecosystem Services / [ed] Souty Grosset Catherine, 2010, p. 28-29Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Zimmerman, Jenny K M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Palo, Thomas R
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Reliability of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for evaluation of reintroduction programs – A comparison of mark-recapture method with standardized trapping2011In: Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, ISSN 1961-9502, E-ISSN 1961-9502, no 401, p. Art no. 7-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catch per unit effort (CPUE) is used as a standardized trapping method by local fishermen and in monitoring studies. In this study, CPUE was compared with population estimates made with a capture-recapture method based on the passive integrated transponder (PIT-tag) marking of individuals. The results show a stronger positive correlation between the estimated population sizes from the capture-recapture method with an estimated CPUE effort of 120 traps. The fishermen used 15 traps, and even this effort showed a fair correlation with the mark-recapture estimates. This indicates that the standardized way of trapping with 15 traps can be used to evaluate reintroduction programs and monitor crayfish populations

  • 23.
    Zimmerman, Jenny
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Influence of water regulation and water flow on noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) catch in the River Ljungan, Sweden2008In: International association of Astacology, IAA18 konferens in Kuopio, August 2008. / [ed] Japo Jussila, James M. Furse & James W. Fetzner Jr, 2008, p. 141-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-flowing water is thought to be of importance for reproduction and body growth of noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (Linnaeus), in the northern edge of its distribution area. A hydroelectric power plant with a bypass tunnel was built in the River Ljungan, Sweden, in 1976. This reduced the mean water flow in the old river bed from about 60 m3 s-1 to 3 m3 s-1. The sites with the largest reduction of water flow had the largest decline in catch per unit effort of crayfish. At one site the catches were reduced by > 60%, but the catch success varied between locations. At all sites, water regulation seemed to have an effect, even though catch per unit effort was possibly affected by a number of other factors. © 2010 International Association of Astacology.

  • 24.
    Zimmerman, Jenny
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Palo, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Influence of water regulation and water flow on Noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) catch yield in Ljungan a Northern Swedish River after building of a power plant2010In: Freshwater Crayfish, ISSN 2076-4324, Vol. 17, p. 141-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-flowing water is thought to be of importance for reproduction and body growth of noble crayfish (Astacus astacus (Linné)) in the northern edge of its distribution area.

    A hydroelectric power plant with a bypass tunnel was built in the river Ljungan in 1976.  This reduced the mean water flow in the old river bed from about 60m3/s to 3m3/s. The sites with the largest reduction of water flow had the largest decline in catch per unit effort of crayfish.  At one site the catches were reduced by >60%, but the catch success varied between locations.  In all sites the regulation seemed to have an effect, even though catch per unit effort was possibly affected by a number of other factors.

    KEY WORDS: Catch yield, noble crayfish (Astacus astacus), water flow, water level regulation

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